US Department of State Bulletin

Security Council adopts resolution on Central American peace – Resolution 637, Herbert S. Okun address

Security Council adopts resolution on Central American peace – Resolution 637, Herbert S. Okun address – transcript

Security Council Adopts Resolution on Central American Peace



The Security Council,

Recalling its resolutions 530 (1983) of 19 May 1983 and 562 (1985) of 10 May 1985 and General Assembly resolutions 38/10 of 11 November 1983. 39/4 of 26 October 1984 41/37 of 18 November 1986, 42/1 of 7 October 1987 and 43/24 of 15 November 1988, as well as the initiative that the Secretary-General of the United Nations undertook on 18 November 1986 together with the Secretary-General of the Organization of American States.

Convinced that the people of Central America wish to achieve a peaceful settlement to their conflicts without outside interference, including support for irregular forces, with respect for the principles of self-determination and non-intervention while ensuring full respect for human rights.

Taking note of the report of the Secretary-General of 26 June 1989 submitted in pursuance of Security Council resolutions 530 (1983) and 562 (1985) (S/20699).

Recognizing the important contribution of the Contadora Group and its Support Group in favour of peace in Central America.

Welcoming the agreement signed at Guatemala City on 7 August 1987 by the Presidents of the Republics of Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua as the manifestation of the will of the peoples of Central America to achieve peace, democratization, reconciliation, development and justice, in accordance with their decision to meet the historical challenge of forgoing a peaceful destiny for the region,

Welcoming the subsequent Joint Declarations issued by the Central American Presidents on 16 January 1988 in Costa Rica and on 14 February 1989 in El Salvador,

Aware of the importance which the Central American Presidents attach to the role of international verification as an essential component for the implementation of the above-mentioned instruments, including, in particular, their commitments relating to regional security, especially non-use of territory to support destabilization of neighbouring countries and democratization, especially free and fair elections, as well as to the voluntary demobilization, repatriation or relocation of irregular forces, as agreed in the Tesoro Beach Agreement of 14 February 1989,

Aware also that the commitments enshrined in the Guatemala Agreement form a harmonious and indivisible whole,

Noting with appreciation the efforts undertaken to date by the Secretary-General in support of the Central American peace process, including his assistance in the establishment of appropriate mechanisms to verify compliance with the provisions of the Guatemala Agreement and of the Joint Declaration adopted by the Central American Presidents at their meeting held in El Salvador on 14 February 1989, and particularly the Secretary-General’s agreement with Nicaragua to deploy a United Nations elections observer mission in that country,

1. Commends the desire for peace expressed by the Central American Presidents in signing on 7 August 1987 at Guatemala City the agreement on “Procedures for the establishment of a firm and lasting peace in Central America” and in the Joint Declarations subsequently signed in pursuance of it;

2. Expresses its firmest support for the Guatemala Agreement and the Joint Declarations;

3. Calls upon the Presidents to continue their efforts to achieve a firm and lasting peace in Central America through the faithful implementation of the commitments entered into in the Guatemala Agreement and in the expressions of good will contained in the Joint Declaration of 14 February 1989;

4. Appeals to all States, in particular to those which have links with the region and interests in it, to back the political will of the Central American countries to comply with the provisions of the Guatemala Agreement and of the Joint Declaration, particularly that regional and extra-regional Governments which either openly or covertly supply aid to irregular forces or insurrectional movements in the area immediately halt such aid, with the exception of the humanitarian aid that contributes to the goals of the Tesoro Beach Agreement of 14 February 1989;

5. Lends its full support to the Secretary-General to continue his mission of good offices in consultation with the Security Council in support of the Central American Governments in their effort to achieve the goals set forth in the Guatemala Agreement;

6. Requests the Secretary-General to report to the Security Council regularly on the implementation of the present resolution.



(1)USUN press release 77.

The United States is pleased to have joined in the adoption of this resolution supporting the Central American search for democracy and peace. We believe this resolution reflects and supports three very important elements in the Central American peace process. These are:

One, the centrality of the fulfillment of the principles and provisions of the Esquipulas and Tesoro accords to the achievement of peace and democracy in Central America;

Two, the crucial need for a free and fair election and election process in Nicaragua to unlock regional movement toward peace, democracy, and development; and

Three, states which are still supplying lethal assistance to insurgent forces in the region – namely Nicaraguan and Cuban support for the Farabundo Marti National Liberation Front (FMLN) – must cease this supply and declare publicly that they renounce such practices and support solely the use of political means and national reconciliation as provided for in Esquipulas.

The United States looks forward to the reports of the Secretary General regarding the efforts and findings of the UN election observer mission in Nicaragua. We believe that this mission can strengthen the prospects for a free and fair electoral process in Nicaragua.

Although the United States has observed that, to date, the Government of Nicaragua has declined to open the political process in accord with the letter and spirit of its Esquipulas and Tesoro commitments, we applaud its decision to hold elections in February 1990, and we declare again our intentions to respect the results of those elections if they are carried out in a free and fair manner.

We urge the Government of Nicaragua to begin a positive dialogue with the opposition to set the terms of a free election. We note that the political opposition has pledged that it will participate in the elections despite its dissatisfaction with the present rules. Current practices of intimidation, therefore, are wholly counterproductive to the fulfillment of democratic principles and commitments.

Further we call upon the Governments of Nicaragua and Cuba to cease their 9-year supply of weapons, ammunition, safehaven, and other lethal assistance to the FMLN insurgents in El Salvador. This support for irregular forces in El Salvador has cost the lives of many Salvadoran citizens and frustrated their desires for peace, democracy, and development and continues to undermine the Central American peace accords. Consistent with the spirit and letter of this resolution and the Esquipulas and Tesoro accords, we call on all countries to assist the Central American governments in ensuring full respect for human rights while they seek a peaceful settlement.

My government commends the efforts of the Secretary General to further the progress toward the peace the Central American governments have committed themselves to achieve. The United States was, therefore, pleased to support this resolution.

COPYRIGHT 1989 U.S. Government Printing Office

COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group