Unrelated Business Income of Nonprofit Organizations, 1997

Unrelated Business Income of Nonprofit Organizations, 1997 – Statistical Data Included

Margaret Riley

Taxable profits from “unrelated business income” reported by 39,302 nonprofit organizations on Forms 990-T, Exempt Organization Business Income Tax Returns, rose 18 percent between Tax Years 1996 and 1997, amounting to $1.4 billion for 1997. However, this percentage increase was much smaller than that reported for each of the 2 previous years, 31 percent for 1996 and 39 percent for 1995.

Nonprofits collectively reported unrelated business deficits for 1997 that were larger than positive taxable income, resulting in an overall loss for the year. After applying $8.5 billion of total deductions against $7.8 billion of gross unrelated business income (UBI), the overall net income (less deficit) for 1997 was $-0.7 billion. The $2.1 billion of aggregate deficits reported for 1997 was one-and-a-half times larger than aggregate taxable profits. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) liability imposed on taxable profits was $418.4 million, an increase of 12 percent over 1996. Figure A presents information on these and other selected financial data items for Tax Years 1996 and 1997.

Figure A

Selected Financial Data from Exempt Organization

Business Income Tax Returns, Tax Years

1996-1997

[Money amounts are in thousands of dollars]

Percentage

increase,

Item 1996 1997 1996 to

1997

(1) (2) (3)

Number of returns, total 40,621 39,302 -3.2

With gross unrelated business

income of $10,000 or less(1) 19,174 16,468 -14.1

With gross unrelated business

income over $10,000(1) 21,446 22,834 6.5

With net income (taxable

profit) 19,511 20,827 6.7

Without net income (taxable

profit)(2) 21,109 18,475 -12.5

Gross unrelated business income 7,294,504 7,808,558 7.0

Total deductions(3) 8,096,558 8,494,930 4.9

Net income (less deficit) -801,054 -686,374 14.3

Net income (taxable profit) 1,169,618 1,374,757 17.5

Deficit 1,970,672 2,061,130 4.6

Unrelated business income tax 372,298 418,431 12.4

Total tax 372,603 422,740 13.5

(1) Organizations with gross unrelated business income between $1,000

(the filing threshold) and $10,000 were required to report only totals

for expenses and deductions (except for the specific deduction and net

operating loss carryover, which all organizations reported separately).

(2) Includes returns with deficits and “breakeven” returns with equal

amounts of gross unrelated business income and total deductions.

(3) Excludes cost of sales and services, which was subtracted from

gross receipts from sales and services in computing gross profit from

sales and services (GPSS). GPSS is a component of gross unrelated

business income (upon which the filing requirement is based). Total

cost of sales and services was $2.0 billion

NOTES: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding. See the

Explanation of Selected Terms section of this article for definitions

of gross unrelated business income, total deductions, net income (less

deficit), unrelated business income tax, and total tax.

The number of returns filed between 1996 and 1997 declined by 3 percent. As shown in Figure A, the smaller organizations, those with gross UBI of $10,000 or less, were primarily responsible for this drop. Together, these organizations filed 14 percent fewer returns between 1996 and 1997, while the number of returns filed by larger organizations, those with gross UBI over $10,000, increased by 7 percent.

Background

Nonprofit organizations that are granted Federal tax exemption based on their mission-related purposes are allowed, within certain limits, to generate income from unrelated business activities; however, the income from these activities is subject to taxation. In general, income produced from activities that are “regularly carried on” and “are not substantially related” to an organization’s tax-exempt purpose are taxable. There are certain exclusions to this income taxation; some examples are engaging in business activities in which substantially all of the work is performed by volunteer labor; selling merchandise that the organization received as a gift or contribution; and operating certain games of chance, as specified in the Internal Revenue Code.

Most tax-exempt organizations are required to file an annual Form 990, Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax, or Form 990-EZ, Short Form Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax (used by organizations with annual gross receipts of less than $100,000 and total end-of-year assets of less than $250,000) [1]. The Form 990-T is required only for a tax year in which an organization has unrelated business income. While specific taxpayer information reported on an exempt organization’s Form 990/990-EZ “information return” can be disclosed to the public, specific taxpayer information reported on its Form 990-T “tax return” cannot. Under disclosure rules governing the release of taxpayer information, only aggregate totals from Form 990-T can be presented in this article.

Organizations that are recognized as tax-exempt under section 501(a) of the Internal Revenue Code, and described in Code sections 220(e), 401(a), 408(e), and 501(c), must file a Form 990-T if they received $1,000 or more of gross income from business activities that were considered unrelated to the purposes for which they received tax-exempt status. (The various types of tax-exempt organizations subject to the unrelated business income tax provisions are described by Code section in the Appendix to this article.) Code section 501(d) religious and apostolic organizations, farmers’ cooperatives, and section 4941(a)(1) “nonexempt charitable trusts” report taxes on forms other than Form 990-T.

Any returns filed by organizations with gross unrelated business income (UBI) below the $1,000 filing requirement threshold were excluded from the statistics presented in this article. Some of these returns were filed inadvertently; others were filed for a specific reason, such as to claim a refund of Form 1099 backup withholding of tax that was withheld erroneously on interest or dividend payments because the payer did not realize that the payee was a tax-exempt organization. Organizations with gross UBI between $1,000 and $10,000 were required to report only totals for expenses and deductions (except for the “specific deduction” and “net operating loss carryover,” which all organizations reported separately). Organizations with gross UBI over $10,000 were required to report more detailed expenses and deductions.

Statistical Snapshots

Form 990-T Filers

The 3-percent decline in Form 990-T filings for 1997 was not attributable to all organizations. An attempt to profile the group of organizations that filed fewer returns revealed two main characteristics: most reported $10,000 or less of gross UBI; and the largest drop in filers, by type of organization, was for Individual Retirement Arrangement (IRA) trusts, exempt from tax under Internal Revenue Code section 408(e).

The number of Form 990-T returns filed by section 408(e) IRA trusts decreased 28 percent between 1996 and 1997, dropping from 8,466 to 6,085. (See Table 1 at the end of this article for major financial items, distributed by Code section describing the various types of nonprofit organizations filing Form 990-T). Organizations exempt under sections 401(a), 501(c)(6), 501(c)(9), and 501(c)(14) also filed fewer returns for 1997, but both the drop in number of returns filed and the percentage decreases were not nearly as large for these groups as for the IRA trusts. Respectively, these latter four Code-section groups of organizations were pension, profit-sharing, and stock bonus plans; business leagues, chambers of commerce, and real estate boards; voluntary employees’ beneficiary associations (VEBA’s); and State-chartered credit unions, and mutual organizations providing insurance or reserve funds for certain banks or loan associations, respectively.

Table 1.–Number of Returns, Gross Unrelated Business Income (UBI),

Total Deductions, Net Income (Less Deficit), Net Income

(Taxable Profit), and Total Tax, by Internal Revenue Code Section

Describing Type of Tax-Exempt Organization, Tax Year 1997

[All figures are estimates based on samples–money amounts are

in thousands of dollars]

Total

deductions(1,2)

Gross

Number unrelated Number

Internal Revenue of business of Amount

Code section returns income returns

(1) (2) (3) (4)

All sections 39,302 7,808,558 39,070 8,494,930

220(e) — — — —

401(a) 835 178,636 812 112,786

408(e) 6,085 32,803 6,049 10,448

501(c)(2) 274 58,104 274 73,576

501(c)(3) 10,614 4,179,076 10,521 5,246,023

501(c)(4) 1,485 272,962 1,484 326,845

501(c)(5) 2,610 214,293 2,609 258,046

501(c)(6) 6,315 836,414 6,315 1,005,997

501(c)(7) 7,004 465,283 6,963 456,851

501(c)(8) 979 68,287 979 94,977

501(c)(9) 687 1,302,482 681 688,445

501(c)(10) 300 14,719 300 19,898

501(c)(11) — — — —

501(c)(12) 143 25,567 143 25,303

501(c)(13) (*)57 (*)3,082 (*)36 (*)3,643

501(c)(14) 96 11,541 95 13,689

501(c)(15) — — — —

501(c)(16) — — — —

501(c)(17) (**) (**) (**) (**)

501(c)(18) — — — —

501(c)(19) 1,811 135,645 1,800 152,854

501(c)(21)(5) — — — —

501(c)(22) — — — —

501(c)(23) — — — —

501(c)(24) — — — —

501(c)(25) (**) (**) (**) (**)

Net income

(less deficit)

Net

income

Number (taxable

Internal Revenue of Amount profit)

Code section returns(3)

(5) (6) (7)

All sections 34,537 -686,374 1,374,757

220(e) — — —

401(a) 812 65,850 141,512

408(e) 6,044 22,354 22,354

501(c)(2) 225 -15,472 6,790

501(c)(3) 9,319 -1,066,947 337,023

501(c)(4) 1,278 -53,884 12,073

501(c)(5) 2,042 -43,753 24,173

501(c)(6) 5,154 -169,584 76,139

501(c)(7) 6,183 8,432 96,559

501(c)(8) 904 -26,690 5,817

501(c)(9) 400 614,037 629,447

501(c)(10) 300 -5,178 992

501(c)(11) — — —

501(c)(12) 109 264 4,943

501(c)(13) (*)57 (*)-561 (*)1,087

501(c)(14) 96 -2,148 1,054

501(c)(15) — — —

501(c)(16) — — —

501(c)(17) (**) (**) (**)

501(c)(18) — — —

501(c)(19) 1,606 -17,209 10,268

501(c)(21)(5) — — —

501(c)(22) — — —

501(c)(23) — — —

501(c)(24) — — —

501(c)(25) (**) (**) (**)

Total

tax(4)

Number

Internal Revenue of Amount

Code section returns

All sections 20,724 422,740

220(e) — —

401(a) 700 46,751

408(e) 6,023 6,527

501(c)(2) 128 2,314

501(c)(3) 4,008 103,321

501(c)(4) 414 2,908

501(c)(5) 866 6,328

501(c)(6) 2,082 27,649

501(c)(7) 4,838 21,568

501(c)(8) 438 970

501(c)(9) 311 199,492

501(c)(10) 103 154

501(c)(11) — —

501(c)(12) 51 1,499

501(c)(13) (*)10 (*)266

501(c)(14) (*)70 (*)250

501(c)(15) — —

501(c)(16) — —

501(c)(17) (**) (**)

501(c)(18) — —

501(c)(19) 679 1,486

501(c)(21)(5) — —

501(c)(22) — —

501(c)(23) — —

501(c)(24) — —

501(c)(25) (**) (**)

(*) Estimate should be used with caution because of the small

number of sample returns on which it is based.

(**) Data deleted to avoid disclosure of information for specific

taxpayers. However, data are included in the appropriate totals.

(1) Excludes cost of sales and services, which was subtracted from

gross receipts from sales and services in computing gross profit

from sales and services. Gross profit from sales and services was

a component of gross unrelated business income (UBI). Cost of sales

and services can include amounts attributable to depreciation,

salaries and wages, and certain other deductible items. For all

exempt organizations reporting gross UBI, cost of sales and services

was $2.0 billion.

(2) Includes both deductions reported on the main part of the tax

return and expense items reported on supporting schedules.

(3) Excludes returns with net income (less deficit) equal to zero.

(4) Total tax is the regular unrelated business income tax after

reduction by any tax credits (foreign tax credit, general business

credit, prior-year minimum tax credit, and other

allowable credits), plus taxes from recapture of certain

prior-year credits, the “alternative minimum tax,” and the “proxy”

tax on nondeductible lobbying and political expenditures.

The proxy tax was reported on Form 990-T and was included in total

tax; however, it had no connection to the tax on unrelated business

income or an organization’s involvement in unrelated business

activities. For exempt organizations reporting gross UBI, total proxy

tax was $7.2 million.

(5) Prepaid legal service funds, previously described in section

501(c)(20) of the Internal Revenue Code, were no longer tax-exempt

beginning with tax years after June 30, 1992

Therefore, these organizations are not listed in this table.

NOTES: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding. See the

Appendix to this article for a listing of the types of tax-exempt

organizations, by the Internal Revenue Code section describing them.

There is no one reason for the drop in returns filed, but there may be a connection to section 408(e) IRA trusts’ involvement in partnerships. IRA trusts with gross UBI of $10,000 or less reported an overall decrease of 38 percent in income (less loss) received from partnerships between Tax Years 1996 and 1997. This coincided with a 30-percent drop in the number of returns filed by organizations in this group. Partnership income (less loss) reported for 1997 by IRA trusts with gross UBI of more than $10,000 dropped 91 percent, but these organizations filed only 4 percent fewer returns from 1996 to 1997. IRA trusts that reported $10,000 or less of gross UBI made up 92 percent of all IRA trusts filing Forms 990-T for 1997; for 1996, the proportion was 94 percent.

Given the large share of the IRA trust population in the smaller-size-organization group, the $1,000 gross UBI threshold for filing a Form 990-T, and the fact that partnership income (less loss) traditionally is the principal source of income (86 percent for 1997) for IRA trusts reporting gross UBI of $10,000 or less, it is reasonable to assume that changes in partnership investment activities experienced by organizations in the smaller gross UBI bracket can be tied to the decline in Forms 990-T filed between 1996 and 1997.

A factor that supports this premise is that about three-quarters of all IRA trusts reported gross UBI of $3,000 or less for 1996. Relatively small partnership net losses or decreases in partnership income could cause these organizations’ gross income to fall below the $1,000 filing threshold, thus exempting them from filing a Form 990-T for 1997. Using Tax Year 1996 Internal Revenue Service (IRS) “Business Returns Transaction File” data and the 1997 Statistics of Income data, it is estimated that 71 percent of the IRA trusts with gross UBI of $10,000 or less filed a 1996 return, but did not file a 1997 return [2]. For comparison, only about 19 percent of section 501(c)(3) “charitable” organizations (the largest Code section group in terms of the number of Forms 990-T filed) with gross UBI of $10,000 or less filed a 1996 return, but not a 1997 return [3].

Sources of Income

As shown in Figure B, the composition of income varies by the income size of organizations filing Form 990-T. (See Table 6 at the end of this article for specific income items required to be reported on Form 990-T). “Large” organizations–those with gross UBI of $500,000 or more– reported 76 percent of their $6.0 billion of total income under three categories: gross profit (less loss) from sales and services; investment income (less loss) of section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations; and advertising income. About 5 percent of all Tax Year 1997 Forms 990-T were filed by the large organizations, but they accounted for slightly more than three-quarters of the $7.8 billion total of gross UBI reported for 1997.

Figure B

Composition of Gross Unrelated Business Income (UBI),

by Size of Organization, Tax Year 1997

Large(1)

Gross profit (less loss)

from sales and services 47%

Investment income

(less loss)(4) 15%

Advertising income 14%

Capital gain net income 8%

Partnership income

(less loss) 4%

Other(5) 12%

Medium(2)

Gross profit (less loss)

from sales and services 52%

Advertising income 17%

Debt-financed income 6%

Investment income

(less loss)(4) 6%

Rental income 5%

Other(5) 14%

Small(3)

Gross profit (less loss)

from sales and services 22%

Partnership income

(less loss) 22%

Advertising income 19%

Investment income

(less loss)(4) 15%

Rental income 10%

Other(5) 12%

(1) Large organizations are those with gross unrelated business

income (UBI) of $500,000 or more.

(2) Medium organizations are those with gross UBI of $10,001

under $500,000.

(3) Small organizations are those with gross UBI of $1,000 under

$10,001. These organizations are required to file only a “partial”

return. Organizations with larger amounts of gross UBI are required

to file a more detailed, complete return. Organizations with gross

UBI below $1,000 were not required to file Form 990-T.

(4) Reported by Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(7), (9), and

(17) organizations only.

(5) See Table 6 at the end of this article for gross UBI components

other than those specifically shown in this figure.

Note: Table made from pie charts.

Two primary income sources for “medium”-size organizations– those with gross UBI of $10,001 under $500,000– accounted for 69 percent of their total income. These sources were gross profit (less loss) from sales and services, and advertising income. The medium-size organizations reported aggregate gross UBI of $1.8 billion, or 23 percent of the total for 1997, and accounted for 53 percent of all Forms 990-T filed.

Four components were responsible for 78 percent of the $61.7 million of total income reported by “small” organizations– those with gross UBI of $10,000 or less. These were gross profit (less loss) from sales and services; income (less loss) from partnerships; advertising income; and investment income (less loss) of section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations. These organizations filed 42 percent of all Forms 990-T, but represented less than 1 percent of total gross UBI reported by all organizations for 1997.

The aggregate investment income (less loss) of the large organizations rose 64 percent from 1996 to 1997, from $529.2 million to $865.8 million. However, this investment income was limited to that reported by Code section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations. Generally, other nonprofit organizations’ dividend, interest, rental, and annuity income was not taxed, unless it was from a “controlled organization” or was debt-financed. (See the Explanation of Selected Terms section of this article for definitions of Investment Income (Less Loss), Income from Controlled Organizations, and Unrelated Debt-financed Income.) Large organizations’ net profit from sales and services and from advertising income rose only 3 percent and 8 percent, respectively.

Determinants of Annual Deficits

For every year that Statistics of Income data are available from Form 990-T, beginning with Tax Year 1990, nonprofit organizations have reported aggregate net deficits from unrelated business activities. An examination of the various items deducted from income for 1997 by organizations with gross UBI over $10,000 (smaller organizations report only totals for expenses and deductions, except for the “net operating carryover” and the “specific deduction”) shows that net deficits were tied more closely to certain types of expenses and deductions than others. In the aggregate, expenses that were directly allocable to six specific types of unrelated business income on Form 990-T did not exceed the associated amount of income reported, which resulted in positive net income for each income type. (See Table 7, which shows types of deductions distributed by size of gross UBI, at the end of this article). The six positive net income sources were rental income, unrelated debt-financed income, investment income (less loss) of section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations, income from controlled organizations, “exploited exempt activity” income (excluding advertising), and advertising income. (These items are defined in the Explanation of Terms section of this article.) Based solely on these six specific types of income, the larger organizations reported positive net income (taxable profit) of $1.2 billion.

An additional source of income, gross profit (less loss) from sales and services, totaled $3.7 billion for the larger organizations, those with gross UBI over $10,000, for 1997. This gross profit (less loss) resulted from subtracting $2.0 billion of costs of sales and services from $5.7 billion of gross receipts from sales and services [4]. The aggregate amount of gross profit (less loss) from sales and services, along with the net income (less loss) from the six specifically reported income sources mentioned above, was positive for each of Tax Years 1991 through 1997, except for net losses reported for unrelated debt-financed activities prior to Tax Year 1995. This seems to indicate that the remaining deduction items reported on Form 990-T, which are mainly operational expenses, the net operating loss carryover, and miscellaneous “deductions not directly connected” to producing unrelated business income (all of which are also shown in Table 7), are chiefly responsible for the annual unrelated business deficits reported by nonprofit organizations.

The operating expenses of “salaries and wages” and “other deductions,” plus the net operating loss carryover, plus “deductions not directly connected” accounted for 73 percent of total deductions reported by the larger organizations on Form 990-T for 1997. (Other Deductions, Net Operating Loss Carryover, and Deductions Not Directly Connected are defined in the Explanation of Terms section.) Using generally acceptable accounting practices, nonprofit organizations are allowed to allocate a certain percentage of operational costs to their unrelated business activities, based on a proportion of unrelated income to total income. This can be done even if no supplemental costs above their existing mission-related costs were incurred to conduct the unrelated activities. An analysis of unrelated business income and deductions continues in the section, “Nonprofit Charitable Organizations Classified by National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities.”

Distribution of Total Tax

Virtually all of the total tax reported on Form 990-T each year is the unrelated business income tax (UBIT). In addition to $418.4 million of UBIT, the $422.7 million of total tax reported for 1997 took into account $7.2 million of “proxy tax” on certain lobbying and political expenditures, $1.0 million of “alternative minimum tax,” and $3.9 million of various tax credits [5].

While the proxy tax was required to be reported on Form 990-T, there was no connection between the proxy tax and the taxation of income from an organization’s unrelated business activities. (See the definition of Proxy Tax in the Explanation of Terms section.) For this reason, and because returns with gross UBI below the $1,000 filing threshold were not used for the statistics, Forms 990-T filed solely to report the proxy tax (no UBI reported) were excluded from the study. Based on an unpublished tabulation of data from the IRS Business Returns Transaction File, a total of $13.9 million of proxy tax was reported on 627 Forms 990-T for Tax Year 1997. It is estimated that about 64 percent of these 627 returns were filed solely to report the proxy tax.

Nonprofit organizations filing Form 990-T are organized as trusts or corporations. Trust UBI is taxed at individual (single status) income tax rates, and corporate UBI is taxed at corporate rates. (Tax Year 1997 rates are provided in the definition of Unrelated Business Income Tax, included in the Explanation of Terms section.) Tax-exempt corporations accounted for 64 percent of returns filed with positive net income (taxable profit), and tax-exempt trusts accounted for the remainder. The proportions are reversed when looking at total tax liability. Exempt trusts were responsible for 63 percent of total tax liability, and exempt corporations were responsible for 37 percent.

The primary reason for these differences is that trusts filing Form 990-T traditionally are mostly Code section 401(a) pension funds, section 408(e) IRA’s, and section 501(c)(9) voluntary employee beneficiary associations (VEBA’s). By the nature of their operations, these trusts generally are more limited than corporations in the types and amount of deductions they can use to offset their incomes [6]. This results in relatively higher amounts of taxable profit for trusts, compared to corporate entities. For 1997, the average deduction reported by nonprofit trusts was less than half the size of the average deduction reported by nonprofit corporations; the average total tax liability of nonprofit trusts was over three times larger than that of nonprofit corporations.

Together, section 501(c)(9) VEBA’s and section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations were responsible for 72 percent of total tax liability reported. Another 23 percent of tax liability was attributable to section 401(a) pension trusts; section 501(c)(6) chambers of commerce, business leagues, and real-estate boards; and section 501(c)(7) social and recreational clubs.

Nonprofit Charitable Organizations Classified by National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities

Figure C presents information on the types of section 501(c)(3) nonprofit charitable organizations, based on the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (NTEE), a classification system developed by the National Center for Charitable Statistics, with the collaboration of major nonprofit entities. Organizations included in this table filed both a Form 990 “information” return and a Form 990-T “tax” return. The NTEE system classifies organizations by institutional purpose and major programs and activities [7]. It is comprised of 26 major groups, which are then aggregated into 10 categories. The organizations were coded on the basis of information provided on Form 990.

Figure C

Selected Items for Nonprofit Charitable Organizations Filing

Forms 990 and 990-T, Classified by National Taxonomy of Exempt

Entities (NTEE) Major Category, Tax Year 1997

[Money amounts are in thousands of dollars]

Selected items, as

reported on Forms

990 and 990-T

Reported on Form 990

Number

NTEE major of Total Total

category(1) returns revenue expenses

(1) (2) (3)

Total 7,543 332,831,638 296,798,392

Arts, culture, and

humanities 777 6,510,644 4,985,419

Education(2) 1,225 73,976,089 53,921,951

Environment, animals 340 1,939,697 1,612,209

Health 2,424 214,685,738 202,820,326

Human services 1,982 9,342,906 8,675,719

International, foreign

affairs 34 1,032,147 943,193

Mutual, membership benefit 3 16,648,499 16,615,077

Public, societal benefit 454 7,548,176 6,281,008

Religion-related 304 1,147,742 943,490

Unknown, unclassified — — —

Selected items, as reported

on Forms 990 and 990-T

Reported

on Form Reported on Form 990-T

990

Unrelated

Total business Unrelated

NTEE major revenue gross business

category(1) minus income total

expenses (UBGI) deductions

(4) (5) (6)

Total 36,033,246 3,717,792 4,616,825

Arts, culture, and

humanities 1,525,225 238,858 280,893

Education(2) 20,054,138 403,439 473,312

Environment, animals 327,488 62,183 148,309

Health 11,865,412 1,603,097 2,258,016

Human services 667,187 240,773 319,091

International, foreign

affairs 88,954 3,522 5,887

Mutual, membership benefit 33,422 788,285 728,197

Public, societal benefit 1,267,168 315,894 325,507

Religion-related 204,252 61,741 77,613

Unknown, unclassified — — —

Selected items, as derived from

Forms 990 and 990-T(3)

Reported

on Form

990-T

Unrelated UBGI

business as a

NTEE major gross percentage Number

category(1) income of of

minus total returns

deductions revenue

(7) (8) (9)

Total -899,033 1.1 7,543

Arts, culture, and

humanities -42,035 3.7 777

Education(2) -69,873 0.5 1,225

Environment, animals -86,126 3.2 340

Health -654,919 0.7 2,424

Human services -78,318 2.6 1,982

International, foreign

affairs -2,365 0.3 34

Mutual, membership benefit 60,088 4.7 3

Public, societal benefit -9,613 4.2 454

Religion-related -15,872 5.4 304

Unknown, unclassified — — —

Selected items, as derived from

Forms 990 and 990-T(3)

Derived from Form 990

Total

NTEE major Total Total receipts

category(1) receipts expendi- minus

tures expenditures

(10) (11) (12)

Total 304,079,007 289,303,033 14,775,974

Arts, culture, and

humanities 4,381,401 5,044,412 -663,011

Education(2) 58,411,615 48,719,710 9,691,905

Environment, animals 1,293,962 1,578,487 -284,525

Health 210,064,214 201,587,739 8,476,475

Human services 7,289,601 8,527,965 -1,238,364

International, foreign

affairs 123,958 832,854 -708,896

Mutual, membership benefit 16,945,685 16,910,303 35,382

Public, societal benefit 4,952,242 5,218,757 -266,515

Religion-related 616,329 882,808 -266,479

Unknown, unclassified — — —

Selected items, as

derived from Forms 990

and 990-T(3)

Derived from Form 990-T

Unrelated

business Unrelated

NTEE major gross business

category(1) receipts total

(UBGR) expenditures

(13) (14)

Total 4,481,238 4,437,136

Arts, culture, and

humanities 268,050 263,704

Education(2) 492,102 442,048

Environment, animals 87,859 95,550

Health 1,882,140 1,972,317

Human services 507,262 523,245

International, foreign

affairs 4,012 4,296

Mutual, membership benefit 788,575 728,476

Public, societal benefit 373,585 325,554

Religion-related 77,653 81,946

Unknown, unclassified — —

Selected items, as

derived from Forms 990

and 990-T(3)

Derived from

Form 990-T

UBGR

Unrelated as a

NTEE major business percentage

category(1) receipts of

minus total

expenditures receipts

(15) (16)

Total 44,102 1.5

Arts, culture, and

humanities 4,346 6.1

Education(2) 50,054 0.8

Environment, animals -7,691 6.8

Health -90,177 0.9

Human services -15,983 7.0

International, foreign

affairs -284 3.2

Mutual, membership benefit 60,099 4.7

Public, societal benefit 48,031 7.5

Religion-related -4,293 12.6

Unknown, unclassified — —

(1) The National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (NTEE) is a classification

system using 26 major field areas that can be aggregated into 10

categories, shown above. It was developed by the National Center for

Charitable Statistics. The classifications describe the purposes and

activities of nonprofit organizations. See Notes and References,

footnote 7.

(2) Excludes most colleges and universities operated by State and

local Governments.

(3) For derivations, see Figure D.

NOTES: Data are from Forms 990 and 990-T filed by nonprofit

charitable organizations that are tax-exempt under Code section

501(c)(3) and exclude private foundations, most churches, and

certain other types of religious organizations. Detail may not add

to totals because of rounding.

Forms 990 and 990-T Integrated Sample

The organizations classified by NTEE in Figure C were part of an “integrated” sample to gather information on “related” (tax-exempt) and “unrelated” (taxable) income and expenses for organizations that filed both Form 990 and Form 990-T. This integrated sampling program ensured that the Statistics of Income sample of Forms 990-T included unrelated business income tax returns filed by any organizations whose Form 990 information returns were selected for the sample of section 501(c)(3) nonprofit charitable organizations. Forms 990-T filed by section 501(c)(3) organizations that also filed a “short” Form 990-EZ are excluded from the analysis of the data presented in Figure C [8].

The Form 990-T sample included returns that were initially selected based on independent Form 990-T sampling criteria, and additional returns that were not initially selected but were subsequently matched to returns in the Form 990 sample. These matched returns, along with any independently selected Forms 990-T that also had counterparts in the Form 990 sample, formed the “integrated” portion of the Form 990-T sample [9].

Of the total 8,002 tax returns in the combined Form 990-T sample, there were 3,391 that were filed by organizations whose information returns were also included in the section 501(c)(3) Form 990 sample. About one-third of these Forms 990-T were not selected initially, but became part of the sample because they subsequently matched a selected Form 990. Applying Form 990 sample weights to the 3,391 integrated sample records produced an estimated population of 7,543 joint Forms 990/990-T filers [10]. Data from these organizations’ Form 990-T tax returns were combined with data from their Form 990 information returns for the Figure C analysis.

To clarify, this population is estimated based on Form 990 and Form 990-T records in the two samples that were filed by the same section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations; it is not the estimated total population of all charitable organizations filing Forms 990-T. The estimated total number of Forms 990-T filed for Tax Year 1997 by section 501(c)(3) charities is shown in Table 1 at the end of this article. In addition to the exclusion of Form 990-EZ filers, other factors pertaining to Form 990 filing requirements affected the estimated population of organizations shown in Figure C and used for analysis in this section [11, 12]. The matched records provide the means for consistency in analyzing exempt-function and nonexempt-function income of organizations that are involved in unrelated business activities.

The 7,543 section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations for which statistics are shown in Figure C represent about 5 percent of the 155,330 population of section 501(c)(3) organizations filing Form 990 for 1997, based on the Form 990 sample (excluding Form 990-EZ). Figure C illustrates, to a large degree, the extent to which the section 501(c)(3) organizations engaged in unrelated business activities. This is measured in two ways: by using actual income and expense items reported on the returns (top panel of the table) and by using derived amounts of gross receipts and expenditures (bottom panel of the table). The derived amounts take into account certain adjustments made to income and expense items reported on Forms 990 and 990-T to make them more analogous for comparing total financial activity with unrelated business activity and to include only those components that are considered to be current tax year (1997) gross receipts and associated expenditures. The formulas used to derive Forms 990 and 990-T gross receipts and associated expenditures are shown in Figure D.

Figure D

Formulas Used To Derive Total Receipts,

Total Expenditures, Unrelated Business Gross

Receipts, and Unrelated Business Total

Expenditures, from Forms 990 and 990-T,

as Shown in Figure C

Form 990 Total Receipts =

Total revenue (Part I, line 12)

+ Rental expenses(1) (Part I, line 6b)

+ Direct expenses from special events, other than

fundraising(1) (Part I, line 9b)

+ Cost of sales and services(2) (Part I, line 10b)

– Contributions, gifts, and grants received (Part I, line 1d)

Form 990 Total Expenditures =

Total expenses (Part I, line 17)

+ Rental expenses(1) (Part I, line 6b)

+ Direct expenses from special events, other than

fundraising(1) (Part I, line 9b)

+ Cost of sales and services(2) (Part I, line 10b)

– Fundraising expenses associated with

contributions, gifts, and grants received

(Part I, line 15)

– Payments to affiliates (Part I, line 16)

– Grants and allocations (Part II, line 22B)

Form 990-T Unrelated Business Gross Receipts =

Unrelated business gross income (Part I, line 13A)

+ Cost of sales and services(2) (Part I, line 2)

Form 990-T Unrelated Business Total Expenditures =

Unrelated business total deductions [sum of total expenses

(Part I, line 13B) and total deductions (Part II, line 29)]

+ Cost of sales and services(2) (Part I, line 2)

– Charitable contributions paid (Part II, line 20)

– Net operating loss carryover (Part II, line 31)

– Specific deduction(3) (Part II, line 33)

(1) On Form 990, these expenses were deducted from gross income prior

to calculating total revenue.

(2) On Forms 990 and 990-T, this expense was deducted from gross income

prior to calculating total revenue and unrelated business gross income.

(3) This was a deduction, up to $1,000, allowed to all organizations

reporting net income on Form 990-T.

Analysis of Income and Expenses by Major NTEE Categories, As Reported on Forms 990 and 990-T

In the top panel of Figure C, total revenue and total expenses reported on Form 990 include both exempt-function (related) and nonexempt-function (unrelated) income and expenses. These Form 990 totals, in addition to unrelated business gross income (UBGI) and total deductions reported on Form 990-T, are tabulated directly from the amounts required to be reported on the respective returns for tax administration purposes. Therefore, the data shown in the top panel represent a tax concept of exempt organizations’ income and expenses. While these data may be useful from a tax administration perspective, they do not provide a truly accurate representation of a business “receipts and expenditures” concept of actual financial activity. An attempt has been made in the lower panel of Figure C to present amounts actually generated and expended by nonprofit charitable organizations, by NTEE major category. This is discussed in the next section of this article, which analyzes Forms 990 and 990-T adjusted, or “derived,” income and expense data.

The charitable organizations described under section 501(c)(3) cover a broad range of tax-exempt missions. Myriad organizations with a large number of different nonprofit purposes are included in the nine specific aggregated NTEE major categories (excluding “unknown, unclassified”) listed in Figure C. As can be seen from the top part of Figure C, “health” was by far the largest category in terms of returns filed and income reported on Form 990 and Form 990-T. Organizations in this category accounted for 43 percent of the $4.6 billion of total unrelated business gross income shown in column 5. They were also responsible for 65 percent of total (related and unrelated) income reported on Form 990. The health category includes organizations that promote the wellness of individuals, the general treatment and prevention of disease or illness (including mental health and illness), and the medical rehabilitation of the physically disabled. Examples are hospitals; nursing or convalescent facilities; health care financing activities; substance abuse treatment services; organizations that study ethics or promote the practice of ethical behavior in medical care and research; health associations active in the prevention or treatment of diseases; and medical research.

Organizations classified within the NTEE-defined purpose of “mutual, membership benefit” accounted for the second highest amount of UBGI reported, or about 21 percent of the total shown in Figure C. Some types of organizations that can be included in this category are insurance providers; organizations that manage pension and retirement funds; research institutes and public policy organizations; and organizations whose primary purpose is to raise funds (which may also include fund distribution) for a single institution or multiple organizations.

The major category of “education” ranked third in both the amount of UBGI reported and the number of returns filed. Eleven percent of total UBGI was attributable to organizations with educational purposes or programs. This category includes higher education (excluding most colleges and universities operated by State and local Governments), elementary and secondary schools, correspondence schools, libraries, educational testing services, organizations providing opportunities for continuing education outside the framework of formal education, and student services and organizations.

Following health, the “human services” major category accounted for the second largest number of matched Forms 990 and 990-T filed by nonprofit charitable organizations shown in Figure C, but it was responsible for only 6 percent of total UBGI. This major category was comprised of organizations in several classifications performing a variety of services focused on specific needs within the community: housing and shelter programs, including housing, construction, management, and services to assist in locating, acquiring, or sustaining housing; job training and placement services; public safety, disaster preparedness, and relief services, including activities related to the effects of disasters and the providing of relief to accident victims; recreation and sports programs provided by organizations for camps, parks, and playgrounds, and amateur sports activities; crime prevention and legal services; and multipurpose organizations providing a broad range of social or human services to individuals and families.

Analysis of Gross Receipts and Expenditures by Major NTEE Categories, As Derived from Forms 990 and 990-T

The lower panel of Figure C shows “adjusted” income and expense amounts that were derived from amounts specifically reported on Forms 990 and 990-T (contained in the top panel) to portray an actual business, or operating, “receipts and expenditures” concept of tax-exempt organizations’ financial activities. When comparing exempt organizations’ finances reported on Forms 990 and 990-T, it is important to exclude certain receipts, payments, or deductions–such as contributions, gifts, and grants received or paid; payments to affiliates; and the “net operating loss carryover”–because the receipts were not actively generated by the organizations and the payments or deductions were not considered as current-year operating costs. Also, it is necessary to add back to income the expenses that had been deducted from gross income for tax purposes only (and which, therefore, were excluded from income and deduction totals reported on the IRS forms), so that the Forms 990 and 990-T comparative analysis is based on total, versus “net,” receipts from operations.

As mentioned above, Figure D contains a description of the items used to calculate the adjusted amounts. Conclusions about the relative importance of certain financial items to the various NTEE categories of section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations can be drawn from the data in the lower panel of Figure C.

Overall Importance of Forms 990 and 990-T Adjustment Items

In computing “total receipts,” the largest financial item that was factored out of reported total revenue on Form 990 was contributions, gifts, and grants received (CGGR). Figure E shows CGGR and other selected items as a percentage of certain income, expense, and deduction items specifically reported on Forms 990 and 990-T. In aggregate, CGGR was close to 10 percent of the total revenue of nonprofit charitable organizations included in Figure C.

Figure E

Selected Adjustment Items Shown in Figure D, as a Percentage of

Selected Items Reported on Forms 990 and 990-T, Classified by National

Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (NTEE) Major Category, Tax Year 1997

Reported on Form 990

Contributions,

gifts, and grants Grants and

NTEE major received, as a allocations, as a

category(1) percentage of percentage of

total revenue total expenses

(1) (2)

Total 9.4 2.7

Arts, culture, and humanities 37.1 1.8

Education(2) 22.1 9.5

Environment, animals 35.1 2.3

Health 2.5 0.7

Human services 26.4 4.0

International, foreign affairs 87.1 4.8

Mutual, membership benefit (3) (3)

Public, societal benefit 31.1 15.5

Religion related 48.0 4.9

Unknown, unclassified — —

Reported on Form 990-T

Cost of sales

and services

Net

operating

As a As a loss

NTEE major percentage percentage carryover,

category(1) of gross of total as a

income deductions percentage

of total

deductions

(3) (4) (5)

Total 13.0 10.5 18.1

Arts, culture, and humanities 9.7 8.2 13.8

Education(2) 17.2 14.7 24.1

Environment, animals 31.2 13.1 36.0

Health 17.2 12.2 24.7

Human services 14.9 11.2 12.0

International, foreign affairs 13.9 8.3 30.1

Mutual, membership benefit (3) (3) (3)

Public, societal benefit 17.2 16.7 7.7

Religion related 7.7 6.1 7.8

Unknown, unclassified — — —

(1) The National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (NTEE) is a classification

system using 26 major field areas that can be aggregated into 10

categories, shown above. It was developed by the National Center for

Charitable Statistics. The classifications describe the purposes and

activities of nonprofit organizations. See Notes and References,

footnote 7.

(2) Excludes most colleges and universities operated by State

and local Governments.

(3) Less than 0.05 percent.

NOTES: Data are from Forms 990 and 990-T filed by nonprofit charitable

organizations that are tax-exempt under Code section 501(c)(3) and

exclude private foundations, most churches, and certain other types of

religious organizations.

Included in CGGR were contributions, gifts, grants, and bequests received directly from the public; indirect public support in the form of contributions received from other fundraising organizations, such as the United Way; and contributions or grants received from a governmental unit. As a counterpart to subtracting CGGR from total revenue, fundraising expenses associated with CGGR were also factored out of total expenses. The three items shown in Figure D other than CGGR that were factored into the derivation of “total receipts” were each less than 1 percent of aggregate total revenue reported on Form 990.

The largest item that affected the computation of aggregate Form 990 “total expenditures” was grants and allocations made to individuals and organizations, which were 2.7 percent of reported total expenses. All other items used to derive the adjusted amount of aggregate total expenditures shown in Figure D were each less than 1 percent of total expenses reported on Form 990.

The “net operating loss carryover” (NOLC) is a deduction allowed in computing unrelated business taxable income on Form 990-T. Generally, unrelated business losses incurred in prior tax years can be used to reduce taxable income in a later tax year. (See the definition of Net Operating Loss Carryover in the Explanation of Terms section of this article.) Factoring NOLC out of unrelated business total deductions significantly affects the computation of adjusted unrelated business total expenditures. The aggregate NOLC reported by organizations included in Figure C was 18 percent of total deductions reported on Form 990-T.

“Cost of sales and services” was also an important factor in the computation of adjustments to both UBGI and unrelated business total deductions. Cost of sales and services is allowed as a deduction from gross receipts from sales and services prior to computing total unrelated business gross income (which is the determining factor for whether no return, a partial return, or a complete return is required). Therefore, cost of sales and services is reported in the gross income section of Form 990-T, rather than the deductions section, and it is not included in unrelated business total deductions shown in column 6 of Figure C. The $483.0 million of cost of sales and services used in the Form 990-T computations shown in Figure D were 13 percent of UBGI and 11 percent of unrelated business total deductions reported by section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations in all NTEE categories, combined. Charitable deductions paid and the “specific deduction” (defined in the Explanation of Terms section) were each less than 1 percent of unrelated business total deductions and had little effect on the computation of the adjusted amounts.

Effect of Adjustments on Reported Income, Expenses, and Deductions

As can be seen in Figure E, the results obtained from adjusting reported income and expense amounts vary by NTEE major category. The major NTEE categories most affected by the subtraction of contributions, gifts, and grants (CGGR) from total revenue were “international, foreign affairs,” “religion-related,” “arts, culture, and humanities,” and “environment, animals.” Organizations in the “health” category (which includes hospitals) were least affected by the adjustment, with CGGR being only 3 percent of their total revenue. Traditionally, organizations classified within the health category rely much more heavily on revenue from program services, rather than receipts from CGGR, as a major source of income.

Adjustments made to Form 990 total expenses primarily affected organizations in the “public, societal benefit” category. Grants and allocations, which were subtracted from total expenses, were 16 percent of the expenses reported by organizations in this category. For each of the other NTEE major categories shown in Figure E, the ratio of grants and allocations to total expenses was less than 10 percent.

Of all the items used to adjust Form 990-T gross income and deductions, the net operating loss carryover (NOLC) was by far the most important, indicating that these filers had significant business losses in the immediately preceding years. Factoring the NOLC out of Form 990-T unrelated business total deductions had the greatest impact on the NTEE categories of environment, animals; international, foreign affairs; health; and arts, culture, and humanities. Cost of sales and services (CSS) from unrelated business activities was added to both gross income and total deductions in the computation of unrelated business receipts and expenditures. Therefore, the CSS adjustment did not impact the amount of receipts over expenses shown in column 15 of Figure C, but it significantly increased unrelated business gross income reported by organizations in each of the NTEE major categories of environment, animals; “education”; health; and public, societal benefit.

Measuring Unrelated Business Involvement Using Derived Amounts

As stated earlier, adjustments to Forms 990 and 990-T reported amounts were made for the purpose of comparing the related and unrelated financial activities of nonprofit charitable organizations, which required an attempt to make both types of receipts and expenditures more analogous. The lower panel of Figure C was designed to allow for a more accurate analysis of related and unrelated finances by treating both types of receipts and expenditures as consistently as possible. It is not intended for any other types of analysis.

A comparison of Form 990 total revenue minus expenses (column 4) and total receipts minus expenses (column 12) illustrates the importance of the receipt of contributions, gifts, and grants to the programs of nonprofit charitable organizations. After adjustments, receipts minus expenses were significantly reduced for all NTEE major categories, except for health, where the reduction were small relative to the others, and for the category of “mutual, membership benefit,” where receipts minus expenses increased slightly.

Adjustments to income and deductions resulted in significantly higher derived amounts of unrelated business gross receipts minus expenditures shown in column 15, compared to their counterpart amounts shown in column 7, which were specifically reported on Form 990-T. Unrelated business net income (less loss) changed from negative to positive for NTEE categories as a whole and for three specific categories: arts, culture, and humanities; education; and public, societal benefit. Factoring the net operating loss carryover out of unrelated business total deductions was the primary reason for this result. However, organizations in the NTEE categories of environment, animals; health; “human services”; international, foreign affairs; and religion-related still had negative net income (less loss), or apparently unprofitable unrelated business operations, after subtracting out the NOLC from their respective unrelated business total deductions. The section, Income and Deductions, above, contains a discussion of the types of deductions reported on Form 990-T and their connection with annual overall deficits reported by nonprofit organizations since Tax Year 1990.

The percentages shown in columns 8 and 16 of Figure C are indicators of the extent to which section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations engage in unrelated business activities. They represent the ratio of unrelated income to total (related and unrelated) income. The percentages shown in column 8, based on actual amounts reported on the returns, are generally smaller than those shown in column 16, based on derived amounts. Also, the NTEE major categories fall into a different order of dominance, in terms of unrelated business activity, as measured by the percentages in the two columns.

The column 16 percentages, which take into account the adjustments shown in Figure D, indicate that a small proportion, 1.5 percent, of the total receipts of all section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations shown in Figure C was generated from unrelated business activities. Based on derived Forms 990 and 990-T receipts, the percentages in column 16 increased over those in column 8 for all of the NTEE major categories, except mutual, membership benefit, which remained the same. As a group, organizations classified in Figure C as religion-related, which excludes most churches (see footnote 2 at the end of this article), were more extensively involved in generating income from unrelated business activities than those included in other NTEE categories, with more than 12 percent of total receipts coming from unrelated business receipts.

The religion-related NTEE major category includes organizations whose primary purpose is worship, religious training or study, governance or administration of organized religions, or the promotion of religious activities. As already mentioned, most churches were excluded from the Form 990-T integrated sample because they are not required to file Form 990. In addition to churches and other organized places of worship, the religion-related category could include religious associations; church auxiliaries; religious orders; missions; and religious organizations involved in advocacy, research, fundraising, management support, media, or publishing activities. Less than 1 percent of total receipts was attributable to unrelated business activities within the education and health classifications. The remaining major NTEE categories shown in Figure C had UBGR-to-total-receipts ratios of 6 percent to 8 percent.

Summary

After applying $8.5 billion of total deductions against $7.8 billion of gross unrelated business income (UBI), nonprofit organizations reported an overall net income (less deficit) of $-0.7 billion for Tax Year 1997. The $1.4 billion of taxable profits from unrelated business income reported on Forms 990-T, Exempt Organizations Business Income Tax Returns, represented an 18-percent increase over 1996–much smaller than the 31-percent and 39-percent increases, respectively, associated with Tax Years 1995 and 1996. The unrelated business income tax (UBIT) liability associated with taxable profits was $418.4 million. In addition to UBIT, the $422.7 million of total tax took into account $7.2 million of “proxy tax” on certain lobbying and political expenditures, $1.0 million of “alternative minimum tax,” and $3.9 million of tax credits. Seventy-two percent of reported total tax was attributable to Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(9) voluntary employee beneficiary associations and section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations.

The number of returns filed between 1996 and 1997 declined, overall, by 3 percent, from 40,621 to 39,302. Organizations with gross UBI of $10,000 or less filed 14 percent fewer Forms 990-T from 1996 to 1997, while the number of returns filed by organizations with larger amounts of gross UBI increased by 7 percent. The largest drop in filers, by type of organization, was for Individual Retirement Arrangement (IRA) trusts, tax-exempt under Code section 408(e), which filed 28 percent fewer Forms 990-T, compared to 1996.

Using the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (NTEE) classification system, an “integrated” sample of Form 990 (Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax) and 990-T returns filed for 1997 by the same section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations was classified by institutional purpose and major programs. “Health” was by far the largest NTEE major category in terms of returns filed and income reported on Forms 990 and 990-T that were part of the integrated sample. Organizations in this category filed 32 percent of the population of 7,543 returns estimated from the integrated sample, 65 percent of Form 990 total income, and 43 percent of Form 990-T gross UBI. Organizations with an NTEE classification of “mutual, membership benefit” were small in number, based on the integrated sample, but accounted for the second highest amount of gross UBI reported, or 21 percent of the total. “Human services” organizations filed the second highest number of “matched” Forms 990 and 990-T, 26 percent, but were responsible for only 6 percent of gross UBI reported. “Education” ranked third in both the amount of gross UBI reported (11 percent of the total) and the number of Forms 990-T filed (16 percent of the total).

Based on adjusted income amounts derived from returns in the integrated sample, the group of organizations classified as “religion-related” were more extensively involved in unrelated business activities than organizations within other NTEE major categories. These organizations generated a little more than 12 percent of total receipts (related plus unrelated) from unrelated business gross receipts (UBGR). Six out of the eight other NTEE major groups of organizations had UBGR-to-total-receipts ratios ranging from 6 percent to 8 percent. These six groups were classified as “arts, culture, and humanities”; “environment, animals”; human services; “international, foreign affairs”; mutual, membership benefit; and “public, societal benefit”. For the remaining two major NTEE groups, education and health, less than 1 percent of total receipts was attributable to unrelated business activities.

Data Sources and Limitations

The statistics in this article are based on a sample of Tax Year 1997 Forms 990-T, Exempt Organization Business Income Tax Return. The Internal Revenue Service required organizations having accounting periods beginning in 1997 (and, therefore, ending between December 1997 and November 1998) to file a 1997 Form 990-T to report any unrelated business income. The associated required filing period for Tax Year 1997 Forms 990-T generally was May 1998 to April 1999 (April 1998 to March 1999 for Internal Revenue Code section 220(e), 401(a), and 408(e) trusts), but extensions of time to file beyond this period were granted to many organizations. Returns filed after Calendar Year 1999 were not included in the sample. Because the accounting periods of the organizations filing a 1997 return vary, the financial activities covered in this article span the period January 1997 through November 1998 (although the majority of activities occurred during Calendar Year 1997).

The data analyzed in the section titled Nonprofit Charitable Organizations Classified by National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities (and presented in Figures C and E) were from matched Forms 990 and 990-T returns filed by Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3) charitable organizations. As explained earlier, this matching procedure ensured that the Form 990-T sample included unrelated business income tax returns filed by any tax-exempt organizations whose information returns were selected for the Form 990 sample of section 501(c)(3) organizations [13]. (The various types of tax-exempt organizations subject to the unrelated business income tax provisions are described by Code section in the Appendix to this article.) The Form 990-T sample is described below.

The population from which the 1997 Form 990-T sample was drawn consisted of Form 990-T records posted to the IRS Business Master File system during 1998 and 1999. The returns in the sample were stratified based on the size of gross unrelated business income (UBI). A sample of 8,052 returns was selected from a population of 39,521. After excluding returns that were selected for the sample but later rejected, the sample size was 8,002, and the estimated population size was 39,302. Rejected returns included those which had gross UBI below the $1,000 filing threshold, were filed only to claim a refund or report the “proxy tax,” or were filed for a part-year accounting period that began in a year other than 1997. For example, a final return filed for the short period of January 1998– June 1998 may have been selected for the 1997 sample based on the criterion of an accounting period that ended between December 1997 and November 1998, but it was rejected because, in actuality, it was a Tax Year 1998 return.

Sampling rates ranged from a minimum of 5 percent (Form 990-T gross UBI less than $20,000, with either no Form 990 match or a Form 990 match to a Code section 501(c)(3) return with assets under $2,500,000) to a maximum of 100 percent (either Form 990-T gross UBI of $300,000 or more, or Form 990-T with any amount of gross UBI and a match to a section 501(c)(3) Form 990 with assets of $10,000,000 or more). Other Forms 990/990-T matches within various ranges of gross UBI, assets, and Internal Revenue Code sections were selected at rates ranging from 10 percent to 40 percent.

The information presented in this article was obtained from returns as originally filed with the IRS. The data were subjected to comprehensive testing and correction procedures in order to improve statistical reliability and validity. In most cases, changes made to the original return as a result of administrative processing, audit procedures, or a taxpayer amendment were not incorporated into the data base.

Because the data are based on a sample, they are subject to sampling error. In order to use these statistics properly, the magnitude of the sampling error, measured by the coefficient of variation (CV), should be taken into account. Figure F shows CV’s for selected financial data. CV’s are not shown for returns with gross UBI of $500,000 or more because they were sampled at a 100-percent rate and, therefore, are not subject to sampling variability. A discussion of the reliability of estimates based on samples and methods for evaluating both the magnitude of sampling and nonsampling error and the precision of sample estimates can be found in the general Appendix, located near the back of this issue of the Bulletin.

Figure F

Coefficients of Variation for Selected Items, by

Size of Gross Unrelated Business Income,

Tax Year 1997

Gross Net

Size of gross unrelated unrelated Total income Total

business income (UBI) business deductions (taxable tax

income profit)

Coefficient of variation (percentages)

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Total 0.26 0.66 0.49 0.99

$1,000 under $10,001(1) 2.75 8.21 5.24 7.41

$10,001 under $100,000(1) 1.38 4.26 4.16 5.06

$100,000 under $500,000 0.84 2.50 2.65 2.78

$500,000 or more N/A N/A N/A N/A

(1) The gross unrelated business income (UBI) brackets of “$1,000 under

$10,001″ and “$10,001 under $100,000” reflect the different filing

requirements for organizations with gross UBI of $10,000 or less (only

a “partial” return was required) and all other Form 990-T filers

(a more detailed “complete” return was required). Organizations

with gross UBI below $1,000 were not required to file Form 990-T.

N/A – Not applicable.

Explanation of Selected Terms

In some of the following explanations, tax-exempt organizations are cited by the Internal Revenue Code section under which they are described. The various types of tax-exempt organizations subject to the unrelated business income tax provisions are described by Code section in the Appendix to this article.

Advertising Income.–Gross income realized by a tax-exempt organization from the sale of advertising in a periodical was gross income from an unrelated trade or business activity involving the “exploitation of an exempt activity,” namely, the circulation and readership of the periodical developed by producing and distributing the readership content of that periodical. Advertising income was reported separately from other types of “exploited exempt activity income.” (See the explanation of Exploited Exempt Activity Income.) Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations reported gross advertising income, as well as other types of “exploited exempt activity income,” as gross receipts from sales and services. All other organizations reported this income separately.

Capital Gain Net Income.–Generally, organizations required to file Form 990-T (except organizations tax-exempt under Internal Revenue Code sections 501(c)(7), (9), and (17)) were not taxed on net gains from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property. However, net capital gains on sales of debt-financed property, certain gains on the cutting of timber (section 1231), and gains on sales of certain depreciable property (described in sections 1245, 1250, 1252, 1254, and 1255) were taken into account in computing capital gain net income. (See the explanation of Investment Income (Less Loss) for information regarding investment income of section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations.)

Contributions.–To the extent permissible under the Internal Revenue Code, a deduction was allowed for contributions or gifts actually paid within the tax year to, or for the use of, another entity that was a charitable or governmental organization described in Code section 170(c). Any unused contributions carried over from earlier years were also allowed. The contributions deduction was allowed whether or not directly connected with the carrying on of a trade or business.

Deductions Directly Connected With Unrelated Business Income.–These were deductions allowed in computing net income, if they otherwise qualified as income tax deductions under the Internal Revenue Code and if they had a “proximate and primary” relationship to carrying on an unrelated trade or business. Allowable deductions included those directly connected with rental of personal property; those allocable to unrelated debt-financed income; those directly connected with investment income of Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations; those allocable to interest, annuities, royalties, and rents received from “controlled organizations” (see definition of Income from Controlled Organizations); those allocable to “exploited exempt activity income” other than advertising; direct advertising costs; compensation of officers, directors, and trustees; salaries and wages; repairs; bad debts; interest; taxes; depreciation (unless deducted elsewhere); depletion; contributions to deferred compensation plans; contributions to employee benefit plans; the “net operating loss carryover”; and “other deductions.” Tax-exempt organizations with gross unrelated business income (UBI) above $10,000 were required to report each deduction component separately. Organizations with gross UBI between $1,000 (the filing threshold) and $10,000 reported a single total of the first five types of directly-connected expenses listed above (those described as “allocable to”) and a single total for all other types of deductions (both deductions directly connected with UBI and those not directly connected, each defined below), except for two items that were required to be reported separately: the “net operating loss carryover” and the “specific deduction,” also defined below.

Deductions Not Directly Connected With Unrelated Business Income.–The component deductions were “set-asides,” “excess exempt expenses,” charitable contributions, and the “specific deduction.” The specific deduction was reported, when applicable, by all organizations with positive taxable income; the other types of deductions not directly connected with UBI were reported separately, when applicable, only by tax-exempt organizations with gross UBI above $10,000. (See, also, the explanations of Set-asides, Excess Exempt Expenses, and the Specific Deduction.)

Excess Exempt Expenses.–The two types of “excess” expenses allowed as deductions from unrelated business income were (1) excess exempt expenses attributable to commercial exploitation of exempt activities, and (2) excess exempt expenses attributable to advertising income. In the case of “exploited” exempt activity income (see the explanation of Exploited Exempt Activity Income, Except Advertising, below), if the expenses of the organization’s exempt activity exceeded the income from the exempt activity, then the excess of exempt expenses over exempt income could be used to offset any positive net unrelated business income produced from exploiting the exempt activity, to the extent that it did not result in a loss. Excess expenses of a commercially exploited exempt activity could not be used to offset income from another type of unrelated business activity if the unrelated activity did not exploit that particular exempt activity. In the case of excess exempt expenses attributable to advertising income, if the expenses attributable to producing and distributing the readership content of a periodical exceeded the circulation income, then the excess of readership costs over circulation income could be used to offset any net gain from advertising (gross advertising income less direct advertising costs), to the extent that it did not result in a loss.

Exploited Exempt Activity Income, Except Advertising.–In some cases, exempt activities create goodwill or other intangibles that are capable of being exploited in a commercial manner. When an organization exploited such an intangible in commercial activities that did not contribute importantly to the accomplishment of an exempt purpose, the income it produced was gross income from an unrelated trade or business. An example of this type of activity would be an exempt scientific organization with an excellent reputation in the field of biological research that exploits its reputation regularly by selling endorsements of laboratory equipment to manufacturers. Endorsing laboratory equipment would not have contributed importantly to the accomplishment of any purpose for which tax exemption was granted to the organization. Accordingly, the income from selling such endorsements is gross unrelated business income. Exploited exempt activity income from advertising was reported separately from other types of exploited exempt activity income (see the explanation of Advertising Income). Internal Revenue Code section 501 (c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations reported income from exploited exempt activities as gross receipts from sales and services. All other organizations reported this income separately.

Gross Profit (Less Loss) from Sales and Services.–This was the gross profit (less loss) from any unrelated trade or business regularly carried on that involved the sale of goods or performance of services. It did not include income from unrelated business activities that were required to be reported separately on any of the tax form’s supporting schedules. For example, an Internal Revenue Code section 501 (c)(7) social club would include gross restaurant and bar receipts from nonmembers in the calculation of gross profit (less loss) from sales and services, but would report its investment income from sales of securities on the required supporting schedule. Gross profit (less loss) from sales and services is computed as gross receipts from sales or services, less returns and allowances, minus cost of sales and services.

Gross Unrelated Business Income (UBI).–This was the total gross unrelated business income (see the explanation of Unrelated Business Income), prior to reduction by allowable deductions used in computing unrelated business taxable income. All organizations were required to report detailed sources of gross UBI. The components of gross UBI, as shown on the tax return, were gross profit (less loss) from sales and services; capital gain net income; net gain (less loss), sales of noncapital assets; net capital loss deduction (trusts only); income (less loss) from partnerships; rental income; unrelated debt-financed income; investment income (less loss) of Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations; annuities, interest, rents, and royalties from controlled organizations; “exploited exempt activity” income; advertising income; and “other” income (less loss). (For an explanation of these sources of income, see the separate explanations of each component.)

Income from Controlled Organizations.–A new definition of “controlled organization” was effective for tax years beginning after August 5, 1997. However, there was a 2-year grace period for organizations that had a written, binding contract with a controlled organization that was in effect on June 8, 1997. Organizations qualifying for the grace period reported income under the old law. (A very small number of Tax Year 1997 Forms 990-T included controlled-organization income that was calculated under new rules.) Under both the old and new tax law provisions, all deductions “directly connected” with a Form 990-T filer’s gross controlled-organization income were allowed. The rules for debt-financed property did not apply to passive income (generally, investment income) from controlled organizations. (See the definition of Unrelated Debt-financed Income.)

For organizations that had tax years beginning on or before August 5, 1997, or were covered by the 2-year grace period: When an exempt organization controls another organization the gross annuities, interest, rents, and royalties from the controlled organization are included in the gross UBI of the controlling organization at a specified ratio, depending on whether the controlled organization is tax-exempt or not. “Control” meant: (a) for a stock corporation, the ownership of stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, and ownership of at least 80 percent of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock of the corporation; or (b) for a nonstock organization, at least 80 percent of the directors or trustees of the organization were either representatives of, or directly or indirectly controlled by, a tax-exempt organization.

For organizations that had tax years beginning after August 5, 1997, and were not covered by the 2-year grace period: When an exempt organization controls another organization, the entire amount of gross annuities, interest, rents, and royalties (termed “specified payments” under the new law) from the controlled organization are included in the gross UBI of the controlling organization, to the extent that the specified payments reduced the net unrelated income (or increased the net unrelated loss) of the controlled organization. “Net unrelated income (or loss)” for an exempt controlled organization was its unrelated business taxable income (or loss). For a nonexempt controlled organization, it was the part of its taxable income (or loss) that would be unrelated business taxable income (or loss) if it were exempt and had the same exempt purpose as the controlling organization. “Control” meant: (a) for a stock corporation, the ownership (by vote or value) of more than 50 percent of the stock; (b) for a partnership, ownership of more than 50 percent of the profits or capital interests; or (c) for any other organization, ownership of more than 50 percent of the beneficial interests. Income (Less Loss)from Partnerships.–If an organization was a partner in any partnership that carried on an unrelated trade or business, this was the organization’s share of partnership gross unrelated business income less its share of partnership deductions that were directly connected with the unrelated income.

Investment Income (Less Loss).–This income was reported only by organizations exempt under Internal Revenue Code sections 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) and included such income as gross unrelated debt-financed income, gross income from the ownership or sale of securities, and set-asides deducted from investment income in previous years that were subsequently used for a purpose other than that for which a deduction was allowed. (See, also, the explanation of Set-asides.) All gross rents (except those that were exempt-function income) of section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations were treated as unrelated business income and were reported as “rental income.” Organizations exempt under sections other than 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) did not report “investment income (less loss).” Generally, these organizations’ investment income (dividends, interest, rents, and annuities) and royalty income were not taxed as unrelated business income, unless it was income, other than dividends, from a controlled organization or debt-financed income, or the rents were of the type described in the explanation of rental income. (See explanations of Income from Controlled Organizations, Rental Income, and Unrelated Debt-financed Income.)

Net Capital Loss (Trusts Only).–If a trust had a net loss from sales or exchanges of capital assets, it was allowed a deduction for the amount of the net loss or $3,000, whichever was lower. (Tax-exempt corporations were not allowed to deduct any excesses of capital losses over capital gains.) Tax-exempt trusts reported the net capital loss deduction on Form 990-T as a negative component of gross unrelated business income.

Net Gain (Less Loss), Sales of Noncapital Assets.–This was the gain or loss from the sale or exchange of business property, as reported on Form 4797, Sales of Business Property. Property other than capital assets generally included property of a business nature, in contrast to personal and investment properties, which were capital assets.

Net Income (Less Deficit).–This was gross income derived from any unrelated trade or business regularly carried on by an exempt organization, less deductions directly connected with carrying on the trade or business and less other allowable deductions not directly connected. On a return-by-return basis, the result of this computation was either positive (net income), negative (deficit), or zero. Net income represented taxable profit, which was subject to the unrelated business income tax. (See, also, explanations of Deductions Directly Connected With Unrelated Business Income and Deductions Not Directly Connected With Unrelated Business Income.)

Net Operating Loss Carryover.–The net operating loss carryover (as described in Internal Revenue Code section 172) was allowed as a deduction in computing unrelated business taxable income. However, the net operating loss carryback or carryover (allowed only to or from a tax year for which the organization was subject to tax on unrelated business income) was determined without taking into account any amount of exempt-function income or deductions that had been excluded from the computation of unrelated business taxable income. A “net operating loss” represented the excess of deductions over receipts for a specified year for which an organization reported an overall deficit from its unrelated trade or business activities. The statistics in this article represent only the net operating loss carryover because carrybacks from future years would be reported in a later year on an amended return, not on the return as initially filed (which served as the basis for the statistics).

Other Deductions.–This included all types of unrelated business deductions that were not specifically required to be reported elsewhere on the tax return. Examples are fees for accounting, legal, consulting, or financial management services; insurance costs (if not for employee-related benefits); equipment costs; mailing costs; office expenses, such as janitorial services, supplies, or security services; rent; travel expenses; educational expenses; and utilities.

Other Income (Less Loss).–This included all types of unrelated business income that were not specifically required to be reported elsewhere on the tax return. Examples are insurance benefit fees; member support fees; commissions; returned contributions that were deducted in prior years; income from insurance activities that was not properly set aside in prior years; recoveries of bad debts; and refunds of State or local tax payments, if the payments were previously reported as a deduction.

Proxy Tax.–This was a tax on certain nondeductible lobbying and political expenditures paid or incurred after December 31, 1993, by organizations that were tax-exempt under Internal Revenue Code sections 501(c)(4), 501(c)(5), and 501(c)(6). If the organization failed to notify its members regarding their shares of dues to which nondeductible lobbying and political expenditures were allocable, or if the notice did not include the entire amount of dues that were allocable, then the proxy tax was imposed on the organization. It was computed as the aggregate amount of nondeductible lobbying expenditures that was not included in the notices sent to the organization’s members, multiplied by 35 percent. The proxy tax was required to be reported on Form 990-T and was included in total tax; however, there was no connection between the proxy tax and the taxation of income from an organization’s unrelated business activities.

Rental Income.–For organizations tax-exempt under Internal Revenue Code sections other than 501(c)(7), (9), and (17), this was the amount of (1) gross rents from personal property (e.g., computer equipment or furniture) leased with real property, if the rental income from the personal property was more than 10 percent, but not more than 50 percent, of the total rents from all leased property; or (2) gross rents from both real property and personal property leased with real property if the personal property was more than 50 percent of the total rents from all leased property. Except for the second situation covered above, gross rents from real property generally were excluded in computing unrelated business taxable income. In addition, gross rents from personal property that did not exceed 10 percent of the total rents from all leased property were excluded. Any rents excluded from the explanation of “rental income” had to be considered in terms of their taxability as unrelated business income from controlled organizations or unrelated debt-financed income, in that order. For organizations tax-exempt under sections 501(c)(7), (9), and (17), rental income included all gross rents (except those that were exempt-function income), with no exclusions. (See explanations of Income from Controlled Organizations and Unrelated Debt-financed Income.)

Set-asides.–These amounts were allowed to social clubs (Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(7)), voluntary employees’ beneficiary associations (section 501(c)(9)), and supplemental unemployment benefit trusts (section 501(c)(17)) as a deduction from investment income. The deduction was equal to the amount of passive income (generally, investment income) that these organizations set aside (1) to be used for charitable purposes or (2) to provide payment of life, health, accident, or other insurance benefits (section 501(c)(9) and (17) organizations only). However, any amounts set aside that exceeded the “qualified asset account” limit, as figured under section 419A, were not allowed as a deduction from unrelated business investment income; they were treated as taxable investment income. A section 419A qualified asset account is any account consisting of assets set aside to provide for the payment of disability benefits, medical benefits, severance pay benefits, or life insurance benefits.

Specific Deduction.–The specific deduction was $1,000 or the amount of positive taxable income, whichever was less. The amount deducted was considered “not directly connected” with gross unrelated business income and was allowed to all organizations that had positive taxable income after all other types of deductions were taken. This deduction provided the equivalent benefit of the $1,000 gross unrelated business income filing threshold under which some organizations were exempted from filing a return and paying the unrelated business income tax.

Total Deductions.–Total Deductions included both deductions reported on the main part of Form 990-T and expense items reported on any of six supporting schedules, which were also part of the tax form. It excluded cost of sales and services ($2.0 billion for 1997), which was subtracted from gross receipts from sales and services in computing gross profit (less loss) from sales and services. Gross profit (less loss) from sales and services was a component of gross unrelated business income (UBI). Because Form 990-T filing requirements are based on gross UBI, and cost of sales and services is factored into the computation of gross income, the deduction for cost of sales and services is reported in the gross income section of Form 990-T, not the deductions section. Cost of sales and services was reported as a lump-sum total, but may have included depreciation, salaries and wages, and certain other types of deductible items. For this reason, the total amount shown for some of the separately reported components of total deductions, such as “salaries and wages,” may be understated.

Total Tax.–Total tax was unrelated business income tax less the foreign tax credit, general business credit, credit for prior-year minimum tax, and other allowable credits, plus the “proxy tax” on certain lobbying expenditures, the tax from recomputing certain prior-year credits (“recapture taxes”), and the “alternative minimum tax.”

Unrelated Business Income.–This was income of a tax-exempt organization that was from a trade or business which was regularly carried on by the organization and which was not substantially related to the performance of the organization’s exempt purpose or function (other than that the organization needed the profits derived from the unrelated activity). The term “trade or business” generally comprised any activity carried on for the production of income from selling goods or performing services. Activities of producing or distributing goods or performing services from which gross income was derived did not lose their identity as trades or businesses merely because they were carried on within a larger aggregate of similar activities or within a larger complex of other endeavors that may, or may not, have been related to the exempt purposes of the organization.

Unrelated Business Income Tax.–This was the tax imposed on unrelated business net income (taxable profit). It was determined based on the regular corporate or trust income tax rates that were in effect for the 1997 Tax Year, as shown in the following schedules.

Tax Rates for Corporations

Amount of unrelated

business taxable income is:

Of the

But not amount

Over– over– Tax is: over–

$0 $50,000 15% $0

50,000 75,000 $7,500+25% 50,000

75,000 100,000 13,750+34% 75,000

100,000 335,000 22,250+39% 100,000

335,000 10,000,000 113,900+34% 335,000

10,000,000 15,000,000 3,400,000+35% 10,000,000

15,000,000 18,333,333 5,150,000+38% 15,000,000

18,333,333 — 35% 0

Tax Rates for Trusts

Amount of unrelated

business taxable income is:

Of the

But not amount

Over– over– Tax is: over–

$0 $1,600 15% $0

1,650 3,900 $247.50+28% 1,650

3,900 5,950 877.50+31% 3,900

5,950 8,100 1,513.00+36% 5,950

8,100 — 2,287.00+39.6% 8,100

Unrelated Debt-financed Income.–Gross income from investment property for which there was acquisition indebtedness outstanding at any time during the tax year was subject to the unrelated business income (UBI) tax. The percentage of investment income to be included as gross UBI was proportional to the ratio of average acquisition indebtedness to the average adjusted basis of the property. Various types of passive income (generally, investment income) were considered to be unrelated debt-financed income, but only if the income arose from property acquired or improved with borrowed funds and if the production of income was unrelated to the organization’s tax-exempt purpose. When any property held for the production of income by an organization was disposed of at a gain during the tax year, and there was acquisition indebtedness outstanding at any time during the 12-month period prior to the date of disposition, the property was considered debt-financed property, and the gain was treated as unrelated debt-financed income. Income from debt-financed property did not include rents from personal property (e.g., computers or furniture) leased with real property, certain passive income (generally, investment income) from controlled organizations, and other amounts that were otherwise included in computing unrelated business taxable income. Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(7), (9), and (17) organizations reported all debt-financed income as “Investment Income (Less Loss).” All other organizations reported debt-financed income separately.

Table 2.–Number of Returns, Gross Unrelated Business Income (UBI),

Total Deductions, Net Income (Less Deficit), Net Income (Taxable

Profit), and Total Tax, by Size of Gross UBI, Tax Year 1997

[All figures are estimates based on samples–money amounts are

in thousands of dollars]

Total

deductions(1,2)

Gross

Number unrelated

Size of gross unrelated of business

business income (UBI) returns income Number

(UBI) of

returns

(1) (2) (3)

Total 39,302 7,808,558 39,070

$1,000 under $10,001(5) 16,468 61,678 16,342

$10,001 under $100,000(5) 15,142 555,131 15,063

$100,000 under $500,000 5,698 1,229,886 5,675

$500,000 under $1,000,000 961 670,903 960

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 842 1,719,188 839

$5,000,000 or more 190 3,571,771 190

Total Net income

deductions(1,2) (less deficit)

Size of gross unrelated

business income (UBI) Number

Amount of Amount

returns(3)

(4) (5) (6)

Total 8,494,930 34,537 -686,374

$1,000 under $10,001(5) 94,498 14,492 -32,820

$10,001 under $100,000(5) 831,609 13,180 -276,478

$100,000 under $500,000 1,667,120 5,080 -437,234

$500,000 under $1,000,000 863,778 854 -192,875

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 1,892,906 761 -173,718

$5,000,000 or more 3,145,019 169 426,752

Total

tax(4)

Net

Size of gross unrelated income

business income (UBI) (taxable Number

profit) of Amount

returns

(7) (8) (9)

Total 1,374,757 20,724 422,740

$1,000 under $10,001(5) 20,250 10,725 3,678

$10,001 under $100,000(5) 100,035 6,717 23,308

$100,000 under $500,000 158,336 2,444 43,358

$500,000 under $1,000,000 80,411 391 24,338

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 264,243 364 86,979

$5,000,000 or more 751,482 82 241,079

(1) Excludes cost of sales and services, which was subtracted from

gross receipts from sales and services in computing gross profit from

sales and services. Gross profit from sales and services was a

component of gross unrelated business income (UBI). Cost of sales and

services can include amounts attributable to depreciation, salaries and

wages, and certain other deductible items. For all exempt organizations

reporting gross UBI, cost of sales and services was $2.0 billion.

(2) Includes both deductions reported on the main part of the tax

return and expense items reported on supporting schedules.

(3) Excludes returns with net income (less deficit) equal to zero.

(4) Total tax is the regular unrelated business income tax after

reduction by any tax credits (foreign tax credit, general business

credit, prior-year minimum tax credit, and other allowable credits),

plus taxes from recapture of certain prior-year credits, the

“alternative minimum tax,” and the “proxy” tax on nondeductible

lobbying and political expenditures. The proxy tax was reported on Form

990-T and was included in total tax; however, it had no connection to

the tax on unrelated business income or an organization’s involvement

in unrelated business activities. For exempt organizations reporting

gross UBI, total proxy tax was $7.2 million.

(5) The gross unrelated business income (UBI) brackets of “$1,000 under

$10,001″ and “$10,001 under $100,000” reflect the different filing

requirements for organizations with gross UBI of $10,000 or less (only

a “partial” return was required) and all other Form 990-T filers (a

more detailed “complete” return was required). Organizations with gross

UBI below $1,000 were not required to file Form 990-T.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Table 3.–Number of Returns, Gross Unrelated Business Income (UBI),

Total Deductions, Net Income (Less Deficit), and Total Tax, by Size

of Net Income (Taxable Profit) or Deficit, Tax Year 1997

[All figures are estimates based on samples

–money amounts are in thousands of dollars]

Gross Total

Number unrelated deductions(1,2)

Size of net income of business

(taxable profit) or deficit returns income Number

(UBI) of Amount

returns

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Total 39,302 7,808,558 39,070 8,494,930

Deficit 13,710 2,964,013 13,710 5,025,143

Zero(5) 4,765 770,049 4,765 770,049

$1 under $1,000 5,680 40,712 5,680 38,134

$1,000 under $10,000 9,114 456,569 8,988 420,718

$10,000 under $100,000 4,992 681,824 4,913 529,645

$100,000 under $500,000 773 605,770 750 442,208

$500,000 under $1,000,000 120 178,028 119 93,859

$1,000,000 or more 148 2,111,592 145 1,175,174

Net income Total

(less deficit) tax(4)

Size of net income

(taxable profit) or deficit Number Number

of Amount of Amount

re- returns

turns(3)

(5) (6) (7) (8)

Total 34,537 -686,374 20,724 422,740

Deficit 13,710 -2,061,130 239 6,063

Zero(5) — — 41 371

$1 under $1,000 5,680 2,578 5,607 387

$1,000 under $10,000 9,114 35,850 8,899 5,989

$10,000 under $100,000 4,992 152,179 4,904 28,654

$100,000 under $500,000 773 163,562 769 52,050

$500,000 under $1,000,000 120 84,169 117 27,807

$1,000,000 or more 148 936,418 147 301,420

(1) Excludes cost of sales and services, which was subtracted from

gross receipts from sales and services in computing gross profit

from sales and services. Gross profit from sales and services was a

component of gross unrelated business income (UBI). Cost of sales

and services can include amounts attributable to depreciation,

salaries and wages, and certain other deductible items. For all

exempt organizations reporting gross UBI, cost of sales and services

was $2.0 billion.

(2) Includes both deductions reported on the main part of the tax

return and expense items reported on supporting schedules.

(3) Excludes returns with net income (less deficit) equal to zero.

(4) Total tax is the regular unrelated business income tax after

reduction by any tax credits (foreign tax credit, general business

credit, prior-year minimum tax credit, and other allowable credits),

plus taxes from recapture of certain prior-year credits, the

“alternative minimum tax,” and the “proxy” tax on nondeductible

lobbying and political expenditures. The proxy tax was reported on

Form 990-T and was included in total tax; however, it had no

connection to the tax on unrelated business income or an

organization’s involvement in unrelated business activities. For

exempt organizations reporting gross UBI, total proxy tax was

$7.2 million.

(5) Includes “breakeven” returns with equal amounts of gross

unrelated business income and total deductions.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Table 4.–Returns with Positive Net Income (Taxable Profit): Number

of Returns, Gross Unrelated Business Income (UBI), Total Deductions,

Net Income (Taxable Profit), and Total Tax, by Type of Organization

and Size of Gross UBI, Tax Year 1997

[All figures are estimates based on samples

–money amounts are in thousands of dollars]

Gross Total

Type of organization and Number unrelated deductions(1,2)

size of gross unrelated of business

business income (UBI) returns income Number

(UBI) of Amount

returns

(1) (2) (3) (4)

ALL ORGANIZATIONS

Total 20,827 4,074,496 20,594 2,699,738

$1,000 under $10,001(4) 10,911 35,762 10,785 15,512

$10,001 under $100,000(4) 6,699 235,858 6,620 135,822

$100,000 under $500,000 2,416 524,405 2,393 366,069

$500,000 under $1,000,000 385 267,499 384 187,088

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 343 691,013 340 426,771

$5,000,000 or more 72 2,319,958 72 1,568,476

TAX-EXEMPT CORPORATIONS

Total 13,420 2,723,522 13,252 2,172,989

$1,000 under $10,001(4) 4,677 20,175 4,571 8,326

$10,001 under $100,000(4) 5,885 210,082 5,836 128,211

$100,000 under $500,000 2,212 478,337 2,201 356,323

$500,000 under $1,000,000 339 234,939 338 182,253

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 268 532,697 267 399,080

$5,000,000 or more 38 1,247,292 38 1,098,796

TAX-EXEMPT TRUSTS

Total 7,407 1,350,974 7,342 526,749

$1,000 under $10,001(4) 6,234 15,587 6,214 7,186

$10,001 under $100,000(4) 814 25,775 783 7,611

$100,000 under $500,000 204 46,068 192 9,746

$500,000 under $1,000,000 46 32,560 46 4,835

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 75 158,317 73 27,691

$5,000,000 or more 34 1,072,666 34 469,680

Total

Type of organization and Net tax(3)

size of gross unrelated income

business income (UBI) (taxable Number

profit) of Amount

returns

(5) (6) (7)

ALL ORGANIZATIONS

Total 1,374,757 20,443 416,306

$1,000 under $10,001(4) 20,250 10,684 3,438

$10,001 under $100,000(4) 100,035 6,597 18,630

$100,000 under $500,000 158,336 2,372 42,979

$500,000 under $1,000,000 80,411 378 24,205

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 264,243 341 86,226

$5,000,000 or more 751,482 71 240,827

TAX-EXEMPT CORPORATIONS

Total 550,532 13,078 152,614

$1,000 under $10,001(4) 11,849 4,470 1,751

$10,001 under $100,000(4) 81,871 5,803 12,826

$100,000 under $500,000 122,014 2,168 30,318

$500,000 under $1,000,000 52,686 332 14,413

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 133,617 267 43,671

$5,000,000 or more 148,496 37 49,636

TAX-EXEMPT TRUSTS

Total 824,224 7,365 263,692

$1,000 under $10,001(4) 8,401 6,214 1,687

$10,001 under $100,000(4) 18,164 794 5,805

$100,000 under $500,000 36,322 204 12,661

$500,000 under $1,000,000 27,725 46 9,793

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 130,626 74 42,556

$5,000,000 or more 602,986 34 191,192

(1) Excludes cost of sales and services, which was subtracted

from gross receipts from sales and services in computing gross

profit from sales and services. Gross profit from sales and

services was a component of gross unrelated business income (UBI).

Cost of sales and services can include amounts attributable to

depreciation, salaries and wages, and certain other deductible

items. For exempt organizations reporting net income (taxable

profit), cost of sales and services was $742.6 million, all of

which was attributable to tax-exempt corporations.

(2) Includes both deductions reported on the main part of the

tax return and expense items reported on supporting schedules.

(3) Total tax is the regular unrelated business income tax after

reduction by any tax credits (foreign tax credit, general business

credit, prior-year minimum tax credit, and other allowable credits),

plus taxes from recapture of certain prior-year credits, the

“alternative minimum tax,” and the “proxy” tax on nondeductible

lobbying and political expenditures. The proxy tax was reported on

Form 990-T and was included in total tax; however, it had no

connection to the tax on unrelated business income or an organization’s

involvement in unrelated business activities. For exempt organizations

reporting positive net income (taxable profit), total proxy tax was

$2.0 million, all of which was attributable to tax-exempt corporations.

(4) The gross unrelated business income (UBI) brackets of “$1,000 under

$10,001″ and “$10,001 under $100,000” reflect the different filing

requirements for organizations with gross UBI of $10,000 or less (only

a “partial” return was required) and all other Form 990-T filers (a

more detailed “complete” return was required). Organizations with gross

UBI below $1,000 were not required to file Form 990-T.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Table 5.–Number of Returns, Gross Unrelated Business Income (UBI),

Total Deductions, Net Income (Less Deficit), Net Income (Taxable

Profit), and Total Tax, by Primary Unrelated Business Activity or

Industrial Grouping, Tax Year 1997

[All figures are estimates based on samples

–money amounts are in thousands of dollars]

Gross Total

Number unrelated deductions(1,2)

Primary unrelated business of business

activity or industrial returns income Number

grouping (UBI) of

returns

(1) (2) (3)

All activities and groupings 39,302 7,808,558 39,070

Agriculture, forestry, and

fishing 346 25,557 346

Mining 209 19,899 209

Construction (*)11 (*)5,388 (*)11

Manufacturing 884 189,993 878

Transportation and public

utilities 446 145,708 446

Wholesale trade 149 5,709 149

Retail trade 3,986 588,346 3,976

Finance, insurance, and real

estate, total 17,433 3,298,025 17,276

Unrelated debt-financed

activities, except rental

of real estate 1,047 166,065 1,046

Investment activities of

Code section 501(c)(7),

(9), and (17)

organizations 4,092 1,447,073 4,044

Rental of personal property 885 66,064 865

Passive income activities

with controlled

organizations 349 37,416 348

Other finance, insurance,

and real estate 11,060 1,581,407 10,974

Services 15,255 3,447,739 15,196

Exploited exempt activities 303 60,333 303

Not allocable 279 21,860 279

Total Net income

deduc- (less deficit)

tions(1,2)

Primary unrelated business

activity or industrial Number

grouping Amount of Amount

re-

turns(3)

(4) (5) (6)

All activities and groupings 8,494,930 34,537 -686,374

Agriculture, forestry, and

fishing 51,925 320 -26,367

Mining 16,436 204 3,463

Construction (*)12,742 (*)11 (*)-7,354

Manufacturing 241,504 593 -51,511

Transportation and public

utilities 201,289 395 -55,581

Wholesale trade 9,109 146 -3,400

Retail trade 832,131 3,726 -243,785

Finance, insurance, and real

estate, total 2,580,985 15,789 717,039

Unrelated debt-financed

activities, except rental

of real estate 84,021 1,041 82,044

Investment activities of

Code section 501(c)(7),

(9), and (17)

organizations 799,671 3,384 647,403

Rental of personal property 88,379 823 -22,315

Passive income activities

with controlled

organizations 45,158 316 -7,742

Other finance, insurance,

and real estate 1,563,757 10,225 17,650

Services 4,463,954 12,888 -1,016,215

Exploited exempt activities 67,592 213 -7,260

Not allocable 17,263 252 4,598

Total

Net tax(4)

Primary unrelated business income

activity or industrial (taxable Number

grouping profit) of Amount

returns

(7) (8) (9)

All activities and groupings 1,374,757 20,724 422,740

Agriculture, forestry, and

fishing 3,788 161 1,217

Mining 6,473 150 1,877

Construction — — —

Manufacturing 19,737 175 6,929

Transportation and public

utilities 10,359 202 2,947

Wholesale trade 1,618 (*)88 (*)374

Retail trade 52,967 1,489 14,637

Finance, insurance, and real

estate, total 1,071,508 12,687 331,274

Unrelated debt-financed

activities, except rental

of real estate 98,250 842 31,477

Investment activities of

Code section 501(c)(7),

(9), and (17)

organizations 659,191 3,131 203,788

Rental of personal property 4,608 414 924

Passive income activities

with controlled

organizations 7,614 257 2,174

Other finance, insurance,

and real estate 301,845 8,043 92,912

Services 194,550 5,485 59,480

Exploited exempt activities 5,153 144 1,202

Not allocable 8,604 144 2,802

(*) Estimate should be used with caution because of the small number

of sample returns on which it is based.

(1) Excludes cost of sales and services, which was subtracted from

gross receipts from sales and services in computing gross profit from

sales and services. Gross profit from sales and services was a

component of gross unrelated business income (UBI). Cost of sales and

services can include amounts attributable to depreciation, salaries

and wages, and certain other deductible items. For all exempt

organizations reporting gross UBI, cost of sales and services was

$20 billion.

(2) Includes both deductions reported on the main part of the tax

return and expense items reported on supporting schedules.

(3) Excludes returns with net income (less deficit) equal to zero.

(4) Total tax is the regular unrelated business income tax after

reduction by any tax credits (foreign tax credit, general business

credit, prior-year minimum tax credit, and other allowable credits),

plus taxes from recapture of certain prior-year credits, the

“alternative minimum tax,” and the “proxy” tax on nondeductible

lobbying and political expenditures. The proxy tax was reported

on Form 990-T and was included in total tax; however, it had no

connection to the tax on unrelated business income or an

organization’s involvement in unrelated business activities. For

exempt organizations reporting gross UBI, total proxy tax was

$7.2 million.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Table 6.–Sources of Gross Unrelated Business Income (UBI),

by Size of Gross UBI, Tax Year 1997

[All figures are estimates based on samples

–money amounts are in thousands of dollars]

Sources of gross

unrelated business

income (UBI)(1)

Gross unrelated Gross profit (less

Size of gross unrelated business income loss) from sales

business income (UBI) (UBI) and services

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(1) (2) (3) (4)

Total 39,302 7,808,558 16,256 3,718,354

$1,000 under $10,001(2) 16,468 61,678 3,406 13,587

$10,001 or more, total(2,3) 22,834 7,746,879 12,850 3,704,767

$10,001 under $100,000(2) 15,142 555,131 7,866 261,038

$100,000 under $500,000 5,698 1,229,886 3,691 658,924

$500,000 under $1,000,000 961 670,903 627 348,263

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 842 1,719,188 548 867,863

$5,000,000 or more 190 3,571,771 117 1,568,679

Sources of gross unrelated business

income (UBI)(1)

Capital gain Net capital loss

Size of gross unrelated net income (trusts only)

business income (UBI)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(5) (6) (7) (8)

Total 1,018 548,639 41 139

$1,000 under $10,001(2) 288 1,089 (*)21 (*)62

$10,001 or more, total(2,3) 730 547,550 21 77

$10,001 under $100,000(2) 374 10,585 (*)5 (*)15

$100,000 under $500,000 202 30,389 (*)7 (*)21

$500,000 under $1,000,000 40 17,480 3 24

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 82 100,434 6 18

$5,000,000 or more 32 388,664 — —

Sources of gross unrelated business

income (UBI)(1)

Net gain (less loss), Income (less loss)

Size of gross unrelated sales of noncapital from partnerships

business income (UBI) assets(4)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(9) (10) (11) (12)

Total 401 11,995 7,229 286,078

$1,000 under $10,001(2) (*)124 (*)80 5,804 13,347

$10,001 or more, total(2,3) 277 11,915 1,425 272,731

$10,001 under $100,000(2) 134 576 944 19,741

$100,000 under $500,000 92 2,131 270 23,667

$500,000 under $1,000,000 17 213 65 13,913

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 28 10,071 108 57,405

$5,000,000 or more 6 -1,077 38 158,006

Sources of gross unrelated business

income (UBI)(1)

Rental Unrelated debt-

Size of gross unrelated income(5) financed income

business income (UBI)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(13) (14) (15) (16)

Total 4,057 158,696 2,852 300,684

$1,000 under $10,001(2) 1,288 5,957 876 3,152

$10,001 or more, total(2,3) 2,770 152,739 1,976 297,532

$10,001 under $100,000(2) 1,992 39,152 1,227 37,112

$100,000 under $500,000 569 45,572 526 66,797

$500,000 under $1,000,000 109 23,218 98 33,391

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 88 36,047 103 100,099

$5,000,000 or more 12 8,749 22 60,132

Sources of gross unrelated business

income (UBI)(1)

Investment income Income from

Size of gross unrelated (less loss)(6) controlled

business income (UBI) organizations(7)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(17) (18) (19) (20)

Total

6,360 976,929 1,241 75,052

$1,000 under $10,001(2) 2,899 9,326 298 548

$10,001 or more, total(2,3) 3,461 967,604 943 74,504

$10,001 under $100,000(2) 2,094 31,241 605 9,712

$100,000 under $500,000 1,088 70,563 238 15,686

$500,000 under $1,000,000 141 43,514 43 6,389

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 107 120,024 43 20,669

$5,000,000 or more 32 702,261 13 22,048

Sources of gross unrelated business

income (UBI)(1)

Exploited exempt Advertising

Size of gross unrelated activity income, income

business income (UBI) except advertising

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(21) (22) (23) (24)

Total

1,014 124,203 8,178 1,159,773

$1,000 under $10,001(2) 152 601 2,713 11,730

$10,001 or more, total(2,3) 863 123,603 5,465 1,148,043

$10,001 under $100,000(2) 456 8,958 3,475 94,100

$100,000 under $500,000 257 25,557 1,453 213,894

$500,000 under $1,000,000 76 22,042 263 121,193

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 62 41,924 222 270,422

$5,000,000 or more 11 25,122 52 448,434

Sources of gross unrelated business

income (UBI)(1)

Other income

Size of gross unrelated (less loss)

business income (UBI)

Number

of Amount

returns

(25) (26)

Total

5,168 448,292

$1,000 under $10,001(2) 1,063 2,324

$10,001 or more, total(2,3) 4,104 445,969

$10,001 under $100,000(2) 2,601 42,932

$100,000 under $500,000 1,109 76,727

$500,000 under $1,000,000 203 41,309

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 157 94,248

$5,000,000 or more 33 190,752

(*) Estimate should be used with caution because of the small number

of sample returns on which it is based.

(1) For definitions of the sources of gross unrelated business

income, see the Explanation of Selected Terms section of this article.

(2) The gross unrelated business income (UBI) brackets of “$1,000

under $10,001″ and “$10,001 under $100,000” reflect the different

filing requirements for organizations with gross UBI of $10,000 or

less (only a “partial” return was required) and all other Form 990-T

filers (a more detailed “complete” return was required). Organizations

with gross UBI below $1,000 were not required to file Form 990-T.

(3) All organizations were required to report each income item, as

shown in columns 3 through 26. However, only organizations with gross

UBI over $10,000 were required to report each deduction shown in

columns 14 through 45, 48, 49, and 54 through 59 of Table 7. Income

totals for these larger organizations with gross UBI over $10,000

are shown in order to facilitate comparison with Table 7.

(4) Property other than capital assets generally included property of

a business nature, in contrast to personal and investment property,

which were capital assets.

(5) Income from real property and personal property leased with real

property.

(6) Reported by Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(7), (9), and

(17) organizations only.

(7) Annuities, interest, rents, and royalties.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Table 7.–Types of Deductions, by Size of Gross Unrelated

Business Income, Tax Year 1997

(All figures are estimates based on samples–money amounts are

in thousands of dollars)

All organizations

Total Total

Size of gross unrelated number deductions(1,2)

business income (UBI) of

returns Number

of Amount

returns

(1) (2) (3)

Total 39,302 39,070 8,494,930

$1,000 under $10,001(3) 16,468 16,342 94,498

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 15,142 15,063 831,609

$100,000 under $500,000 5,698 5,675 1,667,120

$500,000 under $1,000,000 961 960 863,778

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 842 839 1,892,906

$5,000,000 or more 190 190 3,145,019

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) of $10,000 or less(3)

Size of gross unrelated Total Net operating

business income (UBI) deductions(2,4) loss carryover

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(4) (5) (6) (7)

Total 16,342 94,498 1,663 36,703

$1,000 under $10,001(3) 16,342 94,498 1,663 36,703

$10,001 under $100,000(3) — — — —

$100,000 under $500,000 — — — —

$500,000 under $1,000,000 — — — —

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 — — — —

$5,000,000 or more — — — —

Organizations Organization with

with gross gross unrelated

unrelated business income

business income (UBI) over

(UBI) of $10,000(3)

$10,000 or

less(3)

Size of gross unrelated Specific Total

business income (UBI) deduction deductions(2,5)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(8) (9) (10) (11)

Total 11,658 11,150 22,728 8,400,432

$1,000 under $10,001(3) 11,658 11,150 — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) — — 15,063 831,609

$100,000 under $500,000 — — 5,675 1,667,120

$500,000 under $1,000,000 — — 960 863,778

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 — — 839 1,892,906

$5,000,000 or more — — 190 3,145,019

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Allocable to

Size of gross unrelated Total rental

business income (UBI) income(6)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(12) (13) (14) (15)

Total 21,163 7,663,150 1,135 91,699

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 13,777 800,374 773 19,047

$100,000 under $500,000 5,492 1,590,450 248 33,603

$500,000 under $1,000,000 917 811,479 56 14,783

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 803 1,767,338 49 19,651

$5,000,000 or more 177 2,693,509 9 4,615

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Allocable to

unrelated Allocable to

Size of gross unrelated debt-financed investment

business income (UBI) income(6) income(6,7)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(16) (17) (18) (19)

Total 1,769 279,892 1,011 233,228

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 1,084 38,368 447 2,357

$100,000 under $500,000 474 65,527 428 4,620

$500,000 under $1,000,000 94 31,113 65 2,297

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 96 87,806 62 9,176

$5,000,000 or more 20 57,078 9 214,777

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Allocable to Allocable to

income from exploited exempt

Size of gross unrelated controlled activity income

business income (UBI) organizations(6) except advertising(6)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(20) (21) (22) (23)

Total 397 55,642 759 113,305

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 230 5,974 396 7,306

$100,000 under $500,000 113 9,097 228 23,850

$500,000 under $1,000,000 19 3,498 70 20,001

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 27 15,816 56 36,521

$5,000,000 or more 8 21,257 10 25,628

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Direct Compensation

Size of gross unrelated advertising officers, directors

business income (UBI) costs(6) and trustees

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(24) (25) (26) (27)

Total 5,063 844,289 2,057 47,109

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 3,196 80,411 1,174 11,410

$100,000 under $500,000 1,353 167,250 639 13,721

$500,000 under $1,000,000 253 87,911 111 4,747

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 212 193,915 105 5,980

$5,000,000 or more 49 314,802 28 11,252

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Size of gross unrelated Salaries and wages Repairs

business income (UBI)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(28) (29) (30) (31)

Total 10,263 1,127,514 7,219 75,106

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 5,882 107,702 4,295 12,675

$100,000 under $500,000 3,238 284,485 2,161 23,567

$500,000 under $1,000,000 554 130,254 393 9,064

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 488 304,247 304 17,365

$5,000,000 or more 101 300,826 66 12,436

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Size of gross unrelated Bad debts Interest

business income (UBI)

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(32) (33) (34) (35)

Total 769 27,897 2,743 67,894

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 220 330 1,418 5,660

$100,000 under $500,000 335 2,432 969 13,193

$500,000 under $1,000,000 83 2,552 177 6,843

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 96 11,221 142 23,440

$5,000,000 or more 35 11,362 37 18,758

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Taxes and

Size of gross unrelated licenses paid Depreciation

business income (UBI) deduction

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(36) (37) (38) (39)

Total 11,146 173,560 7,627 154,442

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 7,106 24,751 4,552 18,983

$100,000 under $500,000 3,125 62,202 2,234 43,938

$500,000 under $1,000,000 466 24,589 396 18,571

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 366 26,596 360 37,824

$5,000,000 or more 83 35,422 84 35,126

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Contributions

Size of gross unrelated Depletion to deferred

business income (UBI) compensation plans

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(40) (41) (42) (43)

Total 76 4,128 819 9,016

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) (*)39 (*)238 359 341

$100,000 under $500,000 34 2,519 312 1,452

$500,000 under $1,000,000 — — 78 1,071

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 4 1,371 57 1,897

$5,000,000 or more 4 1,371 13 4,254

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Contributions Net operating

Size of gross unrelated to employee loss

business income (UBI) benefit plans carryover

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(44) (45) (46) (47)

Total 4,453 131,340 6,102 1,695,144

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 2,002 6,304 3,618 308,512

$100,000 under $500,000 1,677 22,718 1,779 502,607

$500,000 under $1,000,000 356 15,368 305 236,306

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 343 38,217 329 381,600

$5,000,000 or more 75 48,732 70 266,119

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Deductions not

directly connected

Size of gross unrelated Other deductions with UBI

business income (UBI)

Total

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(48) (49) (50) (51)

Total 14,108 2,531,944 12,528 737,281

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 8,739 150,004 8,392 31,234

$100,000 under $500,000 3,965 313,671 3,068 76,670

$500,000 under $1,000,000 682 202,510 521 52,298

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 591 555,859 444 125,568

$5,000,000 or more 131 1,309,900 103 451,511

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Size of gross unrelated Specific Contributions

business income (UBI) deduction

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(52) (53) (54) (55)

Total 10,123 9,736 1,697 42,694

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 6,935 6,602 1,078 4,616

$100,000 under $500,000 2,421 2,373 454 7,828

$500,000 under $1,000,000 367 364 75 2,107

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 330 327 68 3,833

$5,000,000 or more 69 69 22 24,309

Organizations with gross

unrelated business income

(UBI) over $10,000(3)

Deductions directly connected UBI

Size of gross unrelated Set-asides(7) Excess exempt

business income (UBI) expenses

Number Number

of Amount of Amount

returns returns

(56) (57) (58) (59)

Total 452 436,733 2,301 248,118

$1,000 under $10,001(3) — — — —

$10,001 under $100,000(3) 239 4,476 1,284 15,540

$100,000 under $500,000 128 24,544 680 41,924

$500,000 under $1,000,000 41 21,048 159 28,779

$1,000,000 under $5,000,000 29 53,370 142 68,037

$5,000,000 or more 15 333,295 36 93,838

(*) Estimate should be used with caution because of the small number

of sample returns on which it is based.

(1) Excludes cost of sales and services, which was subtracted from

gross receipts from sales and services in computing gross profit from

sales and services. Gross profit from sales and services was a

component of gross unrelated business income (UBI). Cost of sales

and services can include amounts attributable to depreciation,

salaries and wages, and certain other deductible items. For all

exempt organizations reporting gross UBI, cost of sales and services

was $2.0 billion.

(2) Includes both deductions reported on the main part of the tax

return and expense items reported on supporting schedules.

(3) Organizations with gross UBI between $1,000 (the filing

threshold) and $10,000 were required to report only totals for

expenses and deductions (except for the specific deduction and

net operating loss carryover, which all organizations reported

separately). Organizations with gross UBI over $10,000 were

required to report each expense and deduction item separately,

as shown in columns 14 through 45, 48, 49, and 54 through 59.

(4) Excludes $56.9 million of cost of sales and services reported

by organizations with gross UBI of $10,000 or less. See footnote 1

for explanation.

(5) Excludes $1.9 billion of cost of sales and services reported

by organizations with gross UBI over $10,000. See footnote 1 for

explanation.

(6) This deduction was required to be reported as a lump-sum total

only and may have included component deductions that were of the

same type shown elsewhere in this table. For example, if deductions

“allocable to rental income” included depreciation, then that

amount of depreciation would not be included in the separately

reported item, “depreciation.” Therefore, the total amount shown

for some of the separately reported deductions may be understated.

(7) Reported by Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(7), (9),

and (17) organizations only.

NOTE: Detail may not add to totals because of rounding.

Notes and References

[1] Churches, which are tax-exempt under section 501(c)(3), are not required to apply for exemption unless they desire to obtain an Internal Revenue Service ruling, and they do not have to file a Form 990 information return. Private foundations and certain charitable trusts file an information return on Form 990-PF, Return of Private Foundation or Section 4947(a)(1) Nonexempt Charitable Trust Treated as a Private Foundation. For the most recent Form 990 annual data on organizations tax-exempt under Internal Revenue Code sections 501(c)(3) (excluding private foundations and most religious organizations) through 501(c)(9), see Amsberger, Paul, “Charities and Other Nonprofit Organizations, 1997,” Statistics of Income Bulletin, Fall 2000, Volume 20, Number 2. For the most recent annual data on private foundations, see Whitten, Melissa, “Domestic Private Foundations and Charitable Trusts, 1996-1997,” Statistics of Income Bulletin, Fall 2000, Volume 20, Number 2. Internal Revenue Code section 4947(a)(1) “nonexempt charitable trusts” and section 4947(a)(2) “split-interest trusts” are required to report unrelated business income on Form 1041, Estate and Trust Income Tax Return, rather than Form 990-T. Information on nonexempt charitable trusts can be found in Whitten, cited above. For results of a new SOI study of certain types of split-interest trusts, which file Form 5227, Return of Split-interest Trust, see Belvedere, Melissa J., “Charitable Remainder Trusts, 1998,” Statistics of Income Bulletin, Winter 2000-2001, Volume 21, Number 3.

[2] While most tax-exempt organizations are required to file a Form 990/990EZ information return each year, Form 990-T is required to be filed only for a year in which a tax-exempt organization has unrelated business income.

[3] The term “charitable” refers to tax-exempt organizations with purposes that are charitable, educational, scientific, literary, or religious in nature, or organizations that test for public safety or prevent cruelty to children or animals. The term also covers organizations that otherwise qualified for tax-exempt status under the Income Tax Regulations issued for Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3).

[4] The $2.0 billion in costs of sales and services are not included in total deductions. These costs are subtracted from gross receipts from sales and services prior to computing gross unrelated business income on Form 990-T.

[5] Taxes other than UBIT can also include “recapture taxes” (such as from recomputation of prior-year investment or low-income housing credits), but none were reported on Forms 990-T for 1997. Credits against tax included the foreign tax credit, general business credit, prior-year minimum tax credit, and other credits (such as the U.S. possessions tax credit, nonconventional source fuel credit, and qualified electric vehicle credit).

[6] For example, the investment portfolios of nonprofit trusts are usually overseen by only one or two trust managers, so deductions for salaries and wages, a significant deduction item for many corporate nonprofit entities, are relatively small, resulting in higher taxable income.

[7] For information on the National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities classification system, see Hodgkinson, Virginia A.; Weitzman, Murray S.; et.al., Nonprofit Almanac, 1996-1997: Dimensions of the Independent Sector, Jossey-Bass, Inc., 1996; Stevenson, David R.; Pollak, Thomas H.; and Lampkin, Linda M.; et.al., State Nonprofit Almanac 1997: Profiles of Charitable Organizations, The Urban Institute, 1997; and The National Taxonomy of Exempt Entities Manual, The Urban Institute, 1997.

[8] In addition to Forms 990, the section 501(c)(3) sample included Forms 990-EZ (Short Form Return of Organization Exempt From Income Tax) which could be filed by smaller organizations (those with annual gross receipts of less than $100,000 and total end-of-year assets of less than $250,000). A small number of these returns matched Forms 990-T in the integrated sample, but they were excluded from the analysis because they did not contain all of the detailed financial data items reported on Form 990 that are needed for comparison with Form 990-T financial data. (Some items that were required to be reported separately on Form 990 were allowed to be lumped together in an “other” category on the Form 990-EZ, such as “other income.”)

[9] For additional information on the Form 990 and Form 990-T integrated sample design, see Harte, James M. and Hilgert, Cecelia H., “Enriching One Sample While Improving Another: Linking Differently Stratified Samples of Documents Filed by Exempt Organizations,” Statistics of Income: Turning Administrative Systems Into Information Systems, 1993.

[10] The Form 990 sample weights, rather than the Form 990-T sample weights, were used to produce matched Forms 990/990-T population estimates presented in this section of the article. The matched data represent Form 990-T information reported only by the organizations whose returns were selected for the section 501(c)(3) Form 990 sample. Some tax-exempt organizations file Form 990-T but do not file Form 990. See footnote 11, items (2), (3), and (4), for a description of these organizations. Form 990-T sample weights were used to produce the estimates presented elsewhere in this article. Because Figure C is based on Form 990 sample weights, and the statistics presented in all other sections of this article are based on Form 990-T sample weights, data in Figure C are not comparable to the data shown in Figure A or Tables 1 through 7. For detailed information on Statistics of Income sampling methodology for producing population estimates, see the general appendix, located near the back of this issue of the Bulletin, particularly the Sample Criteria and Selection of Returns section and the Method of Estimation section. See, also, the Data Sources and Limitations section of this article.

[11] Some reasons why the estimates of matched Form 990-T filings shown in Figure C (produced using Form 990 sample weights) are lower than the estimates of overall Form 990-T filings shown in Table 1 (produced using Form 990-T sample weights) are (1) Forms 990-T and matching “short” Forms 990-EZ that were part of the integrated samples were excluded from the matched-return analysis (see footnote 8); (2) some organizations filed a Form 990-T, but did not file a Form 990 because their gross receipts were below the $25,000 Form 990 filing threshold; (3) churches, which are tax-exempt under Internal Revenue Code section 501(c)(3), are not required to file Form 990 or Form 990-EZ, but are required to file Form 990-T if they had unrelated business income; and (4) private foundations, which are tax-exempt under section 501(c)(3), file Form 990-PF, not Form 990; therefore, a Form 990-T filed by a private foundation would not have a matching record in the Form 990 sample.

[12] For more information on the NTEE classification of all section 501(c)(3) organizations filing Forms 990, see Arnsberger, cited in footnote 1.

[13] For an explanation of the Form 990 section 501(c)(3) sample, see the Data Sources and Limitations section in Arnsberger, cited in footnote 1.

Appendix

Types of Tax-Exempt Organizations Subject to the Unrelated Business

Income Tax Provisions, by Internal Revenue Code Section

Code

section Description of organization

220(e) Medical Savings Accounts (USA’s)

401(a) Qualified pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus plans

408(e) Individual Retirement Arrangements (IRA’s)

501(c)(2) Title-holding corporations for exempt organizations

(3) Religious, educational, charitable, scientific, or

literary organizations; testing for public safety

organizations. Also, organizations preventing cruelty

to children or animals, or fostering national or

international amateur sports competition

(4) Civic leagues, social welfare organizations, and local

associations of employees

(5) Labor, agricultural, and horticultural organizations

(6) Business leagues, chambers of commerce, real estate

boards, and like organizations

(7) Social and recreational clubs

(8) Fraternal beneficiary societies and associations

(9) Voluntary employees’ beneficiary associations

(including Federal employees’ voluntary beneficiary

associations formerly covered by section 501(c)(10))

(10) Domestic fraternal societies and associations

(11) Teachers’ retirement fund associations

(12) Benevolent life insurance associations, mutual ditch or

irrigation companies, mutual or cooperative telephone

companies, and like organizations

(13) Cemetery companies

(14) State-chartered credit unions and mutual insurance or

reserve funds

(15) Mutual insurance companies or associations other

than life, if written premiums for the year do not

exceed $350,000

(16) Corporations organized to finance crop operations

(17) Supplemental unemployment benefit trusts

(18) Employee-funded pension trusts (created before June

25, 1959)

(19) Posts or organizations of past or present members of

the armed forces

(21) Black Lung Benefit Trusts

(22) Withdrawal liability payment funds

(23) Associations of past and present members of the

armed forces founded before 1880

(24) Trusts described in section 4049 of the Employee

Retirement Income Security Act of 1974

(25) Title-holding corporations or trusts with no more than

35 shareholders or beneficiaries and only one class of

stock or beneficial interest

plans; or governmental units

Code

section General nature of activities

220(e) Fiduciary agent for accounts used in conjunction with

high-deductible health plans to save funds for future

medical expenses.

401(a) Fiduciary agent for pension, profit-sharing, or stock

bonus plans

408(e) Fiduciary agent for retirement funds

501(c)(2) Holding title to property for exempt organizations

(3) Activities of a nature implied by the description of

the class of organization

(4) Promotion of community welfare and activities from

which net earnings are devoted to charitable,

educational, or recreational purposes

(5) Educational or instructive groups whose purpose is

to improve conditions of work, products, and

efficiency

(6) Improving conditions in one or more lines of business

(7) Pleasure, recreation, and social activities

(8) Lodge providing for payment of life, health, accident,

or other insurance benefits to members

(9) Providing for payment of life, health, accident, or

other insurance benefits to members

(10) Lodges, societies, or associations devoting their net

earnings to charitable, fraternal, and other specified

purposes, without life, health, accident, or other

insurance benefits to members

(11) Fiduciary association providing for payment of

retirement benefits

(12) Activities of a mutually beneficial nature implied by

the description of the class of organization

(13) Arranging for burials and incidental related activities

(14) Providing loans to members or providing insurance

of, or reserve funds for, shares or depoits in certain

banks or loan associations

(15) Providing insurance to members, substantially at

cost

(16) Financing crop operations in conjunction with

activities of a marketing or purchasing association

(17) Fiduciary agent for payment of supplemental

(18) Providing for payments of benefits under a pension

plan funded by employees

(19) Activities implied by the nature of the organization

(21) Created by coal mine operators to satisfy their

liability for disability or death due to black lung

disease

(22) Providing funds to meet the liability of employers

withdrawing from a multiemployer pension fund

(23) Providing insurance and other benefits to veterans or

their dependents

(24) Providing funds for employee retirement income

(25) Acquiring real property and remitting all income

earned from such property to one or more exempt

organizations; pension, profit-sharing, or stock bonus

plans; or governmental units

NOTE: Prepaid legal service funds, described in section 501(c)(20)

of the Internal Revenue Code, were no longer tax-exempt effective

with tax years beginning after June 30, 1992.

Margaret Riley is a statistician with the Special Studies Special Projects Section. This article was prepared under the direction of Michael Alexander, Chief.

COPYRIGHT 2001 U.S. Government Printing Office

COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group