Wisconsin Mineral

Wisconsin Mineral

William S. Cordua

Locality Index

This is Wisconsin’s sesquicentennial year. In addition to dairy farms, breweries, bratwurst, and Packers football, Wisconsin also has a diverse geology and a history rich in mineral production. This compilation of the state’s mineral localities is part of its sesquicentennial celebration.

Much of Wisconsin’s settlement was initially spurred by the lead-zinc mining in its southwest corner, a heritage preserved by the figure of a miner on its state seal. Its mineral localities, however, are not well known beyond its borders. Many of them are now nearly forgotten, abandoned, and overgrown. In this respect, Wisconsin represents a frontier state for the mineral collector. A renaissance in the study of the state’s minerals is now underway with the discovery of high-quality minerals from several new localities, including the Flambeau copper mine near Ladysmith (Rosemeyer 1995), the Vulcan Materials quarry in Racine (Scovil 1994), the pegmatites of Florence County (Koehler 1989) and the Wausau area (Falster 1987), and the metavolcanic rocks near Stevens Point (Buchholz 1996).

This index summarizes and highlights what has been found in Wisconsin in the past 150 years and points the way to new discoveries. In this respect, old references are valued as prospecting clues, even if the originally described outcrop is no longer available. This is also why reference is made to orebodies now known only from drill-core data. These are the localities of the future.

The author presents this information with several disclaimers. Inclusion of a locality in this index in no way grants collectors access to that site. The author advises collectors to obtain permission from the property owners before going on any property. The author does not guarantee that the listed materials at any locality can still be found. The author further advises collectors to take all appropriate safety precautions in field collecting and to follow the American Federation code of ethics when collecting. Any errors in fact are the author’s responsibility. In gathering so much specific information, there are abundant chances for misprints and typos, despite everyone’s best efforts. The author would appreciate hearing of errors or additions to this listing.

Wisconsin’s geology spans more than 3 billion years. Several good references for the general reader on Wisconsin’s geology are books by LaBerge (1994), Paull and Paull (1977), and Crowns (1976). Wisconsin is divided into several clearly defined geologic provinces, each with its own set of mineral-forming environments. The provinces are arranged in the overall structure of an arch, with the oldest rocks appearing in the central and northern parts (fig. 2).

[Figure 2 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

The legs of the arch consist of Paleozoic sedimentary rocks, dominantly limestones, dolostones, and sandstones deposited in a shallow sea. These wrap around the eastern, southern, and western portions of the state. Vuggy carbonate rocks in this sequence may yield interesting crystal combinations of such attractive but common minerals as quartz, calcite, pyrite, and marcasite. A major mining district, the Upper Mississippi Valley zinc-lead district, was in these rocks in the southwestern portion of the state, primarily in Grant, Iowa, and Lafayette Counties, where coarse galena, sphalerite, marcasite, calcite, barite, and copper minerals were found. Mining in this district ceased in the late 1970s.

A branch of the Middle Proterozoic (1.1 billion years old) Mid-Continental (Keweenawan) Rift crops out across the northwest portion of the state. It includes basaltic volcanic rocks, gabbros, and overlying sediments similar to those exposed in Michigan’s famous Keweenaw Peninsula. Many of the minerals (copper, prehnite, laumontite, and datolite) found in the Upper Peninsula of Michigan also occur in Wisconsin. The major difference is that no significant economic shows of copper were ever found in these rocks in Wisconsin.

Middle Proterozoic (1.5 billion years old) granitic and syenitic rocks occur in central Wisconsin. Some of these rocks are pegmatitic and yield an interesting and diverse group of rare minerals (phenakite, cheralite, pyrochlore, and zircon), particularly in the Wausau area of Marathon County (Falster 1987).

Middle Proterozoic quartzites (1.6 billion years old?) of the Baraboo interval occur scattered throughout the state. They contain vugs with quartz crystals and occasionally such other minerals as hematite roses, brookite, and rutile.

The Wisconsin Magmatic Terrane, an Early Proterozoic sequence of metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, crops out across central Wisconsin. Many important massive sulfide bodies have recently been found there (LaBerge 1996). One deposit, the Flambeau mine near Ladysmith, has already been mined. Other deposits are being explored for future mining. Chalcocite, chalcopyrite, gold, azurite, malachite, cuprite, sphalerite, silver, pyrite, and pyrrhotite occur here, along with such exotic species as pyrarygyrite, krennerite, dzahlindite, and kolbeckite.

To the north a different early Proterozoic metasedimentary sequence contains argillites, schist, marbles, and iron formations. A major iron range, the Gogebic Range, extends into Wisconsin from Michigan. The Montreal mine, now abandoned, produced fantastic specimens from its underground workings, including well-crystallized hematite, goethite, manganite, barite, pyrolusite, and manganocalcite (Dickey 1938; LaBerge 1984).

Archean rocks (2.5-3.2 billion years old) locally crop out. Most are gneisses and amphibolites; some are iron formations, such as that worked near Black River Falls from 1969 to 1986. Coarse crystalline almandine, talc, magnetite, and various amphiboles came from this deposit (Jones 1978a).

The state is justly famous for its glacial drift deposits and landforms. While often the bane of bedrock collectors, the drift deposits produce many interesting specimens. Lake Superior agates abound in the glacial debris and can be found almost anywhere. Large chunks of float copper, some weighing more than 8,000 pounds, have been found, as have drift diamonds (Cannon and Mudrey 1981).

The author has additional details and references on Wisconsin’s minerals. He is also working to build a reference mineral collection for the state that will be a permanent part of the geology collections at the University of Wisconsin–River Falls. He maintains a Web site on Wisconsin minerals that is accessible at the URL http://www.uwrf.edu/~wc01/Wisc Min.html, and he welcomes correspondence on any and all aspects of Wisconsin mineralogy.

The index is arranged county by county (fig. 1). Where possible, township and range coordinates are given. Minerals of particular collector interest are italicized.

[Figure 1 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The author gratefully acknowledges the aid of many people and organizations in producing this index, including the Wisconsin State Geological and Natural History Survey, the Chalmer-Davee Library at the University of Wisconsin–River Falls, Tom Buchholz, Pete Rodewald, Gary Richards, Lance Hampel, F. John Barlow, Gene LaBerge, Lloyd Brown, Al Falster, Casey Jones, Carl Cochrane, Art Smith, Al Kidwell, Peter Modreski, and Steve Koehler. I apologize for any I may have omitted.

Adams County

Hamilton Mound. A quarry is located in the NE 1/4 sec. 36 T.20N. R.6E.: potassium feldspar, quartz (massive and crystals), schorl (Greenberg et al. 1986).

Ashland County

Ballou Creek. Outcrops of iron formation occur on Hwy. MM at Ballou Creek in the NW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 11 T.44N. R.2W.: grunerite, hematite, magnetite, minnesotaite, siderite (Laybourn 1979).

Berkshire mine, Mt. Whittlesey. An abandoned mine in the SE 1/4 sec. 9 T.44N.R.2W. exposes banded iron formation: ankerite, chlorite, dolomite, garnet (almandine?), grunerite, hematite, magnetite, quartz, siderite, talc (La Berge 1979a; Laybourn 1979).

Hanna test pit. A pit was dug in an iron formation in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 18 T.44N. R.3W.: almandine, ferroaugite, grunerite, magnetite, orthopyroxene (Laybourn 1979).

Loon Lake quarries. Active quarries near Mellen (NE, SW, and SE sec. 29 T.45N. R.2W.) expose coarse anorthosite: biotite, clinopyroxene, hornblende, ilmenite, magnetite, orthopyroxene, plagioclase, zircon (Wilcox 1936; Klewin 1987).

Markle Drive outcrops. Outcrops on the east side of Markle Memorial Drive, 1 mile west of Potter Lake picnic access, expose a Proterozoic iron formation converted to a hornfels at the contact with the Mellen gabbro complex: apatite, fayalite, ferroaugite, grunerite, orthopyroxene (Laybourn 1979).

Mineral Lake sulfide orebody. Poorly exposed ore associated with the Mellen gabbro complex occurs in N 1/2 sec. 30 and E 1/2 sec. 21 T.45N. R.4W.: chalcopyrite, cubanite, pentlandite, pyrrhotite, pyrite (Bakheit 1981).

Mineral Lake lookout tower. Outcrops of Proterozoic iron formation occur in the NE 1/4 sec. 24 T.44N. R.4W.: actinolite, biotite, ferroaugite, grunerite, magnetite, orthopyroxene (Laybourn 1979).

Quarry Road quarry. A water-filled quarry and nearby spoils heap are in anorthositic gabbro NW 1/4 sec. 4 T.44N. R.3W. about 10 miles west of Mellen: augite, bomite, chalcopyrite, hornblende, ilmenite, laumontite, molybdenite, plagioclase, pyrite.

Bayfieid County

18 Mile Creek outcrops. Amygduloidal metabasalt crops out in the south halves of sec. 4 and sec. 5 T.44N. R.6W.: augite, bornite, chlorite, epidote, heulandite, malachite, natrolite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pumpellyite, quartz, (massive and small pink to orange agates) (La Point 1976).

Grandview marble quarry. This quarry exposes Proterozoic dolomitic marble cross-cut by diabase dikes in the NW 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 22 T.44N. R.15W.: calcite, chalcopyrite, malachite, quartz, tremolite (La Berge 1979b).

Hwy. 27 roadcut. This road cut exposes amygdaloidal metabasalts in the NE 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 32 T.44N. R.9W.: augite, chlorite, epidote, natrolite, pectolite, plagioclase, prehnite, quartz.

Montrose copper prospects. Old prospects in metabasalt lava flows were dug in the NW 1/4 sec. 12 T.44N. R.9W.: calcite, chlorite, copper, epidote, laumontite, prehnite, quartz (Grant 1901).

Buffalo County

County M quarry. This quarry is on County Route M, approximately 1.5 miles north of Bluff Siding (NW 1/4 sec. 30 T.19N. R.10W.): calcite (fluorescent), dolomite, goethite, marcasite, quartz.

Chippewa County

Jim Falls. Precambrian rocks crop out along the Chippewa River in the E 1/2 sec. 30 T.30N. R.7W.: almandine, biotite, chlorite, epidote, hornblende, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz (Myers et al. 1974).

Clark County

Long Branch quarry. This working quarry south of Hwy. 29, midway between Thorp and Stanley (SW 1/4 sec. 34, T.29N. R.4W.) exposes interlayered gneiss and biotite-quartz schist cut by aplitic granite, granitic pegmatite, and tonalite: actinolite, biotite, chlorite, epidote, hornblende, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyrite (Van Wyck 1995).

Crawford County

Copper Creek mine. Long-abandoned workings exist in the W 1/2 sec. 25 T.10N. R.5E. west of Mt. Sterling: azurite, chalcocite?, malachite (Heyl and West 1982).

Plum Creek copper mine. Long-abandoned workings exist along Plum Creek and Otter Creek near Wauzeka (SE 1/4 SW 1/4 sec. 26 T.8N. R.5W.): azurite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, malachite (Heyl and West 1982).

Steuben quarry. Dolostone is quarried along Walker Hill Road, west of Steuben (SE 1/4 sec. 13 T.8N. R.5W.): calcite, dolomite, goethite (pseudomorphous after large pyrite and marcasite crystals), marcasite, pyrite, quartz (P. Burgess, pers. com.).

Dodge County

Ghost Hill Road quarry. This quarry, in sec. 25 T.10N. R.14E., exposes Ordovician carbonates: calcite, dolomite, goethite, marcasite, pyrite (sulfides in weathered veins up to 30 cm thick) (Brown and Maas 1992).

Iron Ridge mines. Outcrops and deserted iron mines around Iron Ridge expose Ordovician politic sedimentary iron ore. The complex mineralogy is due to recrystallization and ground-water reprecipitation of iron and phosphorus minerals. Most of the minerals are extremely fine grained. Mining began in the area in 1849 and lasted until 1915. The largest mine was the Iron Ridge (or Neda mine or Oliver mine) located in the E 1/2 NW sec. 13 T.11N. R.16E. It is owned by the University of Wisconsin–Milwaukee geology department and is now a bat hibernaculum: allophane, anorthoclase, biotite, calcite, chlorite, carbonate apatite (“collophane”), corundum, cristobalite, delvauxite (“borickite”), dolomite, evansite, fluorite, goethite, gypsum, halloysite, hematite, hydrocarbon, magnetite, metavariscite, microcline, northupite, opal, orthoclase, phosphosiderite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, siderite, tridymite, variscite (Hawley and Beavan 1934; Zeitner 1988; Frederick 1993).

Portland quarry. This quarry, east of Portland (SE sec. 33 and SW sec. 34 T.9N. R.13E.), exposes quartzite and phyllite: andalusite, chlorite, chloritoid, muscovite, quartz (Luther 1997).

Western Lime and Cement Co. quarrries. These quarries expose dolostones near Knowles: calcite (pseudocubic crystals) (La Berge, pets. com.).

Door County

Sturgeon Bay quarry. This quarry on the south edge of Sturgeon Bay exposes Silurian dolostone: calcite, dolomite, fluorite, marcasite, pyrite (C. Cochrane, pers. com.).

Douglas County

Amnicon copper prospect. Old workings exist south of South Range in the NE 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 11 T.47N. R.13W.: calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, copper, malachite, quartz (Grant 1901).

Buckley quarry. This quarry exposes gabbro in the NW 1/4 sec. 32 T.48N. R.12W.: analcime, apophyllite, augite, calcite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, datolite, epidote, ilmenite, laumontite, marcasite, natrolite, plagioclase, prehnite, quartz (Johnson and Mongol 1969; Cordua 1991).

Chippewa mine. This long-abandoned copper mine exposes amygduloidal metabasalts near Middle River (SW 1/4 sec. 3 T.47N. R.12W.): chlorite, copper, epidote, laumontite, prehnite (Holliday 1955).

Copper Creek prospects. Long-abandoned pits, trenches, and outcrops exist within Pattison State Park (SW 1/4 sec. 14 and SE 1/4 sec. 15 T.47N. R.14W.). Minerals are in veins and amygdules in basalt and breccia: calcite, copper, epidote, laumontite, malachite, prehnite, silver, quartz (Grant 1901; Dutton 1972).

Fond du Lac copper prospect. Long-abandoned pits and trenches in the NE 1/4 sec. 8 T.47N. R.13W. exposed veins and amygdules in metabasalt: calcite, copper, epidote, malachite, prehnite, quartz (Grant 1901; Dutton 1972).

Johnson Materials Co. quarry. This quarry exposes metabasalt east of South Range (SW 1/4 SW 1/4 sec. 31 T.48N. R.12W.): augite, calcite, chlorite, chalcopyrite, epidote, potassium feldspar (adularia), plagioclase, prehnite, quartz, (clear crystals; sky-blue massive; smoky massive; pale pink, banded agate).

Mabel Nelson Road quarry. This quarry exposes amygduloidal metabasalt flows in the NE 1/4 SW 1/4 sec. 9 T.47N. R.13W.: ankerite, barite, calcite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, datolite, epidote, laumontite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, prehnite, pumpellyite, quartz (crystals, agates, coarse blue iris) (L. Woodruff, pets. com.).

Old Chippewa mine. Abandoned mine dumps exist northwest of Middle River (SW 1/4 sec. 3 and NW 1/4 sec. 10 T.47N. R.12W.): chlorite, copper, epidote, laumontite, prehnite, quartz (Grant 1901; Holliday 1955).

Percival copper prospects. Abandoned pits and trenches northeast of Blueberry (SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 27 T.48N. R.10W.) expose veins and amygdules in metabasalts: chlorite, copper, epidote, laumontite, malachite, prehnite (Grant 1901; Dutton 1972).

South Range quarry. This quarry exposes amygduloidal metabasalts near the Flannagan lookout tower (NW 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. I T.47N. R.13W.): calcite, chlorite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, epidote, potassium feldspar, prehnite, quartz (crystals, sky-blue massive, agate) (Cordua 1990).

Starkweather copper prospects (also known as the Edwards mine or the Wisconsin mine). Abandoned pits and trenches near South Range (NW 1/4 sec. 2 T.47N. R.13W.) exposed metabasalt: chlorite, copper, epidote, laumontite, malachite (Grant 1901; Dutton 1972).

Weyerhauser copper mines (also known as the County No. 1, County No. 2 or Skrupty mine, and County No. 3). Long-abandoned adits, shafts, and dumps are found west of Gordon in the NW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 12 T.43N. R.10W. Interesting minerals occur in veins, amygdules, and breccia zones in metabasalt: azurite, bornite, calcite, chlorite, copper, cuprite, epidote, malachite, potassium feldspar, prehnite, pumpellyite, quartz (massive chalcedony) (Smith 1947; Weyandt 1971; Dutton 1972; White 1978).

Eau Claire County

Big Falls. Outcrops of gneiss and amphibolite occur along the Eau Claire River at Big Falls County Park: almandine, chlorite, cummingtonite, epidote, hornblende, titanite (Myers et al. 1974; Cummings 1984).

Little Falls. Outcrops of amphibolites and migmatites cross-cut by porpyhritic granite, granite pegmatite, and diabase dikes occur at Little Falls on the Eau Claire River (SW 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 19 T.27N. R.8W.): augite, biotite, hornblende, muscovite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz (Myers et al. 1974; Cummings 1984).

Florence County

Fern pegmatites. A swarm of complex lithium-rich pegmatites form scattered outcrops through heavily wooded terrane in secs. 22 and 29 T.39N. R.17E. near the Pine River. One bulldozed dike is referred to as the “Animikie Red Ace pegmatite”: alluaudite-varulite, amblygonite, apatite, bermanite, beryl, columbite-tantalite, elbaite, fillowite, griphite, hamburgite, huttonite, heterosite-purpurite, lepidolite, lithiophyllite, microcline, microlite, muscovite, opal, plagioclase, quartz, rhodizite, schorl, spessartine, spodumene, stibiotantalite, tantire, triphylite, uraninite, wodginite, zinnwaldite (Falster, Simmons, and Moore 1988; Koehler 1989; Falster, Simmons, and Webber 1995).

Payant-Chrissman prospect. Prospect pits expose mineralized veins in granite pegmatite along Fisher Creek, in sec. 33 T.38N. R.19E., approximately 10 kilometers south of Aurora: biotite, chalcopyrite, ferrimolybdite, fuchsite, molybdenite, muscovite, quartz, potassium feldspar (Fisher 1965; Greenberg 1983).

Pine River reservoir. Outcrops of schists occur around the Pine River reservoir and dam about 8 kilometers south of Florence: almandine, chloritoid, hematite (specular and martite), grunerite, kyanite, magnetite, quartz (Nielsen 1984).

Fond Du Lac County

Fairwater quarry. This large, active, quartz sand mine exposes Ordovician sandstone southeast of Ripen (NE 1/4 sec. 36 T.15N. R.13E.): gypsum, pyrite, quartz, sphalerite.

Forest County

Crandon massive sulfide deposit. This world-class Proterozoic massive sulfide deposit is known thus far only from drill-core data. The deposit is approximately 10 kilometers south of Crandon near Little Sand Lake: arsenopyrite, augite, bornite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, clinozoisite, copper, digenite, dolomite, electrum, enargite, epidote, galena, goethite, gold, graphite, hematite, magnetite, marcasite, polybasite-pearceite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, silver, sphalerite, stephanite, tetrahedrite-tennantite (Lambe and Rowe 1989; Erickson and Cote 1996).

McCaslin Mountain. Proterozoic quartzite with vugs and shear zones extends through T.34N. from R.16E. and R.17E.: hematite (roses), quartz (Zeitner 1988; Olson 1984; Eckert 1980).

Grant County

Beetown mine and Blackjack mine. Abandoned mine workings exist near Beetown (sec. 32 T.4N. R.4W.): azurite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, malachite, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite (West and Heyl 1985).

Brush Ridge diggings. Shallow pits were dug in sec. 15 T.3N. R.2W., south of Ellenboro: calcite, dolomite, galena, marcasite, pyrite, smithsonite, sphalerite (Whitlow and West 1966b).

Ellenboro diggings. Shallow pits were dug in NE 1/4 sec. 33 T.4N. R.2W., south of Ellenboro: calcite, cerussite, dolomite, galena, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite (Whitlow and West 1966b).

Fairplay mine. Shafts and shallow pits were dug in SE 1/4 sec. 26 T.1N. R.2W.: galena, sphalerite (Whitlow and West 1966a).

Grab diggings. Old workings are found along the bluffs on both sides of McPherson branch of the Platte River, west of Ellenboro (SW I/4 sec. 19 and NW 1/4 sec. 30 T.4N. R.2W.): calcite, galena, marcasite, pyrite, smithsonite, sphalerite (West and Placer 1971).

Grant River diggings. Numerous shallow pits and shafts known as the Grant River and Beetown diggings are scattered throughout secs. 20, 21, 27, and 28 T.4N. R.4W. near Beetown: calcite, cerussite, galena, goethite, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite (West and Heyl 1985).

Hurricain “diggings.” Numerous shallow pits and shafts are scattered throughout T.4N. R.3W., particularly in secs. 7, 17, 20, and 30: calcite, cerussite, galena, goethite, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite (West and Heyl 1985).

Onyx mine. A thick deposit of cave onyx and travertine occurs in the SW 1/4 sec. 6 T.2N. R.1W., northeast of Dickeyville: calcite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Piquette No. 2 orebody. Abandoned mine workings are found in the NE 1/4 sec. 36 T.3N. R.3W.: calcite, chalcopyrite, enargite, galena, marcasite, millerite, pyrite, sphalerite (Heyl 1964).

Platteville mines. Many abandoned mine workings are in T.3N. R.1W. and secs. 29, 30, and 36 T.3N. R.2W west of Platteville: calcite, dolomite, galena, marcasite, pyrite, smithsonite, sphalerite (Whitlow and West 1966b).

Shawnee Town diggings. Shafts and shallow pits were dug in NW 1/4 sec. 20 T.1N. R.1W., west of Hazel Green: Galena (Whitlow and West 1966b).

St. John mine (also known as Snake Cave). A cave developed as an adit on the north side of Hwy. 133 in Potosi is sometimes open as a tourist attraction: calcite (including travertine), pyrite, quartz, galena (West and Heyl 1985).

Tufa Falls. A tufa deposit is found in a cliff along a tributary to Blockhouse Creek, near Dickeyville (NE 1/4 NW 1/4 sec. 5 T.2N. R.1W.): calcite (tufa and travertine).

Whig Patch diggings. Shafts and shallow pits in the “Whig Patch” were dug north of Platteville in secs. 1, 6, and 12 T.3N. R.2W.: calcite, cerussite, dolomite, marcasite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite (West et al. 1971).

Whittaker diggings. Shafts and shallow pits were dug in SE 1/4 sec. 25 T.5N. R.2W.: calcite, cerussite, marcasite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite (West et al. 1971).

Yellow Jacket mine. Abandoned workings were dug in the NW 1/4 sec. 33 T.4N. R.4W.: calcite, dolomite, marcasite, pyrite, galena, sphalerite (West and Heyl 1985).

Green Lake County

St. Marie quarry. Working quarries near Princeton (sec. 13 T.16N. R.12E.), expose vuggy dolostone and silcrete containing microcrystals: calcite, dolomite, glauconite, goethite, marcasite, pyrite, quartz.

Green County

Adamson’s quarry. This quarry near Monticello (sec. 11 T.3N. R.7E.) exposes cave formations: calcite (Frater 1967).

Newkirk lead mine. This abandoned mine is found in the SW 1/4 sec. 24 T.3N. R.6E.: cerussite, galena (Heyl et al. 1959).

Iowa County

Ansley copper mine. Abandoned workings are found in the SE 1/4 sec. 32 T.5N. R.3E. near Mineral Point. Copper minerals occurred in “lumps up to 200 lbs. in weight in loose rock and clay”: azurite, chalcopyrite, goethite, malachite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Beach copper mine. A line of shafts was worked during the 1800s in the NW 1/4 sec. 4 T.4N. R.3E. near Mineral Point: azurite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, malachite, marcasite, smithsonite, sphalerite, tenorite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Coker No. 1 mine dumps. Dump piles and cuts are found in the NE 1/4 sec. 29 T.5N. R.1E.: calcite, dolomite, galena, hydrozincite (fluorescent), marcasite, sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Demby-Weist mine. A series of shafts and dumps are found in the NW 1/4 sec. 28 and SW 1/4 sec. 21 T.7N. R.4E. near Hyde: calcite, dolomite, galena, goethite, marcasite, pyrite, quartz, sericite, smithsonite, sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959; Heyl and West 1982).

Dodgeville mines. Old workings are found near Dodgeville in secs. 24 and 27 T.6N. R.3E.: calcite, galena, greenockite, honessite, marcasite, millerite, pyrite, sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Eberle mine. Old workings were dug north of Cobb (NW 1/4 sec. 2 T.6N. R.1E.): aurichalcite, azurite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, cuprite (massive and chalcotrichite), goethite, malachite, pyromorphite, smithsonite, sphalerite, tenorite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Grayville mine. Old workings are found near Mineral Point (sec. 31 T.5N. R.3E.): barite, calcite, fluorite, galena, marcasite, sphalerite (Van Alstine 1976).

Linden area mines. Many old workings occur near Linden: barite, cerussite, dolomite, galena, honessite, hydrozincite, marcasite, millerite, pyrite, smithsonite, sphalerite, violarite (Heyl et al. 1959; Heyl, Milton, and Axelrod 1959).

Ohlerking mine. Old workings were dug in NW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 31 T.7N. R.1E.: calcite, dolomite, galena, goethite, marcasite, pyrite, quartz (Heyl et al. 1959).

Otter Creek copper mine. Old mine workings are found on the east side of Otter Creek near Clyde (secs. 10 and 15 T.7N. R.2E.): chalcocite, chalcopyrite, malachite (Heyl and West 1982).

Pierson copper prospect. Pits were dug in the NW 1/4 sec. 5 T.4N. R.3E. near Mineral Point: chalcocite, chalcopyrite, covellite, galena, malachite, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Rewey area mines. Abundant old diggings exist in the Rewey area (secs. 28, 30, and 31 T.5N. R.1E.): calcite, galena, goethite, “psilomelane,” pyrite, sphalerite, smithsonite (Heyl et al. 1959; Taylor 1964).

Steppler farm. Old workings exist near Highland (NE 1/4 sec. 7 T.6N. R.1E.): aurichalcite, azurite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chrysocolla, galena, goethite, malachite, smithsonite, sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Wasley copper mine. Line of shafts were worked during the 1800s in the SW 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 4 T.4N. R.3E. near Mineral Point: azurite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, malachite, marcasite, smithsonite, sphalerite, tenorite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Iron County

East Mellen complex. Many outcrops of Middle Proterozoic gabbro and related rocks, some pegmatitic, occur on a belt from north of Upson to north of Hurley: clinopyroxene, epidote, hornblende, olivine, orthopyroxene (may show schiller) (Tabet and Mangham 1978).

Montreal iron mine. Abandoned workings of a large underground iron mine exist in the NE 1/4 sec. 33 T.46N R.2E. The dumps are sometimes reworked for highway material. The dumps merge with those of other nearby abandoned iron mines, the Ottawa mine and the Cary mine, that have similar mineralogy. With workings to 5,000 feet, this was the deepest underground iron mine in the world. The large vugs encountered in mining provided magnificent crystal clusters of many of the following minerals, often in colorful associations: actinolite, barite (cleavable masses and crystals and crystal rosettes in cavities), braunite, calcite (crystal clusters, pale pink manganocalcite as spherical clusters of drusy crystals to 8 cm across, which fluoresce bright red under shortwave ultraviolet radiation), celestine, dickite, dolomite, galena, goethite (botryoidal to stalactitic, ocherous massive, coarsely fibrous, golden acicular needle crystals and velvety drusy crystals), gypsum, hematite (massive ocherous, coarse black botryoidal masses, stoutly columnar with crystals up to 25 cm long, sprays of drusy and acicular crystals), kaolinite (pseudomorphs after dike minerals in gabbro that were carved by miners and used as a medicine), magnetite, manganite (lustrous bladed crystals to 1 cm long in clusters 25 cm across), marcasite, minnesotaite, neotocite (dark brown resinous masses), pyrite, pyrolusite (some large lustrous crystals), quartz, rhodochrosite (a variety of habits including scalenohedral and rhombohedral crystals), romanechite, siderite, stilpnomelane, talc (Van Hise and Irving 1892; Dickey 1938; Whelan and Goldich 1961: LaBerge 1984, 1996; L. Hampel, pers. com.).

Powell kyanite deposit. Kyanite occurs in gneisses and schists in the Powell area (secs. 28, 29, 32, 33 T.42N. R.4E.). The most accessible outcrop is in a road cut along State Hwy. 182, 1 mile west of Hwy. 47, near Powell. Attempts to produce kyanite economically from these outcrops in the 1930s were unsuccessful: almandine, biotite, kyanite, muscovite, quartz, sillimanite, staurolite (Sims et al. 1985).

Saxon Falls. Amygduloidal metabasalt outcrops in the Montreal River gorge at Saxon Falls (sec. 20 T.48N. R.1E.): calcite, chlorite, epidote, laumontite, prehnite, thomsonite (Irving 1883; Cannon 1996).

Jackson County

Jackson County iron mine. An open-pit iron mine was worked by Inland Steel from 1969 to 1986 in the SE 1/4 sec. 15 T.21N. R.3W. near Black River Falls. The mine was in a complex section of Archean iron formation, with talc and mica schist, cross-cut by granitic plutons: almandine, andalusite, apatite, biotite, calcite, chlorite, cummingtonite (long fibrous crystals), epidote, ferroactinolite, goethite, graphite, grunerite, hastingsite, hematite, ilmenite, kyanite, magnetite, muscovite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, riebeckite, scapolite, sillimanite, staurolite, talc (coarse foliated masses), titanite, zircon (Jones 1978a, b; Kimball and Spear 1984).

Merrillan wavellite. Scattered outcrops and road cuts between Merrillan and Black River Falls in T.22N. R.4W. contain veins of phosphate minerals within a friable quartz sandstone: cacoxenite, crandallite, halloysite, variscite, wavellite (fibrous to botryoidal crusts and sandstone cement) (Klemic and Mrose 1972; Falster 1984b).

Juneau County

Necedah Bluff quarry. This quarry on Necedah Bluff exposes Proterozoic quartzite intruded by granitic rocks. These are cut by vuggy quartz veins: calcite, goethite, hematite (rosettes of specular hematite on quartz), muscovite, potassium feldspar, quartz, rutile (tiny yellow sprays in quartz), zircon (Greenberg et al. 1986; Van Wyck 1995; T. Buchholz, pers. com.).

Kenosha County

Six-Pak lamprophyre. Geophysical work and coring by Ashton Mining of Canada have revealed a diamondiferous intrusive pipe within the city limits of Kenosha. The location of the body and small size of the diamonds make the deposit currently uneconomic: apatite, barite, baddeleyite, calcite, celestine, chrome diopside, chrome pyrope, chrome spinel, diamond (small sharp-edged octahedra), galena, ilmenite, magnetite, millerite, pyrite, rutile, zircon (Carlson and Adams 1997).

Lafayette County

Ames Branch copper prospect. Old diggings were made south of Ames Branch (SE 1/4 sec. 22 T.2N. R.3E.): azurite, chalcopyrite, cuprite, dolomite, goethite, malachite, marcasite, pyrite (Klemic and West 1964).

Belmont and Calamine area mines. Abundant dumps, adits, and shafts were made in this area: anglesite, ankerite, aragonite, aurichalcite, azurite, barite, calcite, carbonate-fluorapatite, cerussite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, cobaltite, copper, covellite, cuprite, dolomite, epsomite, erythrite, galena, goethite, gold, goslarite, greenockite, gypsum, hemimorphite, honessite, hydrozincite, malachite, marcasite, millerite, montmorillonite (zincian), muscovite, pyrite, quartz, romanechite, safflorite, sauconite, smithsonite, sphalerite, sulfur (Heyl et al. 1959; Klemic and West 1964).

Cuba City mines. A number of abandoned shallow pits, mines, and dumps exist around Cuba City: barite, calcite, cerussite, chalcopyrite, cobaltite, dolomite, galena, goethite, marcasite, millerite, pyrite, quartz, smithsonite, sphalerite, wurtzite (Heyl et al. 1959; Mullens 1964).

Eagle Picher (Old Calumet and Hecla, Bear Hole, or Shullsburg) mine. Extensive workings and dumps are found in SW 1/4 sec. 22 T.1N. R.2E.: calcite (large complex crystals, sometimes sceptered, in large clusters), dolomite, galena, goethite, marcasite, millerite, pyrite, sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Elmo (New Jersey Zinc) mine. Old diggings, dump piles, and a shaft house exist east of Hwy. 80 near Cuba City: calcite, dolomite, galena, goethite, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Farrey mine. Old workings exist in NW 1/4 sec. 16 T.1N. R.1E. near Benton: calcite, galena, goethite, honessite, marcasite, millerite, quartz, pyrite, sphalerite, violarite (Heyl, Milton, and Axelrod 1959).

Gratiot copper prospect. Old workings are found near Gratiot (NW 1/4 sec. 36 T.2N. R.3E.): azurite, bornite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, copper, cuprite, dolomite, malachite, marcasite, pyrolusite, romanechite, tenorite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Little Giant mine. Abandoned workings exist near Shullsburg (SW 1/4 sec. 4 T.1N. R.2E.): calcite, dolomite, gypsum, marcasite, melanterite (pale green stalactites in old underground workings), pyrite, smithsonite, sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Martin mine. This abandoned mine is south of Benton (SE 1/4 sec. 16 T.1N. R.1E.): calcite, cobaltite, dolomite, erythrite, marcasite, pyrite, galena, safflorite(?), sphalerite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Meeker’s Grove area mines. Many old workings exist near Meeker’s Grove: calcite, galena, goethite, hemimorphite, marcasite, quartz, pyrite, sauconite, sphalerite, smithsonite (Heyl et al. 1959).

New Diggings area mines. Many abandoned shallow pits and small mines exist near New Diggings (sees. 23, 24, 25, 26 T.1N. R.1E.): barite, calcite, cerussite, chalcopyrite, cobaltite, dolomite, galena, goethite, marcasite, millerite, pyrite, quartz, smithsonite, sphalerite, wurtzite (Heyl et al. 1959, Mullens 1964; Zimmerman 1969).

Shullsburg-Hazel Green area mines. More than 125 abandoned shallow pits and small mines were dug around Shullsburg: barite, calcite, cerussite, chalcopyrite, cobaltite, copiapite, dolomite, epsomite, galena, goethite, goslarite, gypsum, marcasite, melanterite, millerite, pyrite, quartz, smithsonite, sphalerite, wurtzite (Heyl et al. 1959; Mullens 1964; Hosterman, Heyl, and Jolly 1964).

Langlade County

Klempster. Outcrops of Precambrian metasedimentary rock occur near Klempster: almandine, andalusite, biotite, muscovite, quartz, staurolite (Geiger and Guidotti 1989).

Lincoln County

Copper River. Outcrops of metamorphosed peridotite occur along the Wisconsin River near the mouth of the Copper River west of Merrill (sec. 5 T.31N. R.6E.): magnetite, olivine, orthopyroxene (coarse, lustrous cleavage masses), serpentine (Irving 1883b).

Council Grounds State Park. Peridotite and troctolite crop out within the park: olivine, pyroxene, bytownite, serpentine (La Berge, pers. com.).

Merrill Schist. Aluminous schist crops out west of Merrill, such as in SE 1/4 sec. 7 and NE 1/4 sec. 18 T.31N. R.7E.: almandine, andalusite, biotite, cordierite, muscovite, quartz, staurolite (Irving 1883b).

Manitowoc County

Rockwood quarry. This quarry exposes Silurian carbonate rocks on the east side of County Route R, about 4 miles NW of Manitowoc: calcite, gypsum, marcasite (Zeitner 1988).

Valders quarry. This quarry exposes Silurian carbonate rocks near Valders: calcite, marcasite.

Marathon County

County Route U road cut. This road cut in the border zone of the Stettin Pluton on County Route U east of the Little Rib River, west of Wausau (SW 1/4 sec. 18 T.29N. R.7E.) exposes nepheline syenite pegmatites, syenite, and syenitized country rock: apatite, biotite, cancrinite, epidote, fayalite, monazite, nepheline (pinkish grains 1-2 cm across), riebeckite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, sodic pyroxene (Myers et al. 1984).

County Z quarries. Hornblende granite of the Wolf River batholith with locally pegmatitic phases is exposed in several quarries near Hatley (SE 1/4 sec. 18 and NE 1/4 sec. 19 T.29N. R.10E.): hornblende, potassium feldspar, quartz (Institute on Lake Superior Geology 1973).

Eason exploration. This 200-foot-deep abandoned mine shaft was sunk in mineralized chloritic schist near Eason (sec. 26 T.29N. R.9E.): chalcopyrite, chlorite, gold, malachite, pyrite, quartz, sphalerite (LaBerge and Myers 1983).

Employers Mutual outcrops. Outcrops of quartz syenite are abundant around the parking lot of Employers Mutual Insurance buildings on the west edge of Wausau (NW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 27 T.29N. R.7E.): fluorite, magnetite, potassium feldspar, sodic pyroxene, quartz (LaBerge and Myers 1983).

Fluorite quarry. This quarry exposes granitic rocks cut by pegmatites north of Wausau (NE sec. 6 T.29N. R.7E.): fluorapatite, fluorite, potassium feldspar, quartz (L. Brown, pers. com.).

Hamburg schist. Schist crops out along the Rib River west of Hamburg (sec. 14 T.30N. R.4E.): almandine, biotite, cordierite, quartz, staurolite (Weidman 1907b).

Little Chicago “nephrite” Outcrops of metamorphosed volcanic rocks occur along the Little Rib River near Little Chicago. Some material, a compact massive actinolite, was briefly marketed as jade: actinolite, calcite, chlorite, diopside, epidote, plagioclase, serpentine (Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey files; L. Brown, pers. com.).

Moonstone quarry. This abandoned quarry exposes pyroxene syenite near Stettin (SE 1/4 sec. 14 T.29N. R.6E.): aegirine-augite, arfvedsonite, anorthoclase (grains up to 35 cm long showing moonstone schiller), biotite, nepheline, riebeckite (LaBerge and Myers 1983; Myers et al. 1984; L. Brown, pets. com.).

Mosinee Hill quarry. This quarry west of Wausau (NW 1/4 sec. 26 T.26N. R.7E.) exposes a large quartzite roof pendant in granitic rocks of the Nine-Mile pluton: anatase, brookite, quartz (L. Brown, pers. com.).

Reef property. This hydrothermal deposit, known solely from drill core, occurs 12 miles east of Wausau: chalcopyrite, gold (visible grains to nuggets up to 1 cm across), pyrrhotite, quartz (Anonymous 1991; La Berge, pers. com.).

“Rotten granite” quarries. Many large quarries are dug in weathered granitic grus of the Wausau complex plutons such as in T.27N. R.6E (e.g., secs. 6, 7, and 12); T.28N. R.6E. (e.g., secs. 31, 32, 33, and 34); T.27N. R.5E. (e.g., secs. 1 and 12); and T.28N. R.7E (e.g., secs. 19 and 20). One of the best is the Wimmer No. 3 pit. The granites are pegmatitic and have many miarolitic cavities: aegirine, allanite, almandine, anatase, andradite, anhydrite, anorthoclase, arsenopyrite, barite, bavenite, bertrandite, beryl, biotite, boulangerite, brookite, calaverite, calcite, catapleiite, chalcopyrite, cheralite (bipyramidal microcrystals), chlorite, columbite-tantalite, cookeite, elbaite, eudialyte, fayalite, fluorapatite, fluorite, galena, goethite, gold, grossular, hastingsite, hematite, hisingerite, ilmenite, jamesonite, kaolin, lepidochrocite, magnetite, microlite, monazite, muscovite, natrolite, opal (fluorescent), parisite-synchisite (brownish microcrystals), phenakite (clear transparent crystals, rarely up to 1 inch long), pyrite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar (some “amazonite”), quartz (some large smoky crystals), romanechite, futile, sanidine, schorl, siderite, smectite, sphalerite, stilpnomelane, thorogummite, titanite, xenotime, zinnwaldite, zircon (Falster 1977, 1981, 1984a, 1985, 1986a, 1987; Falster and Simmons 1989; T. Buchholz, pers. com.).

Rozellville serpentine. Outcrops of serpentinite occur south of Rozellville (secs. 15, 16, and 22 T.26N. R4E.): chlorite, olivine, serpentine, talc (LaBerge and Myers 1983).

Stettin aegirine. Outcrops of aegirine-bearing syenite occur near Stettin in E 1/2 sec. 21 T.29N. R.6E.: aegirine, potassium feldspar (L. Brown, pers. com.).

Stettin nepheline syenite. Outcrops of gneissic nepheline syenite occur in NE 1/4 sec. 27 T.29N. R.6E. near Stettin: aegirine, nepheline, potassium feldspar, zircon (Geisse 1951; Vickers 1956; Stobbe and Murray 1956).

Stettin pegmatite. Syenitic pegmatite crops out near Stettin (NW 1/4 sec. 22 T.29N. R.6E.): aegirine, crocidolite, fluorite, “lithium mica,” nepheline, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyrochlore, riebeckite, futile, zircon (Weidmann 1907a).

Thorium mine. Overgrown tailings piles of old thorium mine and adjacent outcrops expose syenitic rocks of the Stettin pluton: aegirine, apatite, goethite, ilmenite, magnetite, potassium feldspar, pyrochlore (yellow octahedra in vugs and in aegirine), thorite (red to orange prisms), zircon (T. Buchholz, pers. com.).

Zircon quarry. Syenite with nepheline syenite dikes is exposed in small quarry in SE1/4 SE sec. 22 T.29N. R.6E. near Stettin: aegirine, fluorite, nepheline, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, zircon (Stobbe and Murray 1956).

Zunker’s pit. This small quarry is in syenite in the SW 1/4 SE 1/4 sec. 22 T.29N. R.6E. near Stettin: aegirine, fluorite, potassium feldspar, zircon (abundant brown euhedral crystals).

Marinette County

Blue quartz railroad cut. This railroad cut exposes tonalite approximately 1 mile west of Pembine: chlorite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, quartz (blue) (Depangher 1982).

Camp Five molybdenite deposit. Small cuts and prospects were dug in quartz veins cutting granite about 4 miles northwest of Middle Inlet (sec. 18 T.33N. R.20E.): albite, calcite, chlorite, epidote, ferrimolybdite, fluorite, molybdenite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, pyrite, quartz (Fischer 1965; Greenberg 1983).

Duval massive sulfide deposit. Drilling and geophysical work have delineated a massive sulfide orebody containing perhaps 10 million tons of sulfide ore in portions of secs. 2 and 3 T.35N. R.18E. and secs. 28 and 34 T.36N. R.18E.: actinolite, anthophyllite, calcite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, cummingtonite, epidote, ferroactinolite, garnet, graphite, grunerite, ilmenite, magnetite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, sphalerite, stilpnomelane, tremolite (Hollister and Cummings 1982).

Fluorite railroad cut. A mineralized shear zone cutting granite is exposed in this railroad cut east of Aurora (NE 1/4 NE 1/4 sec. 18 T.38N. R.20E.): allanite, biotite, fluorite, muscovite, quartz, potassium feldspar, titanite (Sims et al. 1992).

Kremlin quarry. This large quarry at Kremlin exposes metamorphosed pillow lava with amygdules: actinolite, chlorite, epidote, quartz, stilpnomelane (Depangher 1982).

Middle Inlet quarry. This large quarry near Middle Inlet exposes granite (NE 1/4 sec. 30 T.33N. R.20E.): biotite, clinozoisite, epidote, potassium feldspar (crystals to 3 cm long, locally with rapakivi overgrowths), quartz (Banks and Cain 1969).

Milwaukee County

Estabrook Park. Outcrops of dolostones occur along the Milwaukee River in this park (sec. 5 T.7N. R.22E.). The locality is referred to variously as Berthlet, North Milwaukee, Cementville, Lincoln Park, Capitol Drive, Washington Street Bridge, and Humboldt Street Bridge. It is accessible only at low water: asphaltum, barite, calcite, dolomite, honessite (coatings on millerite), marcasite, millerite (fibers, sometimes radiating with individual fibers to 7 cm long), pyrite, quartz (chalcedony-lined geodes to 8 cm across), sphalerite, zaratite (coating on millerite) (Bagrowski 1940; Crowns 1976; LaBerge 1984).

Milwaukee quarries. These quarries expose Paleozoic carbonates: calcite, celestine (crystals locally “as large as a man’s head”), marcasite, millerite, pyrite, sphalerite (Hobbs 1895; Eckert 1980).

Milwaukee metro-area deep tunnel sewer project. Waste rock from this project, dominantly Silurian dolostones, was dumped as fill opposite Milwaukee County Stadium: calcite, celestine (Zeitner 1988; L. Brown, pers. com.).

Oconto County

Mountain outcrops. Outcrops and road cuts near Mountain expose metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks cut by rocks of the Wolf River batholith: actinolite, allanite, andalusite, biotite, chlorite, clinopyroxene, clinozoisite, cummingtonite, epidote, gedrite, hornblende, magnetite, muscovite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, pyrrhotite, quartz, scapolite, sillimanite, titanite, vesuvianite (Bagg 1913; Dutton and Bradley 1970; Sims et al. 1991).

McCaslin Mountain. Outcrops north of Townsend expose Proterozoic quartzite: almandine, andradite, hematite (specular crystals as roses on quartz), quartz. (crystal clusters in vugs along fractures), zircon (Eckert 1980; Van Wyck 1995).

Oneida County

Lynne deposit. This massive sulfide deposit in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, so far known solely from drill-core data and geophysical work, is located in Lynne Township near Willow Lake: acanthite, actinolite, calcite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, cummingtonite, diopside, dolomite, dycrasite, electrum, epidote, galena, garnet, gold, magnetite, muscovite, phlogopite, plagioclase, polybasite(?), pyrargyrite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, serpentine, silver, sphalerite, talc, tetrahedrite, tremolite (Kennedy et al. 1991; Adams 1996).

Pelican River deposit. This massive sulfide deposit in Proterozoic metamorphic rocks, so far known solely from drill-core data and geophysical work, is located in sec. 29 T.36N. R.9E., along the Pelican River: actinolite, albite, arsenopyrite, biotite, calcite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, chloritoid, diopside, epidote, galena, grossular, magnetite, marcasite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, scapolite, sphalerite, stilpnomelane, tetrahedrite (Mudrey 1979; La Berge 1996).

Outagamie County

Mackville quarry. This quarry, near Mackville, exposes Ordovician carbonate rocks: calcite, celestine, dolomite, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite, strontianite (fluorescent) (G. Richards and C. Cochrane, pers com.).

Ozaukee County

Saukville diamond. This white 6.57-carat diamond was found in the drift north of Saukville in 1881 (Cannon and Mudrey 1981).

Pepin County

Big Hill quarry. This quarry exposes Ordovician dolostones north of Pepin (NE 1/4 sec. 17 T.23N. R.14W.): calcite, dolomite, quartz (small geodes).

Pierce County

Cady Creek iron mine. In this long-abandoned iron mine residual ore was worked above and within Ordovician dolostone (SW 1/4 sec. 14 T.27N. R.15W.) southeast of Spring Valley: goethite, hematite (Allen 1909; Van Hise and Leith 1911).

Cady Creek quarry. This quarry exposes Ordovician dolostones (SE 1/4 sec. 3 T.27N. R.15W.): calcite (fluorescent and phosphorescent), dolomite, goethite (pseudomorphs after pyrite), quartz, pyrite.

Elmwood quarry. This quarry exposes Ordovician dolestones on County Route P near Elmwood (sec. 36 T.27N. R.15W.): calcite, dolomite, goethite (pseudomorphs after marcasite and pyrite), marcasite, quartz, pyrite.

Gilman iron mine. In this long-abandoned iron mine residual ore was worked above and within the Ordovician dolestones (SW 1/4 sec. 1 T.27N. R.16W.) west of Spring Valley: goethite, hematite (Allen 1909; Van Hise and Leith 1911). Slag from this deposit fluoresces under both long- and shortwave ultraviolet radiation.

Hager City quarry. This quarry exposes Ordovician dolestone on County Route VV near Hager City (sec. 35 T.25N. R.18W.): calcite (fluorescent and phosphorescent), dolomite, goethite (pseudomorphs after pyrite), quartz, pyrite.

Maiden Rock quarry. This quarry exposes Prairie du Chien Group dolostones on County Route S near Maiden Rock (NW sec. 14 T.24N. R.16W.): calcite (fluorescent and phosphorescent), dolomite, goethite (pseudomorphs after pyrite), quartz, pyrite (Cordua 1989a).

Plum Creek and Rock Elm Creek area. Placer deposits along both creeks have been periodically worked, particularly between Rock Elm and Nugget Lake Park. Most activity occurred from 1890 to 1892: almandine, diamond (at least ten small alluvial diamonds found during placering), gold (floursized particles), magnetite (Cannon and Mudrey 1981; Cordua 1987).

Polk County

Dresser trap-rock quarries. Quarries at Dresser (secs. 5 and 6 T.33N. R.18W.) expose Keweenawan metabasalt flows cut by quartz veins. The basalt coarsens to a gabbro pegmatite toward the middle of the thickest flow: actinolite, augite, bornite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, chrysotile, copper, cuprite, epidote, hematite, ilmenite, magnetite, malachite, potassium feldspar (adularia crystals), plagioclase, quartz (crystals), tremolite, zoisite (Cordua 1989b).

Silver Brook copper prospects. Small adits and dump piles are found within Interstate State Park near the site of the old Silver Brook Mansion. Minerals are in replacement veins in Cambrian sandstone: chalcocite, malachite (Cordua et al. 1979).

340th Avenue pit. This borrow pit in the SE 1/4 sec. 7 R.16W. T.37N. exposes several amygdaloidal metabasalt flows: calcite, chlorite, epidote, potassium feldspar, quartz (milky, blue iris, and agate rinds).

Portage County

Graphite mine. This old mine, about 1 mile north of Junction City on County Route G, was dug in graphitic Proterozoic metasedimentary rocks: chalcopyrite, graphite, pyrite (B. Brown, pers. com.; L. Brown, pers. com.).

Racine County

Vulcan Materials quarry-Ives quarry. This quarry complex on the north edge of Racine exposes Silurian carbonate rocks with local vuggy zones containing coarse crystals: calcite (some scalenohedral crystals to 5 cm, with phantoms outlined by tiny marcasite and pyrite grains), galena, gypsum, marcasite (large clusters of coarse fibrous crystal), pyrite, sphalerite, strontianite, wurtzite (Eckert 1980; Scovil 1994; G. Richards, pers. com.; L. Brown, pers. com.).

Richland County

Akan lead mines. Abandoned diggings are in secs. 22 and 28 T.9N. R.1E.: calcite, dolomite, galena (Heyl and West 1982).

Avoca. Outcrops of mineralized Cambrian sandstones occur near Avoca (SE 1/4 sec. 35 T.9N. R.1E.): chalcopyrite, malachite (Heyl and West 1982).

Keyesville lead mines. Abandoned diggings are in sec. 14 T.10N. R.2E.: calcite, dolomite, galena (Heyl and West 1982).

Richland Center. Washes west of Richland Center (NE 1/4 sec. 25 T.10N R.1E.) expose mineralized Ordovician dolostones: chalcocite, chalcopyrite, dolomite, malachite (Heyl et al. 1959).

Rusk County

Big Falls dam. Proterozoic tonalite crops out on the east side of the Chippewa River near the dam and at an old quarry about 1 kilometer south of the dam: biotite, hornblende, plagioclase, quartz (blue grains).

Eisenbrey (Thornapple) deposit. This Proterozoic massive sulfide deposit occurs north of Ladysmith (sec. 17 T.35N. R.6W.). The deposit is primarily known from drill-core data: actinolite, almandine, andalusite, anhydrite, antigorite, anthophyllite, augite, calcite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, cordierite, dolomite, epidote, garnet, grunerite(?), gypsum, hornblende, magnetite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, sericite, sphalerite, tremolite (DeMatties 1994; May 1996).

Flambeau copper mine. This copper mine was worked from 1993 to 1997 by the Flambeau Mining Company, a subsidiary of Kennecott Copper. It was located south of Ladysmith west of Hwy. 27 (sec. 9 T.34N. R.6W.). The deposit is a Proterozoic massive sulfide deposit with thick oxidized and supergene zones: actinolite, andalusite, ankerite, aragonite, arsenopyrite, aurichalcite, aaurite, bornite, calcite (some fluorescent), chalcocite (massive and magnificent crystal clusters, often iridescent due to a thin bornite coating), chalchanthite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, copper, cordierite, covellite, cubanite, cuprite (chalcotrichite), digenite, dolomite, dzahlindite, gahnite, galena, glaucodot, goethite, gold, halotrichite, hematite, hessite, jarosite, kaolin, kolbeckite, leucophosphite, malachite, manganese oxides, metavivianite, potassium feldspar, pyrophyllite, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, rosasite, sericite, spessartine, siderite, silver, sphalerite, tennantite, melaconite (May 1977; Rosemeyer 1995, 1997; May and Dinkowitz 1996; LaBerge 1996; A. Falster, pers. com.: T. Buchholz and C. Jones, pers. com.).

Sauk County

Hagerman hill. Hydrothermal deposits in Paleozoic sediments are found on the upper east side of Hagerman Hill (sec. 34 T.13N. R.3E.) 2 kilometers south of LaValle: chalcocite, chalcopyrite, malachite (Heyl and West 1982).

Illinois mine. This long-abandoned iron mine, 3 miles southwest of Freedom, was one of a number of old iron mines in the region in which the Proterozoic rocks of the Baraboo Range were worked: chlorite, dolomite, ferrodolomite, goethite, hematite, “iron phosphates,” siderite (Leith 1904).

Rock Springs. A road cut and old quarry in Rock Springs Narrows expose Proterozoic quartzite (E 1/2 SE sec. 29 T.12N. R.5E.). The road cut is just south of the famous Van Hise rock outcrop. A large active quarry in quartzite is to the east: dickite, hematite, quartz (abundant needlelike crystals in veins in breccia zone).

Sawyer County

Radisson dam. Coarse granitic rocks crop out down-river from the dam near Radisson (sec. 23 T.38N. R.7W.): biotite, hornblende, microcline, quartz.

Shawano County

Beryl mine. A pit was dug in a complex pegmatite located along the Embarass River south of the Tigerton Dells (NE 1/4 sec. 15 T.26N. R.12E.): allanite (tentatively identified, occurs as platy crystals to 0.5 cm across), bertandite, beryl (yellow to green crystals, several centimeters long), biotite, chlorite, columbite-tantalite, gadolinite (black masses to 0.5 cm in diameter), molybdenite(?), phenakite (masses several millimeters across), plagioclase, potassium feldspar (beige to bluegreen), quartz, schorl (Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey files; Falster 1986b).

Tigerton anorthosite. Many outcrops of anorthosite occur in secs. 22, 23, and 36 T.28N. R.12E. and in sec. 3 T.27N. R.11E.: augite, biotite, cummingtonite, hornblende, ilmenite, magnetite, orthopyroxene, plagioclase (grains to 20 cm long) (Greenberg et al. 1986).

Sheboygan County

Rabie’s quarry. Geode-bearing Silurian dolostones were exposed at Rabie’s quarry west of Sheboygan (sec. 7 T.15N. R.23E.): calcite, dolomite, quartz (Chamberlain 1877).

St. Croix County

Hanley Road road cut. This road cut, providing access to the Hudson industrial park in the NW 1/4 sec. 32 T.29N. R.19W., exposes vuggy Ordovician dolostone: aragonite (fluorescent and phosphorescent), calcite, dolomite, quartz (crystals, fluorescent) (Cordua 1998).

Hudson quarries. Several quarries south of Hudson expose Ordovician dolostones (NW 1/4 sec. 5 and SE 1/4 sec. 7 T.28N. R.19W.): calcite, dolomite, goethite, marcasite, quartz (drusy crystals and banded agate).

Taylor County

Bend deposit. Bend is a Proterozoic massive sulfide deposit northeast of Gilman (NW 1/4 sec. 2 T.32N. R.2W.) known solely from drill-core and geophysical data: arsenopyrite, bornite, calaverite, calcite, chalcocite, chalcopyrite, krennerite, petzite, pyrite, quartz, sericite, tetrahedrite-tennantite (DeMatties and Rowell 1991, 1996).

Vernon County

Read’s Creek copper prospects. Traces of copper mineralization in Paleozoic rocks occur on both sides of Read’s Creek in secs. 34, 35, and 36 T.12N. R.4W, 4-5 kilometers west of Readstown: chalcocite, chalcopyrite, dolomite, malachite (Heyl and West 1982).

Swangster copper prospect. Copper mineralization occurs in Ordovician dolostones near Westby (sec. 34 T.14N. R.5W.): chalcocite, chalcopyrite, dolomite, malachite (Heyl and West 1982).

Vilas County

Spider Lake. Float blocks of gneiss were found at the narrows between Spider Lake and Island Lake in the SE 1/4 sec. 13 T.42N. R.5E.: biotite, kyanite, quartz (Allen and Barrett 1915).

Washburn County

Mudge prospect. Prospects and outcrops exist in sec. 5 T.42N. R.10W.: calcite, copper (in nuggets up to 5 cm across), epidote, laumontite, malachite, prehnite, quartz (Strong 1880; Grant 1901; Dutton 1972).

Washington County

Kohlsville diamond. In 1888 a 21.5-carat colorless to yellow diamond was found in or near the Green Lake moraine near Kohlsville (Cannon and Mudrey 1981).

Waukesha County

Eagle diamond. This 16.25-carat diamond was found in 1876 during drilling into the drift near Eagle. The locality was later salted with diamonds and other stones, a situation finally debunked by George Kunz (Kunz 1894; Cannon and Mudrey 1981).

Waupaca County

Waupaca granite quarry. This quarry exposes coarse adamellite with excellent rapakivi texture on the north side of Granite Quarry Road about 6 kilometers north of Waupaca (NW 1/4 sec. 4 T.22N. R.12E.): allanite, apatite, biotite, fluorite, hornblende, ilmenite, magnetite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, titanite, zircon (Greenberg et al. 1986).

Dupont uranium claims. Small exacavations have been made for uranium exploration near Dupont (secs. 17, 18, 19, and 20 T.25N. R.13E.): biotite, hornblende (crystals to 5 cm long), uraninite (Wisconsin Geological and Natural History Survey files).

Winnebago County

Allan quarry. This quarry east of Omro (SW 1/4 sec. 9 T.18N. R.14E.) exposes vuggy Ordovician dolostones: calcite (fluorescent), dolomite, goethite (pseudomorphous after marcasite), marcasite, quartz.

Grundy quarry. This quarry northwest of Oshkosh (NE 1/4 sec. 33 T.19N. R.16E.) exposes Ordovician dolostones: calcite, dolomite, marcasite, pyrite, sphalerite.

Lutz quarry. This quarry, once famous among Wisconsin collectors, is now reclaimed. It was in sec. 29 T.18N. R.16E., on Hwy. 44 near Oshkosh, and vuggy Ordovician carbonate rocks were worked: bornite, calcite, cerussite, covellite, cuprite, dolomite, galena, hemimorphite, marcasite, pyrite, smithsonite, sphalerite (Chamberlain 1877: Hobbs 1905: U.S. Geological Survey 1976).

Neenah area quarries. Quarries expose vuggy Ordovician carbonate rock in Neenah: calcite, dolomite, fluorite (purple coatings on joints and as vein fillings), galena, marcasite, pyrite, pyrolusite, quartz, sphalerite (Bagg 1918).

Schultz quarry. This quarry exposes Ordovician carbonate rock in Neenah near Lake Winnebago on Tullar Road, west of Route 41 and north of Hwy. 114: calcite, dolomite, marcasite (Zeitner 1988).

Wood County

Cary Mound quarries. Quarries on and near Cary Mound (sec. 25 T.24N. R.2E.) expose Precambrian granites with local dikes, quartz veins, and zones of miarolitic cavities: apatite, calcite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, epidote, fluorite, galena, magnetite, muscovite (lithium-bearing), quartz, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, pyrite, pyrrhotite, siderite, sphalerite (Buchholz 1997; Buchholtz, Simmons, and Falster 1998).

Hassely quarry. This working quarry at the north edge of Wisconsin Rapids (sec. 1 T.22N. R.5E.) exposes Precambrian granitic rocks cut by metamorphosed mafic dikes and quartz veins: actinolite-tremolite, anatase (orange to dark blue-green crystals on quartz), apatite, biotite, brookite, calcite, chlorite, epidote, galena (inclusions in quartz), grossular (rare white crystals in quartz), hornblende, magnetite, molybdenite, muscovite, plagioclase, potassium feldspar, quartz, rutile, scheelite (fluorescent), sphalerite, titanite, zircon (Buchholz 1996).

Schill quarry. This quarry is east of Hwy. 186 and north of Vesper (NW 1/4 sec. 5 T.23N. R.4E.). It exposes red granitic rock, locally pegmatitic, cross-cut by vuggy quartz veins along chloritic shear zones: anatase (black microcrystals with blue highlights), ankerite(?), calcite, chlorite, fluorite (massive purple vein fillings, tiny yellow octahedra), galena, potassium feldspar, pyrite, pyrrhotite, quartz, sphalerite (T. Buchholz, pers. com.).

Something talc mine; old Czaikowski property. A flooded shaft site and scattered low dump piles are in the SW 1/4 sec. 15 T.25N. R.5E. near Milladore. This mine was last worked in the 1920s: actinolite, almandine, brucite, calcite, chlorite, goethite, magnetite pyrite, serpentine, talc (white to pale green; coarse platy to fine felted soapstone, some suitable for carving), tremolite (Shaw 1942; U.S. Bureau of Mines 1963).

Tower Hill. Sparse outcrops and temporary excavations on Tower Hill, north of Rudolph, expose serpentinite cut by veins of calcite: calcite, goethite (radiating sprays of golden-brown crystals), hematite (pseudomorphous after magnetite), magnetite, serpentine (“cutting grade” antigorite) (T. Buchholz, pets. com.).

Trowbridge-Nott talc mine. A flooded shaft site and scattered low dump piles are found in the George W. Mead Wildlife Area (NW 1/4 SW 1/4 sec. 11 T.25N. R.5E.). The shaft was sunk in 1928, and the property was mined for talc from 1929 to 1930 by the American Talc Company: actinolite, anthophyllite, azurite, brucite, chalcopyrite, chlorite, dolomite, goethite, magnetite, malachite, pyrite, serpentine, talc (coarse foliate to soapstone suitable for carving), tremolite (Shaw 1942).

Veedum quarries. These quarries (S 1/2 sec. 7 and N 1/2 sec. 18 T.22N. R.3E.) expose Proterozoic quartzite: muscovite (some fuchsite), quartz (including green aventurine) (Greenburg et al. 1986; LaBerge, Klasner, and Myers 1991).

Vesper quarry. This quarry near Power’s Bluff (NE 1/4 sec. 32 T.24N. R.4E.) exposes Proterozoic quartzite and argillite: kaolin, muscovite (some fuchsite), quartz. (black, red, yellow, and dendritic) (Greenburg et al. 1986; LaBerge, Klasner, and Myers 1991).

[Figures 3-36 ILLUSTRATION OMITTED]

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RELATED ARTICLE: Other State Mineral Locality Indexes Available

* Arkansas by Arthur E. Smith Jr., March/April 1988

* Georgia by Jennings B. Gordon, May/June 1989

* Ohio: Finlay Arch & Serpent Mound by Ernest H. Carlson, November/December 1990

* Texas by Arthur E. Smith Jr., May/June 1991

* Washington State by Lanny R. Ream, July/August 1991

* New Mexico by Ramon S. DeMark, September/ October 1992

* Louisiana by Arthur E. Smith Jr., May/June 1994

* Idaho by Lanny R. Ream, July/August 1995

* Alabama by Lewis S. Dean, September/October 1995

* Connecticut by Marcelle H. Weber and Earle C. Sullivan, November/December 1995

* Vermont by Vandall T. King and Janet W. Cares, September/October 1996

* Oklahoma by Arthur E. Smith Jr., Robert O. Fay, Joe Lobell, July/August 1997

* Missouri by Mark D Sherwood and Glenn A. Williams, March/April 1998

Issues are $6 and can be ordered from Rocks & Minerals, 5341 Thrasher Dr., Cincinnati, OH 45247.

WILLIAM S. CORDUA Department of Plant and Earth Sciences University of Wisconsin-River Falls 410 South Third Street River Falls, Wisconsin 54022

Dr. William S. Cordua is a professor of geology at the University of Wisconsin-River Falls where he teaches mineralogy and petrology among other courses.

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