THE NEW Flirting Game – why and how humans flirt – Abstract

Deborah A. Lott


To hear the evolutionary determinists tell it, we human beings flirt to propagate our genes and to display our genetic worth. Men are constitutionally predisposed to flirt with the healthiest, most fertile women, recognizable by their biologically correct waist-hip ratios. Women favor the guys with dominant demeanors, throbbing muscles and the most resources to invest in them and their offspring.

Looked at up close, human psychology is more diverse and perverse than the evolutionary determinists would have it. We flirt as thinking individuals in a particular culture at a particular time. Yes, we may express a repertoire of hardwired non-verbal expressions and behaviors–staring eyes, flashing brows, opened palms–that resemble those of other animals, but unlike other animals, we also flirt with conscious calculation. We have been known to practice our techniques in front of the mirror. In other words, flirting among human beings is culturally modulated as well as biologically driven, as much art as instinct.

In our culture today, it’s clear that we do not always choose as the object of our desire those people the evolutionists might deem the most biologically desirable. After all, many young women today find the pale, androgynous, scarcely muscled yet emotionally expressive Leonardo DiCaprio more appealing than the burly Tarzans (Arnold Schwartzenegger, Bruce Willis, etc.) of action movies. Woody Allen may look nerdy but he’s had no trouble winning women–and that’s not just because he has material resources, but because humor is also a precious cultural commodity. Though she has no breasts or hips to speak of, Ally McBeal still attracts because there’s ample evidence of a quick and quirky mind.

In short, we flirt with the intent of assessing potential lifetime partners, we flirt to have easy, no-strings-attached sex, and we flirt when we are not looking for either. We flirt because, most simply, flirtation can be a liberating form of play, a game with suspense and ambiguities that brings joys of its own. As Philadelphia-based social psychologist Tim Perper says, “Some flirters appear to want to prolong the interaction because it’s pleasurable and erotic in its own right, regardless of where it might lead.”

Here are some of the ways the game is currently being played.


When it comes to flirting today, women aren’t waiting around for men to make the advances. They’re taking the lead. Psychologist Monica Moore, Ph.D. of Webster University in St. Louis, Missouri, has spent more than 2000 hours observing women’s flirting maneuvers in restaurants, singles bars and at parties. According to her findings, women give non-verbal cues that get a flirtation rolling fully two-thirds of the time. A man may think he’s making the first move because he is the one to literally move from wherever he is to the woman’s side, but usually he has been summoned.

By the standards set out by evolutionary psychologists, the women who attract the most men would most likely be those with the most symmetrical features or the best hip-to-waist ratios. Not so, says Moore. In her studies, the women who draw the most response are the ones who send the most signals. “Those who performed more than 35 displays per hour elicited greater than four approaches per hour,” she notes, “and the more variety the woman used in her techniques, the more likely she was to be successful.”

SEXUAL Semaphores

Moore tallied a total of 52 different nonverbal courtship behaviors used by women, including glancing, gazing (short and sustained), primping, preening, smiling, lip licking, pouting, giggling, laughing and nodding, as if to nonverbally indicate, “Yes! yes!” A woman would often begin with a room-encompassing glance, in actuality a casing-the-joint scan to seek out prospects. When she’d zeroed in on a target she’d exhibit the short darting glance–looking at a man, quickly looking away, looking back and then away again. There was something shy and indirect in this initial eye contact.

But women countered their shy moves with other, more aggressive and overt tactics. Those who liked to live dangerously took a round robin approach, alternately flirting with several different men at once until one responded in an unequivocal fashion. A few women hiked their skirts up to bring more leg into a particular man’s field of vision. When they inadvertently drew the attention of other admirers, they quickly pulled their skirts down. If a man failed to get the message, a woman might parade, walking across the room towards him, hips swaying, breasts pushed out, head held high.

WHO’S Submissive?

Moore observed some of the same nonverbal behaviors that Eibl-Eibesfeldt and other ethologists had deemed universal among women: the eyebrow flash (an exaggerated raising of the eyebrows of both eyes, followed by a rapid lowering), the coy smile (a tilting of the head downward, with partial averting of the eyes and, at the end, covering of the mouth), and the exposed neck (turning the head so that the side of the neck is bared).

But while many ethologists interpret these signs as conveying female submissiveness, Moore has an altogether different take. “If these behaviors serve to orchestrate courtship, which they do, then how can they be anything but powerful?” she observes. “Who determined that to cover your mouth is a submissive gesture? Baring the neck may have a lot more to do with the neck being an erogenous zone than its being a submissive posture.” Though women in Moore’s sample used the coy smile, they also maintained direct eye contact for long periods and smiled fully and unabashedly.

Like Moore, Perper believes that ethologists have overemphasized certain behaviors and misinterpreted them as signifying either dominance or submission. For instance, says Perper, among flirting American heterosexual men and women as well as homosexual men, the coy smile is less frequent than direct eye contact and sustained smiling. He suggests that some cultures may use the coy smile more than others, and that it is not always a sign of deference.

In watching a flirtatious couple, Perper finds that a male will perform gestures and movements that an ethologist might consider dominant, such as sticking out his chest and strutting around, but he’ll also give signs that could be read as submissive, such as bowing his head lower than the woman’s. The woman may also do both. “She may drop her head, turn slightly, bare her neck, but then she’ll lift her eyes and lean forward with her breasts held out, and that doesn’t look submissive at all,” Perper notes.

Men involved in these encounters, says Perper, don’t describe themselves as “feeling powerful.” In fact, he and Moore agree, neither party wholly dominates in a flirtation. Instead, there is a subtle, rhythmical and playful back and forth that culminates in a kind of physical synchronization between two people. She turns, he turns; she picks up her drink, he picks up his drink.

Still, by escalating and de-escalating the flirtation’s progression, the woman controls the pace. To slow down a flirtation, a woman might orient her body away slightly or cross her arms across her chest, or avoid meeting the man’s eyes. To stop the dance in its tracks, she can yawn, frown, sneer, shake her head from side to side as if to say “No,” pocket her hands, hold her trunk rigidly, avoid the man’s gaze, stare over his head, or resume flirting with other men. If a man is really dense, she might hold a strand of hair up to her eyes as if to examine her split ends or even pick her teeth.


Do women make these moves consciously? You bet. “I do these things incidentally but not accidentally,” one adept female flirter told Perper. She wanted her movements and gestures to look fluid and spontaneous but they were at least partly planned. In general, says Perper, women are more aware than are men of exactly what they do, why they do it and the effect it has. A man might simply say that he saw a woman he was attracted to and struck up a conversation; a woman would remember all the steps in the flirtation dance. “Men can tell you in enormous detail what they do once they are in bed with a woman,” declares Perper. But it is the women who know how they got there.


If flirting today is often a conscious activity, it is also a learned one. Women pick up the moves early. In observations of 100 girls between the ages of 13 and 16 at shopping malls, ice skating rinks and other places adolescents congregate, Moore found the teens exhibiting 31 of the 52 courtship signals deployed by adult women. (The only signals missing were those at the more overt end of the spectrum, such as actual caressing.) Overall, the teens’ gestures looked less natural than ones made by mature females: they laughed more boisterously and preened more obviously, and their moves were broader and rougher.

The girls’ clearly modeled their behavior on the leader of the pack. When the alpha female stroked her hair or swayed her hips, her companions copied quickly. “You never see this in adult women,” says Moore. “Indeed, women go to great lengths to stand out from their female companions.”

Compared with adults, the teens signaled less frequently–7.6 signs per hour per girl, as opposed to 44.6 per woman–but their maneuvers, though clumsy, were equally effective at attracting the objects of their desire, in this case, teen boys.

BEYOND The Straight and Narrow

Flirting’s basic purpose may be to lure males and females into procreating, but it’s also an activity indulged in by gays as well as straights. How do flirting rituals compare?

Marny Hall, a San Francisco-area psychologist who’s been an observer and participant in lesbian courtship, recalls that in the 1950s, gay women adhered to rigid gender-role models. Butches did what men were supposed to do: held their bodies tight, lit cigarettes with a dominating flourish, bought drinks, opened doors and otherwise demonstrated strength and gallantry. “Butches would swagger and wear chinos and stand around with one hip cocked and be bold in their gazes,” she observes. “Femmes would sashay and wiggle their hips and use indirect feminine wiles.”

Beginning in the late 1960s, such fixed role-playing began to dissolve. Lesbians meeting in consciousness-raising groups rejected gender assumptions. It was considered sexually attractive, says Hall, to “put yourself out without artifice, without deception.” In the 90s, however, the butch-femme distinction has returned.

But with a difference. Today’s lesbians have a sense of irony and wit about the whole charade that would do Mae West proud. “A butch today might flirt by saying to a femme, `Can I borrow your lipstick? I’m trying to liberate the woman within,'” she says with a laugh. “The gender roles are more scrambled, with `dominant femmes’ and `soft butches.’ There’s more plurality and less polarization.”

Male homosexuals also exhibit a wide range of flirting behaviors. In his studies, Perper has observed two gay men locked in a stalemate of sustained eye contact for 45 minutes before either made the next move. At the other end of the spectrum, he’s seen gay dyads go through the entire flirtation cycle–“gaze, approach, talk, turn, touch, synchronize”–and be out the door on the way to one or the other’s abode within two minutes.

The advent of AIDS and the greater societal acceptance of long-term gay attachments are changing flirtation rituals in the gay community. A sign of the times may be a courtship and dating course currently offered at Harvey Milk Institute in San Francisco. It instructs gay men in the repertoire of gestures long used by straight women seeking partners–ways of slowing down the flirtation, forestalling physical contact and assessing the other’s suitability as a long-term mate. In short, it teaches homosexuals how to employ what the ethologists call a “long-term strategy.”


When you’re a crossdresser, all possibilities are open to you,” says a male heterosexual who goes by the name Stephanie Montana when in female garb. In feminine persona, says Montana, “I can be more vulnerable, more animated and use more intermittent eye contact.”

On one occasion Montana discovered what women seem to learn early on. A man was flirting with her, and, giddy with the attention, Montana sustained eye contact for a bit too long, gave too many overt sexual signals. In response, the man started acting in a proprietary fashion, frightening Montana with “those voracious male stares.” Montana had learned the courtship signals but not the rejection repertoire. She didn’t yet know how to put on the brakes.

Bisexuals have access to the entire panoply of male and female gestures. Loree Thomas of Seattle, who refers to herself as a bisexual non-op transsexual (born male, she is taking female hormones and living as a woman, but will not have a sex-change operation), has flirted four ways: dressed as a man interacting with men or with women, and dressed as a woman in encounters with women or men.

As a man flirting with a woman, Thomas found it most effective to maintain eye contact, smile, lean close, talk in a low voice and offer sincere compliments about the woman’s best features. Man to man, says Thomas, the progression to direct physical contact accelerates. As a woman with a woman, Thomas’ flirting has been “more shy, less direct than a man would be.” As a woman with a man, she’s played the stereotypical female role, “asking the man questions about himself, and listening as if totally fascinated.” In all cases, eye contact and smiling are universal flirtation currency.

What the experience of cross-dressers reinforces is the degree to which all flirtation is a game, a careful charade that involves some degree of deception and role-playing. Evolutionists talk about this deception in terms of men’s tendency to exaggerate their wealth, success and access to resources, and women’s strategic use of cosmetics and clothing to enhance their physical allure.

Some of the exhilaration of flirting, of course, lies in what is hidden, the tension between what is felt and what is revealed. Flirting pairs volley back and forth, putting out ambiguous signals, neither willing to disclose more than the other, neither wanting to appear more desirous to the other.

To observers like Moore and Perper, flirtation often seems to most resemble the antics of children on the playground or even perhaps the ritual peek-a-boo that babies play with their caregivers. Flirters jostle, tease and tickle, even sometimes stick out a tongue at their partner or reach around from behind to cover up their eyes. As Daniel Stern, researcher, psychiatrist, and author of The Interpersonal World of the Infant (Karnac, 1998), has pointed out, the two groups in our culture that engage in the most sustained eye contact are mothers and infants, and lovers.

And thus in a way, the cycle of flirting takes us full circle. If flirting sets us off on the road to producing babies, it also whisks us back to the pleasures of infancy.

COPYRIGHT 1999 Sussex Publishers, Inc.

COPYRIGHT 2000 Gale Group

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