Work more, earn more? How hours of work affect occupational earnings

Work more, earn more? How hours of work affect occupational earnings – includes related data on earnings by occupation

Daniel Hecker

Usually, the more hours people work, the more money they earn. But that is not always the case. In choosing an occupation, it is wise to consider the link between earnings and the hours of work required to make those earnings. Some people value a high income over time for leisure or other activities and may be willing to accept a long workweek. Others want a high income but want to achieve that goal with a job that has high hourly earnings rather than long hours. Still other workers may be satisfied working shorter hours and earning more modest incomes.

This article, based on 1997 data from the Current Population Survey, examines the occupations most and least likely to require standard and long hours. Within occupations, it shows how much workers with long workweeks earned compared to their counterparts with standard ones. It also ranks occupations based on workers’ weekly earnings, providing a glimpse of which reward more hours with a bigger paycheck.

Hours and earnings within occupations

Within every occupation, some workers put in longer hours than others. Some people have a standard workweek, defined in this article as 35 to 44 hours; other workers have an extended week, defined here as 45 to 99 hours. (Where data exist, some occupations are further broken down into categories of 45 to 54 hours and 55 to 99 hours per week.)

The data are first examined without regard to earnings, revealing the proportion of men and women in different occupations who had extended workweeks. About 30 percent of men usually worked more than 44 hours per week, and 10 percent worked more than 54 hours per week. At least two-thirds of physicians, clergy, and workers in firefighting occupations had extended weeks. In contrast, about 7 percent of men working as janitors and cleaners had extended workweeks. (See table 1.)

Table 1 Usual weekly hours of men employed full time, by detailed occupation, 1997

Average

Occupation hours

Physicians(1) 52

Clergy 52

Extractive occupations 51

Fire fighting occupations 51

Farm workers 51

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 50

Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 49

Lawyers 49

Managers, marketing, advertising, and

public relations 48

Supervisors and proprietors, sales

occupations 48

Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 48

Administrators, education and related

fields 47

Financial managers 47

Truckdrivers 47

Real estate sales occupations 47

Teachers, college and university 47

Securities and financial services sales

occupations 46

Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 46

Managers, service organizations n.e.c.(2) 46

Insurance sales occupations 46

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 46

Tool and die makers 46

Other financial officers 45

Teachers, secondary school 45

Industrial engineers 45

Supervisors, production occupations 45

Sales occupations, other business services 44

Operations and systems researchers and

analysts 44

Accountants and auditors 44

Teachers, elementary school 44

Electrical and electronic engineers 44

Supervisors, construction occupations 44

Sales workers, furniture, radio, TV, and

appliances 43

Computer systems analysts and scientists 43

Machinists 43

Civil engineers 43

Designers 43

Industrial machinery repairers 43

Officials and administrators, public

administration 43

Production inspectors, checkers, and

examiners 43

Automotive mechanics 43

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 43

Welders and cutters 43

Computer programmers 43

Police and detectives, public service 43

Sales workers, other commodities 42

Metalworking and plastics working machine

operators 42

Electrical and electronic equipment

repairers 42

Cooks 42

Machine operators, assorted materials 42

Industrial truck and tractor equipment

operators 42

Construction trades 42

Engineering technologists and technicians 42

Electricians 42

Construction laborers 42

Mail carriers and postal clerks 42

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 42

Assemblers 42

Guards and police, except public service 42

Carpenters 42

Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 42

Laborers, except construction 42

Janitors and cleaners 41

Percent distribution

by weekly hours-worked

group

Occupation 35-44 45-54 55-99

Physicians(1) 32 25 44

Clergy 31 28 40

Extractive occupations 58 12 31

Fire fighting occupations 33 26 41

Farm workers 50 23 28

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 35 33 32

Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 40 34 26

Lawyers 37 37 25

Managers, marketing, advertising, and

public relations 38 37 24

Supervisors and proprietors, sales

occupations 47 33 21

Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 54 24 23

Administrators, education and related

fields 52 26 22

Financial managers 42 39 19

Truckdrivers 58 23 19

Real estate sales occupations 52 28 21

Teachers, college and university 57 24 19

Securities and financial services sales

occupations 47 38 15

Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 55 26 19

Managers, service organizations n.e.c.(2) 55 29 16

Insurance sales occupations 52 36 13

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 55 31 14

Tool and die makers 54 32 14

Other financial officers 52 35 13

Teachers, secondary school 61 26 13

Industrial engineers 60 29 10

Supervisors, production occupations 65 26 9

Sales occupations, other business services 64 26 10

Operations and systems researchers and

analysts 65 25 10

Accountants and auditors 66 26 9

Teachers, elementary school 69 23 8

Electrical and electronic engineers 70 23 7

Supervisors, construction occupations 75 16 9

Sales workers, furniture, radio, TV, and

appliances 66 28 6

Computer systems analysts and scientists 67 26 7

Machinists 72 23 5

Civil engineers 70 21 9

Designers 70 23 7

Industrial machinery repairers 76 18 6

Officials and administrators, public

administration 74 18 8

Production inspectors, checkers, and

examiners 74 19 7

Automotive mechanics 74 21 5

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 74 22 5

Welders and cutters 80 16 4

Computer programmers 70 25 5

Police and detectives, public service 81 13 6

Sales workers, other commodities 78 16 5

Metalworking and plastics working machine

operators 80 16 4

Electrical and electronic equipment

repairers 82 13 6

Cooks 82 11 7

Machine operators, assorted materials 83 12 4

Industrial truck and tractor equipment

operators 84 13 3

Construction trades 84 10 5

Engineering technologists and technicians 83 14 3

Electricians 85 11 4

Construction laborers 87 10 3

Mail carriers and postal clerks 81 18 2

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 84 10 5

Assemblers 86 11 3

Guards and police, except public service 86 9 5

Carpenters 86 9 4

Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 85 13 3

Laborers, except construction 89 8 3

Janitors and cleaners 93 5 2

(1) Hours for physicians exclude those working more than 74 hours a week because almost all have very low earnings and are presumed to be interns rather than licensed physicians.

(2) n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Fewer women than men had extended workweeks–15 percent usually worked more than 44 hours per week, and 3 percent worked more than 45 hours. Occupations in which at least half the women worked extended weeks were physicians, lawyers, and marketing, advertising, and public relations managers. Occupations in which 7 percent or fewer women worked extended weeks include nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants; bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing clerks; and secretaries. (See table 2.)

Table 2 Usual weekly hours of women employed full time, by detailed occupation, 1997

Average

Occupation hours

Physicians(1) 49

Lawyers 46

Managers, marketing, advertising, and

public relations 45

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 45

Teachers, college and university 45

Private household occupations 44

Teachers, secondary school 44

Administrators, education, and related

fields 44

Teachers, elementary school 44

Financial managers 44

Managers, service organizations n.e.c.(2) 43

Supervisors and proprietors, sales

occupations 43

Managers, medicine and health 43

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 43

Engineers 43

Operations and systems researchers and

analysts 43

Sales representatives, finance and

business services 42

Computer systems analysts and scientists 42

Other financial officers 42

Teachers, special education 42

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 42

Accountants and auditors 41

Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 41

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 41

Registered nurses 41

Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing

clerks 41

Sales workers, retail and personal

services 40

Secretaries 40

Percent distribution

by weekly hours-worked

group

Occupation 35-44 45-54 55-99

Physicians(1) 49 26 26

Lawyers 46 36 18

Managers, marketing, advertising, and

public relations 50 37 12

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 60 28 12

Teachers, college and university 61 22 16

Private household occupations 80 12 8

Teachers, secondary school 66 25 8

Administrators, education, and related

fields 65 25 10

Teachers, elementary school 68 24 8

Financial managers 67 26 7

Managers, service organizations n.e.c.(2) 72 21 7

Supervisors and proprietors, sales

occupations 70 22 7

Managers, medicine and health 73 20 7

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 74 20 6

Engineers 70 25 6

Operations and systems researchers and

analysts 76 13 10

Sales representatives, finance and

business services 76 18 6

Computer systems analysts and scientists 78 20 3

Other financial officers 81 13 6

Teachers, special education 81 15 4

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 84 13 3

Accountants and auditors 83 15 2

Teachers, prekindergarten and kindergarten 87 10 3

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 93 4 3

Registered nurses 90 8 1

Bookkeepers, accounting, and auditing

clerks 93 6 1

Sales workers, retail and personal

services 92 6 2

Secretaries 95 4 1

(1) Hours for physicians exclude those working more than 74 hours a week because almost all have very low earnings and are presumed to be interns rather than licensed physicians.

(2) n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Earnings data show that in some occupations, workers with extended workweeks reported a large earnings premium–that is, they earned more money for working longer hours. In half the cases, workers with extended workweeks earned at least 32 percent more each week than did those with standard workweeks. However, within some occupations, there was little or no difference in earnings between those who had an extended workweek and those who worked standard weeks.

Among men, for example, some retail sales workers who had an extended workweek earned 76 percent more than their counterparts who put in a standard week. In contrast, male elementary school teachers who worked extended weeks earned slightly less than those who worked standard ones. (See table 3.)

Table 3 Usual weekly and hourly earnings of men employed full-time, by occupation and hours-worked group, 1997

Hours-worked group

35-39

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earnings earnings

Median all employed $581 $13.32

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 889 19.69

Officials and administrators,

public administration 872 21.01

Financial managers 991 21.05

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 1,062 22.26

Administrators, education and

related fields 951 21.15

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 555 10.80

Managers, service organizations

n.e.c.(1) 728 16.01

Management related occupations 784 18.55

Accountants and auditors 792 18.58

Other financial officers 932 20.69

Professional speciality occupations 886 20.39

Engineers 993 23.35

Civil engineers 962 23.23

Electrical and electronic

engineers 999 23.66

Industrial engineers 901 20.45

Computer systems analysts and

scientists 954 22.53

Operations and systems researchers

and analysts 922 21.49

Physicians(2) 1,470 28.09

Teachers, college and university 935 20.70

Teachers, elementary school 721 16.77

Teachers, secondary school 772 17.79

Clergy 591 11.71

Lawyers 1,262 26.09

Designers 791 19.11

Technicians and related support

occupations 666 16.15

Engineering technologists and

technicians 641 15.44

Computer programmers 872 20.66

Sales occupations 602 13.10

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 616 13.10

Insurance sales occupations 754 17.67

Real estate sales occupations 720 16.15

Sales occupations, other business

services 684 15.04

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 735 16.68

Sales workers, motor vehicles and

boats 590 12.12

Sales workers, furniture, radio,

TV, and appliance 500 11.74

Sales workers, other retail

commodities 390 9.42

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 513 12.48

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 688 15.66

Mail carriers and postal clerks 689 16.97

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical

Traffic, shipping, and receiving

clerks $410 $10.12

Service occupations 377 9.19

Firefighting occupations 725 14.46

Police and detectives, public

service 713 16.79

Guards and police, except

public service 353 8.76

Cooks 303 7.37

Janitors and cleaners 334 8.46

Farming, forestry, and fishing

occupations 306 6.97

Farm workers 278 5.87

Precision production, craft, and

repair occupations 573 13.49

Supervisors, mechanics and

repairers 769 16.70

Automotive mechanics 496 11.76

Industrial machinery repairers 567 13.50

Electrical and electronic equipment

repairers 632 15.40

Supervisors, construction

occupations 672 15.40

Carpenters 490 12.01

Electricians 639 15.66

Plumbers, pipefitters, and

steamfitters 618 15.08

Mining and petroleum occupations 663 14.01

Supervisors, production occupations 667 15.45

Tool and die makers 786 17.37

Machinists 578 13.39

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 448 10.81

Metalworking and plastics working

machine operators 486 11.79

Machine operators, assorted

materials 453 10.96

Welders and cutters 495 12.07

Assemblers 413 10.30

Production inspectors, checkers,

and examiners 563 12.83

Transportation and material moving

occupations 505 11.30

Truckdrivers 508 11.05

Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 413 8.43

Industrial truck and tractor

equipment operators 419 10.34

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 350 8.66

Construction laborers 388 9.56

Laborers, except construction 362 8.88

35-44

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earnings earnings

Median all employed $505 $12.72

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 747 19.01

Officials and administrators,

public administration 833 21.09

Financial managers 752 19.16

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 832 20.80

Administrators, education and

related fields 839 21.18

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 407 10.35

Managers, service organizations

n.e.c.(1) 587 14.24

Management related occupations 703 17.67

Accountants and auditors 707 17.75

Other financial officers 751 19.26

Professional speciality occupations 824 20.80

Engineers 961 24.51

Civil engineers 950 24.25

Electrical and electronic

engineers 955 24.44

Industrial engineers 873 22.20

Computer systems analysts and

scientists 919 23.15

Operations and systems researchers

and analysts 867 21.44

Physicians(2) 1,134 28.36

Teachers, college and university 818 20.78

Teachers, elementary school 721 18.44

Teachers, secondary school 758 19.20

Clergy 432 11.09

Lawyers 1,057 27.05

Designers 744 19.10

Technicians and related support

occupations 635 16.06

Engineering technologists and

technicians 618 15.44

Computer programmers 842 21.11

Sales occupations 485 12.26

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 502 12.59

Insurance sales occupations 630 16.39

Real estate sales occupations 633 15.99

Sales occupations, other business

services 528 13.14

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 664 16.79

Sales workers, motor vehicles and

boats 451 11.31

Sales workers, furniture, radio,

TV, and appliance 455 11.65

Sales workers, other retail

commodities 329 8.53

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 487 12.29

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 651 16.09

Mail carriers and postal clerks 679 17.05

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical

Traffic, shipping, and receiving

clerks $396 $10.04

Service occupations 352 9.02

Firefighting occupations 634 15.94

Police and detectives, public

service 654 16.49

Guards and police, except

public service 334 8.57

Cooks 287 7.21

Janitors and cleaners 325 8.45

Farming, forestry, and fishing

occupations 290 7.22

Farm workers 247 6.15

Precision production, craft, and

repair occupations 534 13.48

Supervisors, mechanics and

repairers 683 17.20

Automotive mechanics 469 11.81

Industrial machinery repairers 534 13.50

Electrical and electronic equipment

repairers 612 15.35

Supervisors, construction

occupations 624 15.62

Carpenters 477 12.06

Electricians 623 15.85

Plumbers, pipefitters, and

steamfitters 606 15.30

Mining and petroleum occupations 573 14.25

Supervisors, production occupations 610 15.29

Tool and die makers 648 16.16

Machinists 527 13.29

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 416 10.46

Metalworking and plastics working

machine operators 446 11.12

Machine operators, assorted

materials 422 10.64

Welders and cutters 475 11.99

Assemblers 392 10.10

Production inspectors, checkers,

and examiners 506 12.56

Transportation and material moving

occupations 442 11.19

Truckdrivers 420 10.52

Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 372 9.59

Industrial truck and tractor

equipment operators 405 10.24

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 333 8.54

Construction laborers 373 9.47

Laborers, except construction 352 8.94

45-99

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earnings earnings

Median all employed $775 $15.14

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 1,039 20.21

Officials and administrators,

public administration 1,073 20.72

Financial managers 1,159 22.45

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 1,230 22.96

Administrators, education and

related fields 1,146 21.12

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 606 10.99

Managers, service organizations

n.e.c.(1) 917 17.84

Management related occupations 962 19.80

Accountants and auditors 942 19.63

Other financial officers 1,159 23.41

Professional speciality occupations 982 19.67

Engineers 1,053 21.20

Civil engineers 1,006 19.70

Electrical and electronic

engineers 1,108 21.47

Industrial engineers 934 19.01

Computer systems analysts and

scientists 1,048 21.44

Operations and systems researchers

and analysts 1,052 21.53

Physicians(2) 1,631 27.96

Teachers, college and university 1,145 20.58

Teachers, elementary school 720 13.56

Teachers, secondary school 794 15.25

Clergy 624 12.02

Lawyers 1,400 25.76

Designers 911 19.13

Technicians and related support

occupations 828 16.44

Engineering technologists and

technicians 767 15.45

Computer programmers 922 19.92

Sales occupations 752 14.55

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 732 13.76

Insurance sales occupations 1,076 19.88

Real estate sales occupations 857 19.05

Sales occupations, other business

services 832 16.99

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 838 16.54

Sales workers, motor vehicles and

boats 668 12.50

Sales workers, furniture, radio,

TV, and appliance 602 11.78

Sales workers, other retail

commodities 578 11.57

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 674 13.46

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 752 15.24

Mail carriers and postal clerks 775 16.20

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical

Traffic, shipping, and receiving

clerks $514 $10.62

Service occupations 528 10.23

Firefighting occupations 767 13.82

Police and detectives, public

service 920 18.58

Guards and police, except

public service 486 9.37

Cooks 413 7.92

Janitors and cleaners 430 8.56

Farming, forestry, and fishing

occupations 341 6.20

Farm workers 313 5.60

Precision production, craft, and

repair occupations 693 13.57

Supervisors, mechanics and

repairers 831 16.18

Automotive mechanics 588 11.68

Industrial machinery repairers 678 13.49

Electrical and electronic equipment

repairers 787 16.04

Supervisors, construction

occupations 772 15.01

Carpenters 593 11.70

Electricians 770 14.89

Plumbers, pipefitters, and

steamfitters 704 14.14

Mining and petroleum occupations 825 13.43

Supervisors, production occupations 800 15.95

Tool and die makers 913 18.82

Machinists 655 13.48

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 740 12.21

Metalworking and plastics working

machine operators 621 12.96

Machine operators, assorted

materials 592 12.08

Welders and cutters 612 12.27

Assemblers 640 12.62

Production inspectors, checkers,

and examiners 654 13.21

Transportation and material moving

occupations 623 11.46

Truckdrivers 618 11.36

Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 445 8.29

Industrial truck and tractor

equipment operators 568 11.01

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 457 9.26

Construction laborers 498 10.09

Laborers, except construction 425 8.61

Weekly

premium,

45-99 over

35-44

Occupation (percent)

Median all employed 53

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 39

Officials and administrators,

public administration 29

Financial managers 54

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 48

Administrators, education and

related fields 37

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 49

Managers, service organizations

n.e.c.(1) 56

Management related occupations 37

Accountants and auditors 33

Other financial officers 54

Professional speciality occupations 19

Engineers 10

Civil engineers 6

Electrical and electronic

engineers 16

Industrial engineers 7

Computer systems analysts and

scientists 14

Operations and systems researchers

and analysts 21

Physicians(2) 44

Teachers, college and university 40

Teachers, elementary school —

Teachers, secondary school 5

Clergy 44

Lawyers 32

Designers 22

Technicians and related support

occupations 30

Engineering technologists and

technicians 24

Computer programmers 10

Sales occupations 55

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 46

Insurance sales occupations 71

Real estate sales occupations 35

Sales occupations, other business

services 58

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 26

Sales workers, motor vehicles and

boats 48

Sales workers, furniture, radio,

TV, and appliance 32

Sales workers, other retail

commodities 76

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 38

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 16

Mail carriers and postal clerks 14

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical

Traffic, shipping, and receiving

clerks 30

Service occupations 50

Firefighting occupations 21

Police and detectives, public

service 41

Guards and police, except

public service 46

Cooks 44

Janitors and cleaners 32

Farming, forestry, and fishing

occupations 18

Farm workers 27

Precision production, craft, and

repair occupations 30

Supervisors, mechanics and

repairers 22

Automotive mechanics 25

Industrial machinery repairers 27

Electrical and electronic equipment

repairers 29

Supervisors, construction

occupations 24

Carpenters 24

Electricians 24

Plumbers, pipefitters, and

steamfitters 16

Mining and petroleum occupations 44

Supervisors, production occupations 31

Tool and die makers 41

Machinists 24

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 78

Metalworking and plastics working

machine operators 39

Machine operators, assorted

materials 40

Welders and cutters 29

Assemblers 63

Production inspectors, checkers,

and examiners 29

Transportation and material moving

occupations 41

Truckdrivers 47

Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 20

Industrial truck and tractor

equipment operators 40

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 37

Construction laborers 34

Laborers, except construction 21

(1) n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

(2) Earnings for physicians exclude those working more than 74 hours a week because almost all have very low earnings and are presumed to be interns rather than licensed physicians.

Among women, sales representatives for financial and business services working an extended week earned 62 percent more than their standard workweek counterparts. But secondary school teachers with an extended workweek earned 3 percent more than those with a standard workweek. (See table 4.)

Table 4 Usual weekly and hourly earnings of women employed full time, by occupation and hours-worked group, 1997

Hours-worked group

35-99

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earning earning

Median all employed $435 $10.75

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 622 14.62

Financial managers 655 15.30

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 732 16.23

Administrators, education and

related fields 660 15.41

Managers, medicine and health 624 15.12

Managers, food service and

lodging establishments 407 9.07

Managers, service organizations

n.e.c.(1) 598 14.29

Management related occupations 579 13.89

Accountants and auditors 590 14.13

Other financial officers 577 13.76

Professional speciality occupations 664 16.07

Engineers, all specialties 837 20.20

Computer systems analysts and scientists 852 20.59

Physicians(2) 1,106 24.53

Registered nurses 707 17.85

Teachers, college and university 808 18.57

Teachers, prekindergarten and

kindergarten 405 9.86

Teachers, elementary school 657 15.31

Teachers, secondary school 695 16.33

Teachers, special education 680 16.54

Lawyers 957 21.33

Technicians and related support

occupations 499 12.38

Sales occupations 357 8.84

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 438 10.27

Sales representatives, finance

and business services 513 12.31

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale

trade 580 13.34

Sales workers, retail and

personal services 271 6.89

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 404 10.23

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 525 12.81

Secretaries 411 10.43

Bookkeepers, accounting, and

auditing clerks 421 10.49

Service occupations, including

private household $286 $7.14

Private household occupations 223 5.53

Nursing aides, orderlies, and

attendants 298 7.37

Precision production, craft,

and repair occupations 384 9.61

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 313 7.85

Transportation and material

moving occupations 371 9.10

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 299 7.52

Hours-worked group

35-44

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earnings earnings

Median all employed $408 $10.38

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 571 14.19

Financial managers 593 14.43

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 637 15.95

Administrators, education and

related fields 580 14.68

Managers, medicine and health 562 14.21

Managers, food service and

lodging establishments 349 8.91

Managers, service organizations

n.e.c.(1) 535 14.04

Management related occupations 544 13.59

Accountants and auditors 561 13.98

Other financial officers 535 13.45

Professional speciality occupations 634 16.19

Engineers, all specialties 801 20.50

Computer systems analysts and scientists 834 20.87

Physicians(2) 1,071 27.92

Registered nurses 692 17.79

Teachers, college and university 727 18.53

Teachers, prekindergarten and

kindergarten 383 9.62

Teachers, elementary school 630 16.07

Teachers, secondary school 685 17.52

Teachers, special education 669 17.05

Lawyers 807 20.23

Technicians and related support

occupations 486 12.28

Sales occupations 317 8.27

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 386 9.83

Sales representatives, finance

and business services 457 11.75

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale

trade 516 12.88

Sales workers, retail and

personal services 266 6.78

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 398 10.19

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 505 12.78

Secretaries 409 10.47

Bookkeepers, accounting, and

auditing clerks 416 10.50

Service occupations, including

private household $282 $7.16

Private household occupations 218 5.58

Nursing aides, orderlies, and

attendants 295 7.48

Precision production, craft,

and repair occupations 369 9.35

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 307 7.74

Transportation and material

moving occupations 342 8.98

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 294 7.45

Hours-worked group

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earnings earnings

Median all employed $658 $13.16

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 789 15.48

Financial managers 895 17.25

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 827 16.85

Administrators, education and

related fields 843 17.08

Managers, medicine and health 904 17.22

Managers, food service and

lodging establishments 475 9.29

Managers, service organizations

n.e.c.(1) 784 15.31

Management related occupations 729 14.99

Accountants and auditors 726 15.34

Other financial officers 728 15.01

Professional speciality occupations 772 15.45

Engineers, all specialties 976 19.44

Computer systems analysts and scientists 940 19.82

Physicians(2) 1,135 21.76

Registered nurses 898 18.54

Teachers, college and university 969 18.65

Teachers, prekindergarten and

kindergarten 598 10.76

Teachers, elementary school 725 14.09

Teachers, secondary school 707 13.95

Teachers, special education 720 14.22

Lawyers 1,184 23.34

Technicians and related support

occupations 699 14.44

Sales occupations 602 12.18

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 566 11.62

Sales representatives, finance

and business services 741 15.26

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale

trade 787 16.02

Sales workers, retail and

personal services 425 8.22

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 528 10.98

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 654 12.88

Secretaries 446 9.39

Bookkeepers, accounting, and

auditing clerks 480 10.28

Service occupations, including

private household $342 $6.63

Private household occupations 283 5.10

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 356 6.60

Precision production, craft, and repair

occupations 627 13.09

Machine operators, assemblers, and

inspectors 416 8.48

Transportation and material moving

occupations 572 10.03

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers,

and laborers 406 8.48

Weekly premium

45-99 over

Occupation 35-44 (percent)

Median all employed 61

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 38

Financial managers 51

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 30

Administrators, education and

related fields 45

Managers, medicine and health 61

Managers, food service and

lodging establishments 36

Managers, service organizations

n.e.c.(1) 47

Management related occupations 34

Accountants and auditors 29

Other financial officers 36

Professional speciality occupations 22

Engineers, all specialties 22

Computer systems analysts and scientists 13

Physicians(2) 6

Registered nurses 30

Teachers, college and university 33

Teachers, prekindergarten and

kindergarten 56

Teachers, elementary school 15

Teachers, secondary school 3

Teachers, special education 8

Lawyers 47

Technicians and related support

occupations 44

Sales occupations 90

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 47

Sales representatives, finance

and business services 62

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale

trade 53

Sales workers, retail and

personal services 60

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 33

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 30

Secretaries 9

Bookkeepers, accounting, and

auditing clerks 15

Service occupations, including

private household 21

Private household occupations 30

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 21

Precision production, craft, and repair

occupations 70

Machine operators, assemblers, and

inspectors 36

Transportation and material moving

occupations 67

Handlers, equipment cleaners, helpers,

and laborers 38

(1) n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

(2) Earnings for physicians exclude those working more than 74 hours a week because almost all have very low earnings and are presumed to be interns rather than licensed physicians.

Note: There were no reliable data for farming, forestry, and fishing occupations.

Some occupational groups had a greater proportion of workers with extended weeks earning more per hour or per week or both than those with standard weeks. Weekly earnings of men with an extended workweek exceeded by at least a third the earnings of men with a standard workweek in 13 of 16 occupations in the executive, administrative, and managerial; management related; and sales occupations groups. Hourly earnings also were higher in those groups for men in 13 of 16 occupations. Among women, sales occupations showed the greatest differential in weekly earnings between those working extended weeks and those working standard weeks; in 3 of 4 occupations, women earned at least 50 percent more. Women sales workers with extended weeks also earned more per hour. In professional specialty occupations, prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers with extended weeks earned 56 percent more per week and 12 percent more per hour.

In some occupations, the earnings of men and women reflected little or no weekly premium for additional hours worked. For example, men and women elementary and secondary teachers earned little more per week and much less per hour for working extended weeks. There were also relatively small differences in weekly earnings and lower hourly earnings for both women and men in computer, engineering, and most administrative support occupations.

Within the extended workweek categories of 45 to 54 hours and 55 to 99 hours, those working 55 to 99 hours earned more per week than did those working 45 to 54 hours in most occupations where data were available. However, only male managers in marketing, advertising, and public relations earned more per hour. (See tables 5 and 6.)

Table 5 Usual weekly and hourly earnings of men employed full time, with an extended workweek, by occupation and hours-worked group, 1997

Hours-worked group

45-99

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earnings earnings

Median all employed $775 $15.14

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 1,039 20.21

Financial managers 1,159 22.45

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 1,230 22.96

Administrators, education and

related fields 1,146 21.12

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 606 10.99

Management related occupations 962 19.80

Professional specialty occupations 982 19.67

Engineers 1,053 21.20

Physicians 1,631 27.96

Teachers, college and university 1,145 20.58

Teachers, secondary school 794 15.25

Clergy 624 12.02

Lawyers 1,400 25.76

Technicians and related support

occupations 828 16.44

Sales occupations 752 14.55

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 732 13.76

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 838 16.54

Sales workers, motor vehicles and

boats 668 12.50

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 674 13.46

Service occupations 528 10.23

Cooks 413 7.92

Farming, forestry, and fishing

occupations 341 6.20

Farm workers 313 5.60

Precision production, craft, and

repair occupations 693 13.57

Supervisors, production occupations 800 15.95

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 740 12.21

Machine operators, assorted

materials 592 12.08

Transportation and material moving

occupations 623 11.46

Truckdrivers 618 11.36

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 457 9.26

45-54

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earnings earnings

Median all employed $747 $15.56

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 993 20.83

Financial managers 1,074 22.83

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 1,114 22.94

Administrators, education and

related fields 1,086 22.95

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 553 11.41

Management related occupations 938 20.00

Professional specialty occupations 971 20.73

Engineers 1,034 21.79

Physicians 1,525 30.17

Teachers, college and university 1,057 21.70

Teachers, secondary school 795 16.73

Clergy 641 13.74

Lawyers 1,327 26.36

Technicians and related support

occupations 819 16.82

Sales occupations 725 15.09

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 674 14.16

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 844 17.54

Sales workers, motor vehicles and

boats 645 13.26

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 660 14.04

Service occupations 483 10.20

Cooks 397 8.10

Farming, forestry, and fishing

occupations 314 6.55

Farm workers 280 5.67

Precision production, craft, and

repair occupations 651 13.60

Supervisors, production occupations 784 16.71

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 582 12.23

Machine operators, assorted

materials 582 12.27

Transportation and material moving

occupations 592 12.21

Truckdrivers 589 12.10

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 451 9.50

55-99

Weekly Hourly

Occupation earnings earnings

Median all employed $847 $13.93

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 1,149 19.27

Financial managers 1,350 22.22

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 1,442 22.97

Administrators, education and

related fields 1,221 19.82

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 652 10.71

Management related occupations 1,097 19.25

Professional specialty occupations 1,018 17.23

Engineers 1,106 18.99

Physicians 1,744 27.55

Teachers, college and university 1,194 19.75

Teachers, secondary school 793 13.43

Clergy 611 10.02

Lawyers 1,562 24.91

Technicians and related support

occupations 869 14.79

Sales occupations 820 13.49

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 816 13.28

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 823 13.82

Sales workers, motor vehicles and

boats 694 11.86

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 768 12.46

Service occupations 646 10.30

Cooks 458 7.45

Farming, forestry, and fishing

occupations 366 5.85

Farm workers 347 5.46

Precision production, craft, and

repair occupations 817 13.50

Supervisors, production occupations 824 14.54

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 709 12.10

Machine operators, assorted

materials 649 11.04

Transportation and material moving

occupations 670 10.65

Truckdrivers 664 10.48

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 512 8.22

Weekly

premium

55-99 over

45-54

Occupation (percent)

Median all employed 13

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations 16

Financial managers 26

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 29

Administrators, education and

related fields 12

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 18

Management related occupations 17

Professional specialty occupations 5

Engineers 7

Physicians 14

Teachers, college and university 13

Teachers, secondary school —

Clergy -5

Lawyers 18

Technicians and related support

occupations 6

Sales occupations 13

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 21

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade -2

Sales workers, motor vehicles and

boats 8

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical 16

Service occupations 34

Cooks 15

Farming, forestry, and fishing

occupations 17

Farm workers 24

Precision production, craft, and

repair occupations 25

Supervisors, production occupations 5

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors 22

Machine operators, assorted

materials 12

Transportation and material moving

occupations 13

Truckdrivers 13

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers 14

Table 6 Usual weekly and hourly earnings of women employed full time with an extended workweek, by occupation and hours-worked group, 1997

Hours-worked group

45-99

Occupation Weekly Hourly

earnings earnings

Median all employed $658 $13.16

Executive, administrative,

and managerial occupations 789 15.48

Management related occupations 729 14.99

Professional specialty

occupations 772 15.45

Teachers, elementary school 725 14.09

Sales occupations 602 12.18

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 566 11.62

Administrative support

occupations, including

clerical 528 10.98

Service occupations, including

private household 342 6.63

Hours-worked group

45-54

Occupation Weekly Hourly

earnings earnings

Median all employed $642 $13.52

Executive, administrative,

and managerial occupations 764 16.23

Management related occupations 708 15.17

Professional specialty

occupations 767 16.27

Teachers, elementary school 700 14.53

Sales occupations 589 12.34

Supervisors and proprietors,

sales occupations 551 11.66

Administrative support

occupations, including

clerical 515 11.11

Service occupations, including

private household 327 7.03

Hours-worked group

Weekly

55-99 premium

Occupation 55-99 over

Weekly Hourly 45-54

earnings earnings (percent)

Median all employed

Executive, administrative, $723 $11.95 13

and managerial occupations 862 14.55 13

Management related occupations

779 13.37 10

Professional specialty

occupations 796 13.20 4

Teachers, elementary school

782 13.22 12

Sales occupations

Supervisors and proprietors, 691 11.60 17

sales occupations 667 11.37 21

Administrative support

occupations, including 616 10.02 20

clerical

Service occupations, including

private household 380 6.04 16

Analysis of hours and earnings

There are several explanations for higher median earnings per week or per hour for those who have an extended workweek. Workers paid by the hour earn more per week the longer they work; and if they are paid more per hour for every hour they work beyond 40, they earn more per hour, as well. For salaried workers, including most managerial and sales occupations, analyzing the difference between weekly earnings of standard- and extended-week workers is more complex.

Hourly earners include most production workers in mining, manufacturing, and construction; most retail sales workers; cooks; truckdrivers; guards; and nursing aides. Clerical workers, police, and technicians, even if they receive an annual salary, may also be paid for working more than a standard week. In most of these occupations, workers with an extended workweek have higher weekly and hourly earnings. However, in some occupations, such as electricians and nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants, median hourly rates are lower. Lower rates might be consistent with additional pay per hour for overtime hours if certain workers–for example, younger workers or those in low-wage establishments–with extended weeks have lower base hourly rates than do those with standard weeks.

Commission sales workers or piecework production workers who work longer hours may produce more and may therefore earn more per week. Because they are not paid overtime, however, they are not likely to receive additional pay per hour for working more than 40 hours per week.

For example, workers selling insurance, real estate, automobiles, and other large items usually receive at least part of their pay as commissions based on the value of the products they sell. Those with extended workweeks who receive a commission earn substantially more per week than do their counterparts with a standard workweek. Almost all earn more per hour, as well. But to do so, they must make more sales per hour, get larger commissions or bonuses for being top sellers, or have other characteristics associated with high earnings.

Other workers with extended weeks also may have higher earnings because they may be more likely to have greater responsibilities, higher skill levels, more education, high-wage employers, or other characteristics associated with higher pay than do workers with standard weeks. This includes workers in managerial and professional occupations such as medical and health managers, prekindergarten and kindergarten teachers, and college faculty.

Most managerial and professional workers receive a weekly or annual salary in return for at least 35 to 40 hours of work per week. In some cases, it is understood that an extended workweek is part of the job. For these workers, overtime pay is less common, but they may receive other compensation–such as bonuses, extra benefits, or stock options–not included in these data.

In some of these occupations, workers with extended weeks do not make much more per week and therefore earn much less per hour. This may be because of more modest earnings differentials between job titles within an occupation or because of large earnings differentials with little connection between hours worked and earnings. For example, many teacher salaries increase with years of tenure, are higher in public than in private schools, and vary widely by geographic area. But experienced teachers or those in high-paying school systems might not work longer hours.

Although managerial and professional workers are not likely to receive extra pay for overtime, they may work an extended week for other reasons. It may take more than 44 hours per week to perform their job adequately, or their employer might require them to work more hours. If they are seeking a promotion or a bonus, extra hours may eventually yield a higher income.

Occupational rankings

Which occupations pay the most per week, and how do these occupations compare with others? Tables 7 and 8 rank occupations by earnings for men and women and show how rankings for those in the standard- and extended-week groups compare with those of all full-time workers.

Table 7 Earnings rankings of men based on usual weekly earnings, by occupation and hours-worked group, 1997

Hours-worked group

Occupation 35-99 35-44 45-99

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations

Officials and administrators, public 13 10 10

administration

Financial managers 5 14 4

Managers, marketing, advertising,

and public relations 3 11 3

Administrators, education and

related fields 8 9 6

Managers, food serving and lodging

establishments 43 50 47

Managers, service organizations n.e.c. 22 34 18

Management related occupations

Accountants and auditors 15 18 14

Other financial officers 10 15 5

Professional speciality occupations

Civil engineers 6 4 13

Electrical and electronic engineers 4 3 8

Industrial engineers 12 6 15

Computer systems analysts

and scientists 7 5 12

Operations and systems researchers

and analysts 11 7 11

Physicians 1 1 1

Teachers, college and university 9 12 7

Teachers, elementary school 24 17 36

Teachers, secondary school 18 13 27

Clergy 38 47 43

Lawyers 2 2 2

Designers 16 16 20

Technicians and related

support occupations

Engineering technologists and technicians 33 30 33

Computer programmers 14 8 16

Sales occupations

Supervisors and proprietors, sales

occupations 37 40 35

Insurance sales occupations 20 27 9

Real estate sales occupations 25 26 21

Sales occupations, other

business services 29 37 23

Sales representatives,

mining, manufacturing,

and wholesale trade 21 21 22

Sales workers, motor vehicles and boats 39 45 29

Sales workers, furniture, radio, TV, and

appliances 45 44 48

Sales workers, other retail commodities 55 58 52

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 28 23 34

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical

Mail carriers and postal clerks 27 20 29

Traffic, shipping, and receiving clerks 54 52 54

Service occupations

Firefighting occupations 23 25 32

Police and detectives, public service 26 22 17

Guards and police, except public service 58 57 56

Cooks 60 60 60

Janitors and cleaners 59 59 58

Farming, forestry, and

fishing occupations

Farm workers 61 61 61

Precision production, craft,

and repair occupations

Supervisors, mechanics and repairers 19 19 24

Automotive mechanics 46 43 51

Industrial machinery repairers 41 36 38

Electrical and electronic equipment

repairers 35 31 28

Supervisors, construction occupations 30 28 30

Carpenters 48 41 49

Electricians 34 29 31

Plumbers, pipefitters, and steamfitters 36 33 37

Mining and petroleum occupations 32 35 25

Supervisors, production occupations 31 32 26

Tool and die makers 17 24 19

Machinists 40 38 40

Machine operators, assemblers,

and inspectors

Metalworking and plastics working

machine operators 49 46 44

Machine operators, assorted materials 50 48 50

Welders and cutters 47 42 46

Assemblers 52 53 42

Production inspectors, checkers,

and examiners 42 39 41

Transportation and material

moving occupations

Truckdrivers 44 49 45

Taxicab drivers and chauffeurs 53 55 57

Industrial truck and tractor equipment

operators 51 51 53

Handlers, equipment cleaners,

helpers, and laborers

Construction laborers 56 54 55

Laborers, except construction 57 56 59

n.e.c. — not elsewhere classified

Table 8 Earnings rankings of women based on usual weekly earnings, by occupation and hours-worked group, 1997

Hours-worked group

Occupation 35-99 35-44 45-99

Executive, administrative, and

managerial occupations

Financial managers 12 11 8

Managers, marketing, advertising, and

public relations 6 9 10

Administrators, education and related

fields 10 12 9

Managers, medicine and health 13 13 6

Managers, food service and lodging

establishments 23 24 23

Managers, service organizations n.e.c. 14 15 12

Management related occupations

Accountants and auditors 15 14 15

Other financial officers 17 16 14

Professional speciality occupations

Engineers, all specialties 5 4 3

Computer systems analysts and scientists 3 2 5

Physicians 1 1 2

Registered nurses 7 6 7

Teachers, college and university 5 5 4

Teachers, prekindergarten and

kindergarten 24 23 20

Teachers, elementary school 11 10 16

Teachers, secondary school 8 7 18

Teachers, special education 9 8 17

Lawyers 2 3 1

Sales occupations

Supervisors and proprietors, sales

occupations 20 22 21

Sales representatives, finance and

business services 19 19 13

Sales representatives, mining,

manufacturing, and wholesale trade 16 17 11

Sales workers, retail and personal

services 26 26 25

Administrative support occupations,

including clerical

Supervisors, administrative support

occupations 18 18 19

Secretaries 22 21 24

Bookkeepers, accounting, and

auditing clerks 21 20 22

Service occupations, including private

household

Private household occupations 27 27 27

Nursing aides, orderlies, and attendants 25 25 26

n.e.c. = not elsewhere classified

Rankings differed most for men in executive, administrative, and managerial; management related; professional specialty; and sales occupations. Regardless of hours worked, top earners for both men and women included physicians and lawyers. The lowest earners in all hours-worked groups include, for men, farm workers, laborers, janitors and cleaners, guards, and cooks, and for women, nursing aides and private household workers.

For men in most executive, administrative, and managerial; management related; and sales occupations, rankings were lower for the standard-week group but higher for the extended-week group. For example, male insurance sales workers ranked 20th in data for all workers, 27th in the standard-week group, and 9th in the extended-week group. But men with a standard workweek ranked higher than all workers and those with extended hours in most other occupations, including professional specialty occupations.

Among women, rankings for those with a standard workweek differed little from those for all workers. Women in most executive, administrative, and managerial occupations ranked higher if they worked an extended week. Elementary, secondary, and special education teachers ranked lower.

Despite the overall lower weekly earnings associated with a standard workweek, standard-week workers in some occupations had high median earnings–defined here as a median exceeding that for all workers with an extended workweek–of more than $775 for men and $658 for women. The following tabulations show these occupations for both men and women:

Median weekly

Men, by occupation earnings

Physicians(*) $1,134

Lawyers(*) 1,057

Electrical and electronic engineers(*) 955

Civil engineers(*) 950

Computer systems analysts and scientists(*) 919

Industrial engineers(*) 873

Operations and systems researchers and analysts(*) 867

Computer programmers 842

Administrators, education and related fields 839

Officials and administrators, public

administration 833

Managers, marketing, advertising and public

relations 832

Teachers, college and university 818

Women, by occupation

Physicians(*) $1,071

Computer systems analysts and engineers(*) 834

Lawyers(*) 807

Engineers(*) 801

Teachers, college and university(*) 727

Registered nurses 692

Teachers, secondary school 685

Teachers, special education 669

Occupations marked with an asterisk ((*)) denote those in which standard-week workers also had medians greater than the median for all those working 55 hours or more–$847 for men and $723 for women.

However, these occupations also have other characteristics associated with higher pay. Most notably, all usually require a college degree. Physicians and lawyers need a professional degree, and most college teaching jobs require a doctoral or professional degree. With the exception of registered nurse, which requires an associate degree, the other occupations usually require at least a bachelor’s degree.

Data and methodology

The Current Population Survey is the monthly household survey that provides basic measurements of the labor force and employment. In this article, data reflect usual weekly earnings and usual weekly hours in a worker’s primary job. The data cover wage and salary workers (those who work for someone else and receive a paycheck), excluding self-employed workers (those who earn a profit from their own businesses). Self-employed workers, who made up about 8 percent of employed workers in 1997, are more likely than wage and salary workers to have an extended workweek.

Classification by hours worked categories permits comparisons within occupations for workers with different numbers of work hours. It also allows comparisons between occupations for workers with roughly the same number of work hours per week. Because the primary focus is comparisons by hours worked per week, data are presented only for occupations in which there were enough respondents with extended weeks to provide statistically reliable earnings data for this category. Data are presented separately by sex because women usually earn less than men, even in the same occupation, and have shorter workweeks.

Unlike surveys of employers, these data show hours actually worked–not just hours paid for–but do not show the schedule of hours. Although schedules vary, a typical 35- to 44-hour week consists of 5 work days of between 7 and nearly 9 hours. An extended workweek might be at least 9 hours a day or extra hours on an additional work day. For most jobs, work is performed between 6 a.m. and 6 p.m., Monday through Friday. However, some jobs include evening, night, or weekend work; shifts that change periodically from days to evenings or nights; an irregular schedule arranged by the employer; or split shifts, involving two distinct periods each day.

Daniel Hecker is an economist in the Office of Employment Projections, BLS, (202) 606-5713.

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