Jobs in legal gambling: a new giant of an old industry – Cover Story
Ancient Rome conquered all three sectors of the known gambling industry about 2,000 years ago. The Romans wagered on chariot races, bet on games of dice, and ran a lottery. Today, America has followed suit, and a legal gambling giant has sprung up in the U.S. entertainment arena.
According to the American Gaming Association, legal gambling enterprises employ over half a million people in the United States. In 1994, this industry’s gross revenues, as reported by International Gambing & Wagering Business magazine, totaled $39.9 billion. Some 48 States and the District of Columbia allow some form of gambling. (See the table, “Casino and Indian Gaming Jurisdictions in the United States.”)
In the New World, legal gambling began with lotteries used to fund useful projects. Lotteries, for example, helped pay for construction at Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Dartmouth, and Columbia Universities in the 18th century. Various types of gambling came and went, including betting on horseraces and casino gaming. By 1910, almost all gambling had been declared illegal in the United States, in part because of corruption. By the 1930s, however, horserace wagering had come back to 21 States. During that same decade, casino gaming returned to Nevada, though it did not spread to other States until 1978, when the opening of casinos in Atlantic City, New Jersey, ignited explosive growth in the industry. In 1964, New Hampshire started the first State lottery of the 20th century.
The gambling industry still includes three major sectors: Parimutuel wagering on horseraces and other competitions, casino gaming, and State lotteries. In this article, you’ll read about the status of each sector and the employment opportunities it offers. Under casino gaming, the occupations of casino dealer, pit manager, and slot attendant get special attention, with a detailed look at job duties, earnings, numbers employed, qualifications, and other requirements. A few thoughts on the future of legal gambling will bring you into the home stretch, and you’ll finish with sources of further information. And you’re off!
In ancient times, horse-drawn chariots raced at the Circus Maximus to delight the Roman betting public. Chariot drivers wore the colors of their stables, and drivers and jockeys of modern horseracing still do. You can see them at tracks in the 37 U.S. States where thoroughbreds, quarter horses, or standardbreds race. These days, the American parimutuel wagering industry also includes dog racing in 16 States and jai alai in Connecticut, Florida, and Rhode Island.
In 1994, gross revenues in parimutuel wagering amounted to $3.6 billion. This industry sector grew at an average annual rate of 2.3 percent from 1982 to 1994. Despite the modest growth, parimutuels are struggling, in part because of competition from lotteries and casinos. To stay alive, the racing industry has increasingly offered wagering on races through offtrack betting facilities and via television simulcasts. Bettors in many States now need only pick up a phone to wager. Without these new modes of betting, many more racetracks would have closed in recent years. In Rhode Island, Delaware, Louisiana, West Virginia, and Iowa, casino gaming has ridden to the rescue. Racetracks in these States have installed slot machines to boost revenues.
Hard data on employment in the parimutuel wagering sector are not currently available, but occupational licensing gives a partial estimate. According to the Association of Racing Commissioners International, about 133,000 people in the United States hold licenses to work in racing. Although this figure includes some owners of horses and dogs who do not serve in other roles, it is probably a low estimate of total employment, because some States do not require licenses for all types of parimutuel workers.
Workers linked to parimutuel wagering belong to two groups. The first includes those who train, ride, or care for the animals. The second covers most other employees of racetracks and other betting facilities.
Jockeys–and drivers in harness racing–grab the most attention, but others play key roles with the animals as well. Trainers exercise the horses or greyhounds to condition them for races. In horseracing, some individuals double as both trainer and jockey (or driver). Under the direction of trainers, grooms clean out the stalls and ready animals for their workouts, in addition to grooming them. Hotwalkers walk horses to cool them down slowly after workouts or races. People in all such jobs love working with the animals. In many cases, they have grown up around racehorses or dogs and worked with them from an early age.
To get a picture of employment at a track, consider Churchill Downs, the Louisville home of the Kentucky Derby. Churchill Downs is a major thoroughbred racetrack with its own simulcasting facility. It employs 180 people year round, plus additional part-time and seasonal workers. The seasonality of employment at this and other tracks results from the racing schedule. Churchill Downs offers live racing only about 78 days per year. Television broadcasts allow wagering on races run elsewhere an additional 200 days of the year.
The year-round staff includes workers in finance, marketing, communications, and the other areas found in any type of business. Other jobs require extensive knowledge of the specialty. For example, a racing executive manages overall operations, and a racing secretary schedules all racing programs. About 40 percent of the year-round employees maintain the grounds and make repairs.
Parimutuel tellers make up one of the largest–and most seasonal–occupations in racing. These tellers take bets and pay off winning tickets. At Churchill Downs, about 350 tellers sell parimutuel tickets on an average day of live racing. On simulcast race days, only about 100 parimutuel tellers work. The track draws from a roster of about 1,000 qualified parimutuel tellers by seniority, but only on Derby day does the number of tellers employed reach that level. This occupation requires dexterity, good arithmetic, and accuracy in counting money. Many States, including Kentucky, require a license. Parimutuel tellers at Churchill Downs earn $100 per day as specified by union contract.
“The die is cast.” Thus declared Julius Caesar when he crossed the Rubicon River in his bid to seize control of Rome. And it’s no wonder he compared this historic act to a game of dice. The Ancient Romans took gambling seriously. So must any modern observer of casino gaming in the United States. Since craps tables came to Atlantic City from Nevada in 1978, land-based casino gaming has spread to Colorado, Louisiana, and South Dakota. Card rooms offering less than the full range of casino games currently exist in five States. In 1989, Iowa became the first State to legalize gaming on riverboat casinos in this century. Today, riverboat and dockside casinos operate in six States. Adding to all of this commercial gambling is the growth of other casinos run by the governments of several Native American tribes. Spurred by the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act of 1988, class III Indian gaming, which includes casinos, now entertains people in 24 States.
With gross revenues exceeding $15 billion dollars in 1994, the casino gaming sector led the industry. This sector grew 11.4 percent per year on average from 1982 to 1994. Despite the spread of casinos, Nevada and Atlantic City remain the high rollers. Together, they claimed almost two-thirds of 1994 gross revenues. The trend toward rapid introduction of casinos into new States has halted in the past couple of years. However, new casinos are still being built in jurisdictions already allowing them. Some new projects feature casinos along with other amusements, such as golf courses, movie theaters, shopping malls, and even recreational vehicle parks.
Casino Gaming Employment Overview
The American Gaming Association estimates total employment in casino gaming at 350,000. States with substantial casino employment track the number of workers in this industry sector:
State Number Employed,
Nevada 190,800 New Jersey 43,900 Mississippi 28,000 Louisiana 19,000 Illinois 10,000 Total 291,800
These data come from State departments of labor or employment security.
According to the National Indian Gaming Association, class II and class III Indian gaming employ another 140,000 workers. Class II consists mainly of bingo halls. The largest class III employers are casinos. Although the association could not isolate the number of casino employees, a Deloitte-Touche study done on its behalf estimates that 22 percent of employees in Indian casinos are Native Americans. The remaining 78 percent come from the general population, though the percentages vary considerably from one casino to another, according to the study. The Mashantucket Pequot tribe owns and runs the Foxwoods Resort Casino, the largest Indian casino within the United States. It employs almost 11,000 people in Mashantucket, Connecticut. About 3 percent of Foxwoods employees are Native American.
When it comes to casino employment, location matters. The balance of employment among the various occupational categories differs from one jurisdiction to another. Las Vegas and Atlantic City have casino hotels exclusively, but some casinos in other places lack hotels and thus the employment that typically goes with them. Riverboat casinos are often docked near “riverbank” hotels, though employment in these hotels may not be counted under casino gaming. Location also affects the amount of seasonal employment.
The State of Nevada has the most complete, detailed data on occupational employment in casinos. As of 1994, the largest occupational categories included the following:
Occupational Nevada casino category employment,
Total 190,800 100
Service occupations 129,190 67 Marketing and sales occupations 22,520 12 Administrative support occupations, clerical 15,660 8 Precision production, craft, and repair occupations 7,060 4 Professional, paraprofessional, and technician occupations 5,690 3 Executive, administrative, and managerial occupations 5,420 3 Other 5,260 3
Most of the service workers have jobs unrelated to gaming as such. Food and beverage preparation workers plus cleaning and building services workers accounted for almost 40 percent of total employment. The 5,790 guards and detectives made up another 3 percent.
Within marketing and sales occupations, 18,960 workers were gaming change persons, cashiers, or currency counting clerks. As in any large industry, professional occupations included accountants, auditors, purchasing agents, computer systems analysts and programmers, public relations specialists, personnel specialists, and various other management support jobs. Nevada casinos also employ a few dancers, choreographers, and musicians.
Gaming occupations, including casino dealers and gaming supervisors, had slightly over 20 percent of total casino employment in Nevada. The 22,900 casino dealers made up only 12 percent of the total.
Working the Casino Floor
At rows and rows of tables, dealers deal cards, spin roulette wheels, and offer up dice. In separate areas, slot attendants stand ready to serve amidst legions of slot machines lit up in dazzling colors. Security guards dressed in uniform stroll about the floor. The players are everywhere. And as they play, gaming supervisors monitor the action all over the casino. All the while, background music clashes against the constant rumble of voices, but the slot machines beep and ring above it all. Now and then, a cocktail waitress saunters by saying, “Coffee, soda, juice?” There’s really no other work setting like a casino.
Most jobs unique to casinos concern either the table games or the slot machines. Casino dealers and slot attendants are the primary gaming occupations associated with table games and slots, respectively. Both these types of casino gaming require supervisors, but their numbers are higher for table games, which are much more labor intensive in general. Occupational profiles on casino dealers, pit managers, and slot attendants follow. These profiles focus on workers in Atlantic City. Although the work is very similar at all casinos, earnings and job requirements, as well as employment, vary from one State to another.
Casino dealers. Eddie Evans and Catherine Pearlman both have worked as casino dealers in Atlantic City for over 10 years. Like most experienced dealers, they know more than one game, and they alternate as needed. Pearlman deals baccarat, minibaccarat, roulette, Caribbean Stud poker, Let It Ride, and pai gow poker at Caesars Hotel Casino. Next door, at Bally’s Park Place Casino, Evans works at the craps (dice), roulette, and blackjack tables. Both possess the winning combination for casino dealers: mastery of the games and superlative people skills.
Evans started out dealing craps, the most complex game on the casino floor. “When I first saw craps being played,” says Evans, “I couldn’t understand it.” Now, he loves the challenge. Each craps table requires three dealers and a supervisor called a boxperson. The dealer standing near the center of the table works the stick, retrieving the dice and returning them for the next roll. The boxperson sits on the other side of the table opposite the dealer on stick. The two remaining base dealers stand on either side of the boxperson.
All three dealers accept bets, pay winners, and collect from losers. Players often make multiple bets on a single roll of the dice, and as many as 16 people may bet at one table, so the dealers’ calculations can become staggering. “You have such a high volume of money and people coming at you from all angles,” Evans says. “It’ll make you anxious, sometimes.”
Working on stick requires the most skill. “Most people say it’s a dealer’s greatest challenge,” Evans says. On top of everything else, the stick person has to announce the game, speaking clearly with a special patter. Luckily, the dealers take turns on stick, and each table has a relief dealer, so the others can take breaks.
Pearlman has dealt a lot of cards in her career. “Neatness definitely counts,” she says. “If you’re placing cards over the top of another card and the surveillance cameras can’t read what you’re doing, it could factor in to your evaluation.” After years of experience, dealing cards, making necessary calculations, and doling out chips become automatic. Pearlman handles these tasks almost without thinking.
Her mastery of the technical aspect of the games allows her to devote more attention to the personal aspect. She thinks being friendly matters as much as knowing the games cold. “You have to like people,” she says. “If you don’t like people, don’t even get into the business.” People come to casinos to have a good time, after all, and the hospitality of dealers–and other casino workers–promotes a pleasant experience. During the shuffle, Pearlman makes small talk with some players. She might ask where they’re from or whether they’re enjoying Atlantic City. But not everyone likes chitchat. Thus, Pearlman has learned to sense who wants to be talked to and who doesn’t.
Every so often, Pearlman runs into rude customers. When this happens, she must handle the situation with tact. Every dealer has to understand that some people get nasty when they’re losing money. Evans thinks dealers can sometimes turn disgruntled players around. “I can get along with just about anyone,” he says. “If you adopt the right attitude to deal with these people, before you know it, they’ll change their attitude on the game. I’ve noticed that a lot of times.”
Like all of their colleagues on the casino floor, Pearlman and Evans have made decisions about the shift during which they prefer to ply their specialized trade. Most casinos run 24 hours a day and offer three staggered shifts. Pearlman likes a conventional day shift, while Evans favors a 4 a.m. to noon graveyard shift. One thing they can’t choose to do is take holidays off. Holidays are prime time for casino entertainment, and Pearlman sees this as the major drawback of her job. “Before I had children,” she says, “it didn’t affect me as much, but when you’re walking out that door and they’re pulling on your leg, it’s very upsetting.”
According to estimates of industry experts, casino dealers in Atlantic City earn between $24,000 and $47,000 per year. Base wages of $4 to $7.50 per hour are common. Well over half of earnings come from tips, referred to as tokes in the industry. Earnings in other jurisdictions vary, but dealers everywhere earn a base wage plus tokes. An estimated 7,300 casino dealers worked in Atlantic City in 1994, according to the New Jersey Department of Labor (DOL). New dealers usually start part time; they may be promoted to full time as positions open.
Job requirements for casino dealers depend on the State where they work. In Atlantic City, they need a gaming license and special, formal training. To get the required “21 license,” you must be at least 18 years old. You apply by filling out a personal history disclosure form provided by the New Jersey Casino Control Commission and paying a nonrefundable fee of $350. A background investigation is then conducted. According to the Commission, it takes 6 to 8 weeks to get a license in most cases, but it can take much longer. The processing time increases markedly if the investigation turns up something negative, such as an arrest or a bad credit record. If granted, the first license is valid for 3 years. Renewed licenses are good for 4 years.
Requirements for licensure differ in other jurisdictions. In Nevada, for example, all employees on the casino floor including dealers need a gaming license known as a “sheriff’s ID.” Unlike job applicants in Atlantic City, those in Nevada apply for their license only after receiving an offer of employment.
In Atlantic City, aspiring casino dealers take training at one of three gaming schools. Most attend Atlantic Community College’s Casino Career Institute; the remainder opt for training offered by two private schools. Dealers in training need good hand dexterity and sharp arithmetic to succeed. Trainees choose either blackjack, craps, or poker as their first game. At the Casino Career Institute, the courses last 8 weeks for blackjack, 12 weeks for craps, and 7 weeks for poker. All training involves extensive hands-on practice in a mock casino. Landing a job requires good performance at a dealing audition set up by the potential employer. After gaining some experience, new dealers commonly take more training to qualify them in additional games. Before investing in any training (or the licensing fee), check with the local casinos to find out about job prospects in the near term.
Training requirements vary from place to place. Many Mississippi casinos prefer formal training for casino dealers in a school, much like Atlantic City casinos, but most do not. Private schools for dealers exist in most places casinos are found. Some people prepare through these schools, but others learn informally, perhaps with pointers from a casino dealing friend or relative. Then they audition for jobs.
Positions for casino dealers do not have educational requirements. Most casino dealers, however, do have a high school diploma or the equivalent, and many have college degrees.
Pit manager. As a pit manager for Caesars, Claudia Holmes is responsible for all activity and personnel at the table games in her assigned area, or pit. The number of tables in the pit depends on the type of games. Holmes oversees blackjack, roulette, Caribbean Stud poker, pai gow tiles, poker, craps, baccarat, or some mixture of these.
On a given day, Holmes might supervise 16 dealers and 4 floor supervisors at 12 tables. For most games, floor supervisors are the immediate supervisors of the dealers. Holmes ensures that her employees run the games according to house rules. She sees that her dealers take the breaks they need to stay sharp. She also monitors her floor supervisors’ giving of “comps” to players. Comps are perks–often free or discounted meals or hotel rooms. They are given to players according to how long they play and how much they bet.
When a table needs more money, Holmes has it brought in. If a dealer gets sick, she finds a substitute. Whatever paperwork needs doing, she does it. She also oversees all markers, the credit extended to players by the casino.
According to Holmes, public relations is a key part of the job, just as it is with the dealers. She and her floor supervisors strive to keep their customers happy. This involves friendly banter in good times and smoothing things over when problems arise. Sometimes a dealer makes an error, for example, and a payout is missed. “I’ll come over, and I’ll assess the situation,” says Holmes. “If possible, I’ll accommodate the player.” Other times, she has fun with customers, chatting about some special occasion that has brought them to town. “I’m a people person,” she says, “and I love the people.”
Anecdotal industry reports put salaries for Atlantic City pit managers at $47,000 to $65,000 per year. In 1994, an estimated 400 pit managers worked in the city, according to the New Jersey DOL. These pit managers supervised about 1,500 floor supervisors and 700 boxpersons.
Whether in Atlantic City or elsewhere, pit managers normally work their way up. They start as casino dealers and then become floor supervisors. Typically, pit managers have dealt most of the games they oversee. They need expert knowledge of those games to supervise them properly.
To become eligible to work as pit man a agers in Atlantic City, experienced floor supervisors must upgrade their basic 21-license to a key license. They have to fill 8 out another, much longer disclosure form and undergo a more detailed background investigation. Requirements for licensure of pit managers vary in other jurisdictions.
Casinos may provide supervisory training to new pit managers. Some casinos also train pit managers to spot the signs of a compulsive gambling problem, so assistance may be offered.
Many pit managers have college degrees, though they are not required. Having a degree does help pit managers who seek advancement to higher level management positions.
Slot attendant. Joseph Lahr jangles some curious silver keys in his hand. “These keys are worth more than you can imagine,” he says, smiling. “You can open the slot machines with them, and every machine has money in it. That’s why we keep them on a chain.” As a slot attendant at Caesars, Lahr sometimes opens a slot machine to fix a coin jam. He reports more complicated malfunctions for a slot technician to repair.
Dressed in a tuxedo with red coat and black pants, Lahr walks the floor, offering explanations or assistance to players as requested. To one person, he might explain the payoffs of a certain machine. Then, someone else asks where he can play video poker. Lahr points out the way. Another player flags him down, saying her machine has run out of coins. He radios for security so they can do a refill. All around, the slot machines are beeping, and nearby, one machine clanks silver dollars into its metal tray.
When players hit big jackpots, Lahr says, “They jump up and down and scream and dance.” He hurries over to congratulate them. And he, not the machine, makes the payoff, as long as it does not exceed $4,999. First, he reads the machine to determine the number of coins tied to the winning combination showing under the glass. If it’s a quarter machine, he divides by four. Sometimes, the players don’t know how much they’ve won until he tells them. He writes up a jackpot request slip and informs the slot supervisor he has a valid jackpot. The supervisor verifies it and gives Lahr a W-2G form if the amount is $1,200 or more. Next, he hustles over to the cashier window. The cashier gives him the money, and Lahr signs for it. He radios to his supervisor so they can meet back at the winning machine. The supervisor signs the jackpot slip with a security guard as witness. Lahr hands the cash to the beaming winner and offers his congratulations once again. “You really feel good for them,” he says. “It’s a neat experience.”
Of course, not everyone wins, and Lahr deals with more losers than winners. When people lose, they may get aggravated, and Lahr felt bad for them when he first started at Caesars. He quickly learned to stay detached from grumpy players, while maintaining a professional demeanor.
Despite the occasional rude player, Lahr enjoys working with customers. “Every person is different,” he says. “They come from different backgrounds, different parts of the world. I really enjoy working with the elderly. It’s interesting. They have a lot of stories from the past.”
According to industry estimates, slot attendants in Atlantic City start at about $17,000 per year. The most experienced ones may earn $27,000 per year. In 1994, an estimated 1,000 slot attendants worked in the city, according to the New Jersey DOL.
Atlantic City slot attendants need the same 21-license as dealers. At least one school in Atlantic City offers brief, formal training to prepare slot attendants; however, most slot attendants in this city and elsewhere learn through on-the-job training lasting a few weeks.
Earnings and Employment in Nevada
Although casinos have opened in several States since 1978, Nevada maintains its commanding lead in the employment of gaming workers. Earnings and employment data for the occupations listed below come from the Nevada Department of Employment, Training, and Rehabilitation.
Median Occupation annual
1995 1994 Dealers
Blackjack dealers $9,526 15,790
Craps (dice) dealers 9,672 4,090
All other dealers — 3,020 Other workers
Gaming supervisors 37,710 7,440
(box person ) 36,192 790
Slot key person 21,320 2,890
Keno writers 14,373 1,890
Keno runners 12,168 750
Race and sports
book writers 18,200 970
– = data not available.
The annual earnings shown for dealers consist only of base pay. These figures exclude tips, the largest part of pay for this occupation. Gaming supervisors include floor supervisors and pit managers, which go by various names in Nevada casinos. The occupation known as slot key person is very much in transition. Some supervise the workers who make change for slot players. Others have duties like those of the slot attendant described elsewhere in this article.
Keno writers issue tickets for Keno, a game resembling a lottery with frequent drawings. Keno runners patrol the casino and accept requests to purchase tickets on behalf of patrons. The runners also deliver payoffs to winners.
Race and sports book writers are a Nevada specialty. These legal bookies take bets on the outcomes of races and sports contests, using odds set by professional oddsmakers.
It is said that Augustus, the first emperor of Rome from 27 B.C. to 14 A.D., sponsored a public lottery to fund repairs to the eternal city. In 20th century America, State lotteries have grown from a similar need to raise government revenues. Today, 37 States and the District of Columbia offer lotteries. Gross revenues from the lottery sector totaled $14.1 billion in 1994. From 1982 to 1994, the lotteries enjoyed an average annual growth rate of 16.9 percent. Adding to the traditional lotto, daily numbers, and instant scratch-off games, video lottery terminals (VLT’s) have recently appeared in a handful of States. VLT’s offer games like video poker, much like those found in the slot machine section of a casino.
Compared to the other sectors, lotteries have small employment. California has 850 employees, for example, and Pennsylvania, only 155. The number depends on the size of the State, the functions that are contracted out to private firms, and various other factors. In many States, contractors handle advertising, print tickets, manage online computer systems, and maintain ticket vending machines. Typically, lotteries have some positions in marketing, accounting and auditing, computer support, communications, human resources, security, administrative support, and sales services.
Sales representatives are numerous in many lotteries. About a third of the Ohio Lottery’s 382 workers belong to this category. Sales representatives deal with the thousands of retailers that sell lottery tickets. They inform the vendors about new lottery games, provide promotional materials and other supplies, and in some cases, help determine whether a retailer meets the State’s criteria for vendors. In Oregon, most applicants for sales representative jobs need 2 or more years of sales or marketing experience, but college education may substitute for experience. Some of the Oregon sales reps also maintain lottery equipment, such as ticket vending machines. These positions require an extensive background in repair work. The Oregon Lottery’s sales reps earn from $29,844 to $39,708 per year.
The Future of Legal Gambling Employment
Legal gambling has grown markedly in recent years, with most of the new employment belonging to the casino sector. Will casino gaming employment continue to grow? Only Nevada and New Jersey have published answers to this question. The Nevada Department of Employment, Training, and Rehabilitation projects that casino gaming employment will increase by 69 percent in Nevada from 1994 to 2005. Over the same period, the New Jersey DOL anticipates growth of about 25 percent in the 11 occupations within the industry for which the State makes projections. Employment growth in the other casino gaming jurisdictions will depend on local conditions. Whether or not casino gaming moves into new States will have a major impact on employment, nationally. Opening new jurisdictions to casino gaming involves a political debate with an uncertain outcome. The die is cast, again.
For More Information
To find out more about jobs in legal gambling, contact local gambling establishments and State regulatory commissions. States generally have a regulatory agency for each type of gambling allowed. The State commissions will give specific requirements for licensure. For a complete listing of legal gambling enterprises and regulatory entities, see the Nationwide Directory of Licensed Gambling Establishments. Gainesville, Florida: Out-calt & Associates, Inc. (published biannually).
RELATED ARTICLE: Casino and Indian Gaming Jurisdictions in the United States
State Card Casinos River Indian
Rooms boat gaming
casinos (class III)
Arizona $ California $ $ Colorado $ $ Connecticut $ Idaho $ Illinois $ Indiana $ Iowa $ Kansas $ Louisiana $ $ $ Michigan $ Minnesota $ Mississippi $ $ Missouri $ Montana $ $ Nebraska $ Nevada $ $ $ New Jersey $ New Mexico $ New York $ North Carolina $ North Dakota $ $ Oklahoma $ Oregon $ Rhode Island $ South Dakota $ $ Washington $ $ Wisconsin $
Total 5 5 6 24
$ = legal in that State. Sources: Nationwide Directory of Licensed Gambling Establishments and the National Indian Gaming Association. A few States not listed in this table have legal slot machines.
COPYRIGHT 1996 U.S. Government Printing Office
COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group