A primer on scholarships for the talented

Neale Baxter

A Primer on Scholarships for the Talented

Sometimes less means more. When a valued commodity becomes scarcer, people who want it are willing to do more to get it. You–the potential college student–are becoming scarcer, making the colleges do more to attract those of you with special academic or other ability. To recognize talent or help recruitment, schools give grants and scholarships for athletic ability, musical talent, and artistic skills. Colleges are making more of their scholarship money available to talented students, whether or not they establish financial need.

Both the percentage of schools awarding grants solely on the basis of talent or achievement and the number of such awards at each school have risen sharply in the past 20 years. An extensive survey of the aid available at colleges and universities conducted in 1984 by the College Scholarship Service, the College Board, and the National Association of Student Financial Aid Administrators found that 85 percent of the 4-year private colleges responding gave such awards. Expensive private schools are not the only ones that will give a student a financial boost; 89.5 percent of the 4-year public institutions responding to the survey had such awards.

In contrast to the awards for students in financial need, these awards are fewer in number and relatively small, averaging $1,500 at 4-year private institutions and less at others. But even a small award may enable you to attend a school that you had thought was too expensive.

You can improve your chances of earning one of these awards by learning about the ones for which you might qualify and developing a plan to pursue them. Although most of the work of applying for an award must be done in the senior year of high school, you should start looking into potential awards during your junior year at the very latest. This will give you an idea of what aid is available and the requirements needed to qualify for it. An early start will also ensure that you are ready to launch your campaign at the start of the recruiting season, which may be earlier than you think. For example, many coaches begin looking over potential scholarship recipients at summer camps; if you wait until your senior year, the recruiting period for your sport may be half over.

Awards Without Number–for Qualified Students

The vast amount of money available should not make you think that anyone and everyone can win a scholarship, however. Authorities agree that the claim that millions of dollars of scholarship money go unused each year is untrue. Norman Feingold, a long-time observer of scholarships and awards, writes of this myth, “Because it is good newspaper copy, it reappears from time to time to cause serious concern to those who know it is a mirage. The few student aids that are going begging do so because the qualifications are such that there are no qualified applicants.’ Nevertheless, a great deal of scholarship money is available each year for talented students, and you will improve your prospects of getting some of it if you search it out.

One reason you should start your search for an award early is that no one can tell you the names of all the awards available. Most awards are very easy to learn about, of course; for example, the number of full football scholarships given at a school is regulated by the athletic association to which the school belongs. But the number of music awards keeps changing; one year an organization will offer a scholarship and the next year it won’t. Even in athletics, the number of students on scholarship varies. Regulations set the total number of full scholarships that may be offered, and in a sport such as basketball or football, most of the scholarships will be full scholarships. But coaches in many sports split scholarships between two players or among several players.

Although no one can say exactly how many awards are given or how much money they are worth all together, we can give a minimum number. The amount of money awarded for sports scholarships alone exceeds one-quarter of a billion dollars. And many schools award as much money for academic scholarships–though spread among many more students–as they do for sports.

The reasons that schools offer talented students aid show why the number and the kinds of awards change from year to year. According to a survey conducted by the College Entrance Examination Board, schools award grants of one sort or another to talented students in order to increase the quality or size of the student body, to compete with similar institutions, and to compete with publicly supported schools.

Because aid money is a recruiting tool, schools offer different kinds of awards depending on the kinds of students they wish to attract. Generally, schools have well-defined programs that change little from year to year, but change does occur. For example, a school that is building a program in a particular sport may offer more awards in that sport than does a school with an established program; on the other hand, a school might decide to stop competing in a sport, as many colleges did when badminton was not sanctioned by the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). The same sorts of changes occur in music and academic programs. Even more change takes place with regard to organizations that sponsor scholarships, depending on the availability of money and the organization’s program.

According to the College Entrance Examination Board’s survey, schools give the largest number of no-need awards for academic achievement. As Robert Leslie Bailey, the Director of the Office of Admissions and Records for the University of California at Berkeley, writes, “Colleges need bright students. Bright students attract good faculty, who in turn generate research funds. Bright students who graduate remeber their colleges and make alumni donations.’

A smaller number of awards is given for athletic ability; however, the average athletic award is worth more money. Music awards are even fewer–about half as numerous as athletic awards– and the average amount of money awarded is much smaller. As a group, students with a very wide variety of other talents–ranging from baton twirling to writing–receive about as many awards as athletes do, although the average amount of each award is much smaller than the athletic grants. Not every school distributes its awards in the same number to the same groups. For example, one Connecticut school gives more awards in music than it does in athletics.

Awards for Every Talent

College scholarships and other forms of assistance are available for a bewildering number of skills and talents.

Up to 307 full athletic scholarships can be offered by each of the 800 members of the NCAA. The number that can be awarded varies according to the division in which the school’s team competes in each sport. Division I teams are allowed to offer the most scholarships; Division III teams offer no scholarships. The sports sanctioned by the NCAA include baseball, basketball, cross-country/track, fencing, football, golf, gymnastics, ice hockey, lacrosse, skiing, soccer, swimming, tennis, volleyball, water polo, and wrestling.

Another athletic association, the National Association of Intercollegiate Athletics, has 480 smaller schools as members. It issues its own regulations.

No book can list all the other activities that can lead to awards; certainly this article cannot. But the following may give you some idea of the numbers and kinds available; if your skill is not mentioned, do not assume no awards are given for it.

A school in New England that has fewer than 3,000 students offers 300 scholarships.

A school in the Northeast that has between 1,000 and 1,500 students offers six leadership scholarships.

A Border State school of about the same size offers seven scholarships to high school valedictorians.

Another school in a Border State offers athletic scholarships to more than one-fourth of its fewer than 1,000 students.

A school in the same region with about 4,000 students gives 24 scholarships in engineering alone.

A Midwestern school with about 2,000 students offers eight awards for music and the fine arts.

Another Midwestern school, this one with only 1,000 students, offers 25 band and music awards.

Many additional awards are available from various associations and corporations. Consider these examples:

A magazine gives more than 100 awards in art.

An association of educators offers more than 200 leadership awards.

The Miss America Pageant holds 5,000 local events, each of which may lead to an award; 200 awards are given in State pageants.

A society for actors awards high school seniors scholarships for the study of theater arts.

Many awards are also offered to people with particular academic interests. A great deal of money is earmarked for the preparation of health professionals, and a substantial amount is reserved for engineering students. Consider these examples:

One engineering organization gives more than 150 awards.

An oil company funds scholarships for the study of geology and geophysics at 100 different schools.

The National Health Service Corps will pay your tuition in some health occupations in exchange for service after you graduate.

Free Rides for Some, Cheaper Rides for Others

The variety of talents rewarded is matched by the variety of kinds of awards. Full scholarships that cover all a student’s expenses–tuition and fees, room, board, and books–are obviously the most desirable. But partial scholaships, reduced tuition, and cash awards for contest winners are much more numerous; one survey showed that tuition remission was more than twice as common as athletic scholarships. These awards are available to people who have not yet won national reputations by the time they are high school seniors. And they are the ones that you will most likely need to find for yourself. They might also lead to other grants. Even if you do not win an award, the work you do on your grant application may improve your chances of being admitted to the school of your choice.

Robert Leider, the author of several guides to financial aid, writes that something less than a full scholarship “may be worth more than you realize. If you receive an academic scholarship and you still have remaining need after the receipt of the award, you are likely to (1) get a better financial aid package than students of lesser academic caliber (that is, a package which contains more scholarships and grants than work and loan assistance), and (2) receive first priority on assistance, especially when resources are scarce.’ If you do need to work part time to pay your expenses, you may get a campus or summer job closely related to your interests because of your award. The record of your awards will also improve your resume when you seek full-time work after graduation.

Contests of one sort or another are especially varied when it comes to awards. Some offer a substantial prize, but only to the national winner. Others offer a scholarship that can be used at any school or a scholarship that can be used at a particular school. Some offer only a small amount of money. Participation in such contests, however, can provide experience and improve your chances of winning one with larger prizes.

Early Planning

The availability of so much aid in so many forms does not guarantee that you will get any of it. You can miss out on aid by thinking only in terms of full scholarships or by looking only at schools where your chances are slight. You can improve your prospects by conducting your own search for assistance. You must identify the schools at which you have a chance for aid, learn of organizations that might help you, ask people to recommend you, write letters, file applications, and visit campuses.

As you begin your search and as you continue it, you will need to keep a great many deadlines and tasks in mind, but never lose sight of your ultimate goal: A college education. Aid is not an end in itself. Your first task, therefore, is to determine the kind of education you want. Find schools you want to attend, and then investigate the availability of aid. Even a free education is not worth-while if it is not the education you want or need. Nor should you sacrifice academic success in order to participate in college sports. Many high school athletes wisely realize that the burdens of college will be enough for them without the added demand sports would make on their time; unfortunately, some do not, only to wind up their college career with neither a future in sports nor an education. Stephen Figler and Howard Figler make an important point, in Peterson’s Athlete’s Game Plan for College and Career, when they suggest that you ask yourself how happy you would be at the school if you could not participate in your sport because of injury or because you do not make the squad. A school that is practically a minor league franchise for the pros is a poor choice for an athlete of average ability. Your choice, therefore, should not be made lightly.

Because you want to focus your search on the schools, begin it at the same place that you began your high school career: The counselor’s office.

See a Counselor

Discuss your college plans with a counselor. Begin with your academic interests and ability and then consider such factors as the location of the school, its size, and its educational programs. Avoid being too quick to select just one or two schools; don’t pick a school just because your friends did. You can probably identify a dozen or more schools suited to your interests that would provide a good education for you. In many high schools, you can work through an interactive computer program that will enable you to choose several characteristics of postsecondary institutions and then obtain a list of the schools that meet all of them.

See a Coach or Teacher

Having received advice from a counselor concerning schools that are academically suitable, you are ready to talk to coaches, music teachers, or other people who know of your special talents and abilities. They will probably have more to do with your success at finding aid than anyone else except yourself.

You may find these meetings more difficult than the ones with a counselor because you are not used to talking with coaches or teachers about your future. You may find asking for an appointment easier if you remember that they have the jobs they do because they like helping young people. Some even put together notebooks about their players or students and send it around to appropriate schools.

When you speak to a coach or teacher, you must be honest and be ready for them to be honest. Not everyone on a high school team can make a college team; not every high school musician should play in a college band.

You should be prepared to discuss your plans and abilities with regard to both the education you want and the skill you possess. Ask if they think you can compete or perform at a college level, the kind of college that you would do best at, and whether or not you would be able to secure financial aid from that kind of school. You also want to ask what you could do to improve your chances for financial assistance. After receiving advice, including advice on other places to seek help, you should ask if the person is willing to write recommendations, talk to recruiters, fill out forms, videotape your performance –these days, college coaches almost always request a tape–or provide other assistance.

The coach or teacher may ask you to suggest points to mention in a letter of recommendation. Basically, their letters should concern qualities that are not revealed by statistics, because the statistics can speak for themselves. Carolyn Stanek gives the following ideas for coaches in The Complete Guide to Women’s College Athletics: Amount of improvement, effort, cooperativeness, quick learning, team contribution, sportsmanship, leadership, attitude, and attendance at clinics and camps. A music or performing arts teacher would be interested in similar qualities, as well as in matters that pertain specifically to your activity. A copy of your resume– which is discussed below–might also help a coach or teacher write a better, more individual letter.

Not all coaches and teachers can be equally helpful. Some may consider only a few schools for everyone, without regard to particular academic or athletic programs; others may have unrealistic hopes for the students they have worked with. And some students do not get along well with their coach. Should this be your case, speak to the athletic director or an assistant coach– and work at improving your relationship with the head coach.

Learn More About Schools

At this point, you should have the names of several schools that other people think may be appropriate for you. Now you must find out more about them and their aid programs. Talk to graduates or students at the school, if you can. Certainly, you want to look the schools up in the various guides and directories of aid, such as those described at the end of this article. Check to make sure that they offer the academic program that you want and that you will fit in with the rest of the student body. And find out more about the school’s support for the extracurricular activity you excel in by learning which athletic conference the school is in (which can vary from sport to sport), the schools it competes with, the graduation rate of athletes, frequency of orchestra performances, the number of tours, the regional or national recognition it has for the activity, and similar information.

This would be a good time to start making a calendar or chart of deadlines. As you look into colleges and other sources of aid, note down deadlines for initial applications and record any supporting documents that must be filed. Also at this time, you should look into sources of aid other than the schools. Many States have special programs, as do organizations dedicated to a particular activity. The directories listed at the end of this article can point you towards some of them.

If Recruiters Should Call

At the same time that you are trying to pick a school, some schools may have decided to pick you. You may be recruited by a college as soon as you finish your junior year in high school. If you are, be very careful to follow the rules of the athletic conference to which the college belongs. Your high school coach will probably have the lastest edition of the official publication of these rules and be able to explain them to you. Make sure the information is up to date. You can also request a single free copy from the associations listed at the end of this article.

Although particular rules vary from conference to conference and year to year, advice on how to conduct yourself holds true generally. Conversations between you and a recruiter may be something like those between a job hunter and employer. Neither false modesty, nor obsequiousness, nor cockiness will score points. The recruiter will be able to judge you on your mertis, and promising more than you can deliver will not impress anyone. But by the same token, a recruiter wouldn’t be talking to you if someone didn’t suspect you were talented. Listen to what the recruiter says and be ready to ask questions about the school, its athletic program, and its academic program.

Having recruiters visit you is certainly very flattering, which makes it hard to doubt what they say. They do not have the power to make you any offers, however, and no promise they might make is binding on the school. Any offer you receive must be in writing from the school itself.

Write the Schools

You should now have a list of half a dozen or a dozen schools that you would like to attend. Make a chart that lists the qualities you want in a school and evaluate the schools you are considering against each other. You will have to decide how much weight to give each characteristic.

Once you have the names of several schools and know how much you would like to attend each, the time has come for you to follow the advice of Skip Morris, of the National High School Athletic Coaches Association. He says, “Sell yourself; don’t sit back and wait to be contacted.’

Take up to six of the schools and write two letters: One to the admissions office (requesting a catalog, an application, and information on financial aid) and one to the coach, orchestra conductor, or other person in charge of the activity you wish to pursue. Find out the name of the person to write to from one of the general college directories you have consulted, the college catalog (available on microfiche in many libraries), or a specialized directory, such as the National Directory of College Athletics.

The letter to the coach or other person in charge of the activity you wish to participate in should begin with your interest in the school, simply stating that you wish to attend it. Continue by describing your academic interest, school record, and SAT or ACT scores; a coash cannot help you if you do not meet the school’s minimum admissions requirements. You should then indicate your special interest and discuss your achievement in it, such as awards won, records set, or relevant statistics. Finally, state that you are interested in receiving financial aid and ask that any necessary forms or information, including information about auditions or tryouts, be sent to you.

Along with the letter, you should include a resume that focuses on your special talent. It should give personal information (name, address, telephone number), physical data if you are an athlete, an outline of your high school academic record (course of study, grade point average, special awards), an outline of participation and achievement in your special talent (varsity letters, special recognition, teams and organizations you have been part of), and the names and addresses of two or three people who know you as a student and of two or three people who know you as an athlete, performer, or leader. You should also include a schedule of your upcoming games or events, especially if any of them are being held near the school you are writing to.

The resume is not a place to brag. No matter how good you make yourself sound, you’ll need more than a resume to convince others that you deserve financial assistance. The resume shows that you are someone that the school might want to look at. In most cases, the school will take the next step.

Record the names of the people you have written to and the date that you sent your letters. Then wait.

While waiting, you should try to prepare a video or portfolio if at all possible. Videos are very often requested now before a coach will scout; portfolios have long been required for the award of grants in the visual arts.

You should begin receiving responses within a couple of weeks. If you hear nothing from a school after 2 or 3 weeks, either write again or telephone, asking if your original letter was received. A few coaches may not respond because they have no awards to offer, but most will let you know. If all the responses you receive are discouraging, go back to your original, longer list of schools and send letters to the next three or four. You may wish to consider the less competitive schools in the NCAA Division II or junior colleges.

In many cases–most cases if you write to schools with well-known programs that can afford an adequate clerical staff–the people you wrote to will send you a request for more information. They might send forms for your coach or teacher to fill out and ask you to send them a video. Be sure to follow up on their request. If you don’t intend to, don’t bother looking for aid to begin with.

Beyond the Schools: Contests and Other Sources of Aid

America is a generous country with widespread support for higher education. As a consequence, a great deal of scholarship money is available that does not flow through the college aid office. Do not be misled into thinking that this money is more plentiful or easier to find than that which does go through the college, however. It is not. The awards are frequently small, and very few people can qualify for them. Realistically, you are much more likely to obtain aid from the Federal Government, your State government, or the school you attend than from a union or special interest organization; therefore, you should not pin your hopes on finding a scholarship that some organization has set up just for you. Investigating these sources of aid might well be worth an hour or two of your time, nevertheless, because you might qualify for one. The directories described at the end of this article will give you a place to start looking. Just don’t waste your time applying for aid that you clearly do not qualify for.

As you go through the directories, keep in mind characteristics about yourself that frequently are used in the award of scholarship money. Many of the awards based on these characteristics, such as membership in the Armed Forces or status as an apprentice, are well known to all who qualify for them. Others may not have occurred to you. The following questions point to most of the characteristics looked at by organizations that award aid.

Questions about yourself:

What church do I belong to?

What clubs do I belong to?

What careers am I interested in?

What special talents and skills– academic and nonacademic–do I have?

What associations have members with these talents?

What jobs have I had for which awards are given?

Does my employer have a tuition assistance program?

Would my race qualify me for any award?

Would my ethnic background qualify me for any award?

Do I have a disability that would qualify me for an award?

Questions about your parents and relatives:

Was a parent killed while in the Armed Forces?

Is a parent a disabled veteran?

What church or churches do parents and relatives belong to?

What clubs, fraternal organizations, and community groups do they belong to?

What labor unions do they belong to?

What companies do they work for?

What industries do they work in?

You might not know the answers to all of these questions now. For example, you will probably need to ask your aunts and uncles about the organizations they belong to. They are also likely to know if the organization awards a scholarship that they could sponsor you for.

If you do find aid for which you qualify, write for instructions and application forms. Once you receive them, read all instructions, complete all forms carefully, put the deadlines on your calendar, and keep copies of everything you send off. When in doubt concerning an award or a qualification, ask your counselor.

Looking through several directories for an hour or two each might seem like too much work, especially if you see an advertisement that promises to do a computer search for you and save you all this time. However, most people who work with scholarship information, such as college financial aid officers and high school counselors, consider the computer search a poor value. The usual criticism is that the information provided to the client (you) is out of date or irrelevant. For example, Changing Times sent off information requests to four different search firms and found that the deadlines had passed for most of the awards that were described. Many of the awards described may also be partially based on financial need, which makes them unsuitable for students who want to rely on their talents.

Reading through directories will also give you a much better idea of the awards available than will a printout from a search firm. In the words of Karen Brack, Assistant Commissioner of the Department of Consumer Affairs of the City of New York, “It’s important that you do your homework in your search for scholarship funds.’

Visit the Schools

After you submit more information, you may be asked to visit the campus at the school’s expense. Even if you are not, you should try to visit schools that you wish to attend. While on campus, you should look into both the academic and extracurricular aspects of the school, remembering that you want both aid and an education. You can visit a campus at any time, but coaches cannot talk with you until you finish your junior year. Try to schedule your visit during the school term so that you can meet with students and possibly observe practice sessions. Write before you visit, setting up an appointment to see those you had written to earlier. You should have many questions to ask them.

When you meet with someone in the financial aid office, you might want to clarify questions about an aid package. Most schools will consider any scholarship you receive from an outside source as part of the required family contribution and reduce any other aid accordingly. You might also ask the percentage of freshmen who receive aid and the percentage of upperclassmen. And be sure to ask about other sources of aid.

When you look over dorms and academic facilities, try to meet with students to learn how demanding the program is academically and to ensure that the school’s resources are adequate to your needs. Students majoring in the same field as the one you propose to enter will usually be the best sources of such information, but even those in other fields often have more down-to-earth information than the catalog does.

As you look over the athletic or production facilities, you’ll want to talk to more students. You can see for yourself if the facilities look large enough and well maintained, but the students can give you much more information. Ask if they have difficulty balancing the demands of extracurricular activities and academics. Time is always limited, and you need to know from the students’ point of view how much time sports participation or performance requirements take. You might want to ask several students some of the following questions.

Are there enough practice fields or rooms?

Are they close to the dorms?

Is safety a problem?

Is the equipment adequate?

Is adequate physical therapy or medical care available?

What do people think of the coaching and teaching staff?

How do they act when the team is doing well?

How do they act when the team is doing poorly?

Are meals and motels okay when the team or organization travels?

Is there a dress code?

Are scholarships ever canceled?

Would they change the program in any way?

Do they have any regrets about being on scholarship?

When you meet with a coach or teacher, ask how much will be demanded. One coach will expect you in the weight room almost every day in season and out; another might expect you to attend summer camps, possibly at your own expense; a third will schedule two practices a day before the season starts. The degree of participation in regional and national tournaments or festivals should also be considered. You more or less want to learn what the coach’s philosophy for student athletes is. If sports or music is your whole life, you may want a coach or conductor with a similar philosophy; if you have a less compelling interest, you may prefer to work under someone who recognizes the other demands you will have on your time. The unaskable question you want answered is, will I get along with this person? Watching the coach or teacher in action–at practice or rehearsal–can be especially helpful.

You may have already asked many of these questions of a recruiter. Ask them again anyway.

Should your visit include a tryout or audition, just try to do your best. Those watching realize that you are nervous and will make allowances for it. Remember that this is not their only chance to evaluate you.

When talking with someone who is thinking of giving you aid, you might be asked some questions, too. Again, you should answer honestly and be neither cocky nor falsely modest. Don’t complain about the school, even if you think the free meal you had in the dorm was worth no more than it cost you. Should you decide early in your visit that you would not like to attend the school, leave as quickly and as graciously as possible. Do not waste the time of people who think you are giving their school serious consideration.

Weighing the Offers

You may now be in the enviable position of a person who has at least one offer of aid to consider. As you evaluate it or compare several, recall the reasons why you wanted to attend the school in the first place. In other words, the amount of the grant should not be the only thing you consider. At this time, you might want to check again on renewability in case of injury or if your performance is not spectacular. You might also ask about employment opportunities, which are regulated for student athletes.

Accept no promises now or later. All offers should be in writing. Even the best intentioned coach cannot promise that aid will be available. A coach cannot even guarantee that you will make the team.

Think of your decision as final. You may be able to switch schools at some time, but doing so will probably cost you at least a year of eligibility. Try writing down the pluses and minuses of competing offers, ask the advice of people you respect, and make the best decision you can.

Alternatives to Aid

Should you not be offered any aid anywhere you want to go, you can consider other ways to pay for college, such as work-study and co-op programs, participation in the ROTC, and working for an employer with a tuition assistance plan (working for the school you wish to attend, for example, often enables you to take courses for free).

You should also reapply for aid while you are in school. Many grants–such as those for students in particular career-oriented degree programs–are not awarded to freshmen. Keep in touch with the student aid office.

Where To Learn More

The counselor’s office is the first place to look for additional information about schools in general or scholarships in particular. Besides having catalogs and books, such as those listed here, it is also likely to have a computer program that will help you sort through some of the information. The following list only includes books and booklets on college scholarships and financial aid. General guides to colleges and college expenses are listed at the end of the previous article, “A College Admissions Primer.’

The A’s and B’s: Your Guide to Academic Scholarships. Vitoria A. Fabish. Alexandria, VA: Octameron Associates. Annual.

After Scholarships, What?: Creative Ways To Lower Your College Costs and the Colleges That Offer Them. Patricia Consolley, Editorial Coordinator. Princeton, NJ: Peterson’s Guides, 1981.

Annual Register of Grant Support: A Directory of Funding Sources (formerly published by Marquis Who’s Who, Inc.). Wilmette, IL: National Register Publishing Co. Annual.

Callahan’s College Guide to Athletics and Academics in America. Timothy P. Callahan. New York: Harper and Row, 1984.

Chronicle Student Aid Annual. Monrovia, NY: Chronicle Guidance. Annual.

The Complete Guide to Women’s College Athletics. Carolyn Stanek. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1981.

The Directory of Athletic Scholarships. Barry Green and Alan Green. New York: G.P. Putnam’s Sons, 1981.

Directory of Financial Aids for Women, 1985-1986. Gail Ann Schachter. Santa Barbara, CA: Reference Service Press, 1985.

Don’t Miss Out: The Ambitious Student’s Guide to Scholarships and Loans. Robert Leider and Anna Leider. Alexandria, VA: Octameron Associates. Annual.

Facing the College Cash Crunch. John Mock. Pompano Beach, FL: V.I. Press, 1984.

Financial Aid For College Bound Athletes. Marlene Lazar and Stephen H. Lazar. New York: Arco, 1982.

Financial Aid for Higher Education. Orum Keesler. Dubuque, IA: Wm. C. Brown. Biennial.

High School Planning for College-Bound Athletes. National Association of College Admissions Counselors. Skokie, IL: National Association of College Admissions Counselors, 1984.

How and Where To Get Scholarships and Financial Aid for College. Robert Leslie Bailey. New York: Arco, 1986.

How To Pay for College or Trade School: A Dollars and Sense Guide. Richard B. Lyttle and Frank Farrar. New York: Franklyn Watts, 1985.

Need a Lift? To Educational Opportunities, Careers, Loans, Scholarships, Employment. Indianapolis, IN: The American Legion Education Program. Annual.

Lovejoy’s Guide to Financial Aid. Robert Leider. New York: Monarch Press, 1985.

Peterson’s Athlete’s Game Plan for College and Career. Stephen Figler and Howard Figler. Princeton, NJ: Peterson’s Guides, 1984.

The Scholarship Book: The Complete Guide to Private Sector Scholarships, Grants and Loans for Undergraduates. Daniel J. Cassidy. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1984.

Scholarships, Fellowships, and Loans. S. Norman Feingold. Bethesda, MD: P.O. Box 34937. Irregular. 7 vols. The 8th volume, a revision of the 6th, has been announced.

The Student Athlete: Eligibility and Academic Integrity. Clarence Underwood, East Lansing, MI: Michigan State University Press, 1984.

COPYRIGHT 1987 U.S. Government Printing Office

COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group

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