A guide to using the table

A guide to using the table

The table that follows is divided into sections that correspond to the 10 groups in the Standard Occupational Classification System. Key phrases are used for projected employment change and job market conditions. Use the index beginning on page 48 to find a specific occupation.

Employment data

The table provides a snapshot of how employment is expected to change in more than 270 occupations. For each occupation, it shows estimated employment in 2002, the projected numeric change (how many jobs are expected to be gained or lost) over the 2002-12 decade, and the projected percent change (the rate of job growth or loss). Then, it gives a summary of job prospects and factors affecting employment.

The employment data in the table come from the BLS Industry-Occupation Matrix, except where noted. This symbol (**) marks the occupations that are projected to grow much faster than average or to gain at least 200,000 new jobs.

Occupational groups Occupations are grouped according to the similarity of the tasks that workers perform. The table lists employment and outlook summaries for occupations in the following 10 groups and also provides a general statement about opportunities in the U.S. Armed Forces.

Management, business, and financial operations. Workers in these occupations establish plans and policies, manage money, and direct business activities.

Professional and related. Workers in this group perform a variety of skilled functions, such as teaching, designing, or diagnosing and treating illness.

Service. This group includes workers who assist the public in a number of ways, providing services from grounds maintenance to community safety.

Sales and related. Workers in this group advertise and sell goods and services and purchase commodities and property for resale.

Office and administrative support. Workers in these occupations prepare and organize documents, provide information to the public, gather and deliver goods, and operate office software and equipment.

Farming, fishing, and forestry. Workers in this group tend and harvest renewable resources and manage forests and public parks.

Construction trades and related. Workers in these occupations build and repair homes, businesses, roads, and other structures.

Installation, maintenance, and repair. These workers install and repair all types of goods and equipment.

Production. Workers in this group assemble goods or create energy, usually by operating machines and other equipment.

Transportation and material moving. Workers in these occupations move people and materials.

Key phrases in the “Brief”

For descriptions about changing employment between

2002 and 2012:

If the statement reads … Employment is projected to …

Much faster than average Increase 36 percent or more

Faster than average Increase 21 to 35 percent

Average Increase 10 to 20 percent

More slowly than average Increase 3 to 9 percent

Little or no growth Increase 0 to 2 percent

Declining employment Decrease 1 percent or more

If available, information about expected competition

for jobs is provided.

* “Very good” or “excellent” indicates that job openings

may be more numerous than jobseekers.

* “Good” or “favorable” indicates that job openings and

jobseekers are expected to be about equal.

* “Keen competition” indicates that jobseekers may

outnumber job openings.

Employment change,

Employment, projected 2002-12 (1)

Occupation 2002 Numeric Percent

Management

Administrative services

managers 320,500 63,500 20

Advertising, marketing,

promotions, public

relations, and sales

managers 700,100 185,300 26

Computer and information

systems managers 284,400 102,600 36

**

Construction managers 388,800 46,700 12

Education administrators 426,600 100,800 24

Engineering and natural

sciences managers 257,300 24,700 10

Farmers, ranchers, and

agricultural managers 1,376,000 -227,000 -17

Financial managers 599,100 109,500 18

Food service managers 385,500 44,300 12

Funeral directors 24,300 1,600 7

Human resources, training,

and labor relations

managers and

specialists 676,700 170,800 25

Industrial production

managers 182,200 14,300 8

Lodging managers 68,800 4,500 7

Medical and health

services managers 243,600 71,300 29

Property, real estate, and community

association managers 292,900 37,400 13

Purchasing managers, buyers,

and purchasing agents 527,100 41,300 8

Top executives 2,668,600 469,300 18

**

Business and financial operations

Accountants and auditors 1,055,200 205,500 19

**

Budget analysts 62,200 8,700 14

Claims adjusters,

appraisers, examiners, and

investigators 241,400 33,900 14

Cost estimators 188,000 35,000 19

Financial analysts and personal

financial advisors 298,300 75,800 25

Insurance underwriters 101,800 10,200 10

Loan counselors and

officers 254,600 47,600 19

Management analysts 577,400 175,700 30

Tax examiners, collectors,

and revenue agents 74,800 3,8000 5

Professional and related

Computer and mathematical

Actuaries 15,300 2,300 15

Computer programmers 498,600 72,700 15

Computer software

engineers 675,200 307,200 45

** **

Computer support specialists and

systems administrators 758,300 247,300 33

**

Computer systems analysts, database

administrators, and

computer scientists 979,200 416,000 42

** **

Mathematicians 2,900 -30 -1

Operations research analysts 61,700 3,900 6

Statisticians 20,000 1,000 5

Architects, surveyors, and cartographers

Architects, except

landscape and naval 113,200 19,500 17

Landscape architects 23,100 5,100 22

Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists,

and surveying

technicians 124,500 17,500 14

Engineers (2)

36,508 108,600 7

Aerospace engineers 77,900 -4,100 -5

Agricultural engineers 2,900 300 10

Biomedical engineers 7,600 2,000 26

Chemical engineers 32,900 100 0

Civil engineers 228,100 18,200 8

Computer hardware

engineers 73,900 4,500 6

Electrical and electronics engineers,

except computer 291,900 16,700 6

Environmental engineers 47,100 18,000 38

*

Industrial engineers, including

health and safety 193,800 19,700 10

Materials engineers 24,300 1,000 4

Mechanical engineers 215,100 10,300 5

Mining and geological engineers,

including mining

safety engineers 5,200 -100 -3

Nuclear engineers 15,600 -20 0

Petroleum engineers 13,600 -1,300 -10

Drafters and engineering technicians

Drafters 216,100 6,000 3

Engineering technicians 478,300 48,200 10

Life scientists

Agricultural and food

scientists 18,000 1,600 9

Biological scientists 75,400 14,300 19

Conservation scientists

and foresters 32,800 1,400 4

Medical scientists 61,700 16,800 27

Physical scientists

Atmospheric scientists 7,700 1,200 16

Chemists and materials

scientists 91,300 11,300 12

Environmental scientists

and geoscientists 100,700 20,300 20

Physicists and

astronomers 14,400 1,000 7

Social scientists and related

Economists 16,100 2,200 13

Market and survey

researchers 154,700 38,300 25

Psychologists 139,100 33,800 24

Urban and regional

planners 32,200 3,400 11

Social scientists, other 16,500 1,600 10

Science technicians

208,500 27,100 13

Community and social services

Clergy (3) (3) (3)

Counselors 525,900 118,900 23

Probation officers and correctional

treatment specialists 84,300 12,400 15

Social and human service

assistants 305,200 148,700 49

*

Social workers 476,600 127,100 27

Legal

Court reporters 17,800 2,300 13

Judges, magistrates, and

other judicial workers 51,400 4,200 8

Lawyers 695,200 117,900 17

Paralegals and legal

assistants 199,600 57,300 29

Education, training, library, and museum

Archivists, curators, and

museum technicians 22,300 3,800 17

Instructional

coordinators 98,500 25,000 25

Librarians 167,100 16,800 10

Library technicians 119,300 20,000 17

Teacher assistants 1,276,700 294,100 23

**

Teachers–adult literacy and remedial

and self-enrichment

education 280,400 96,700 34

Teachers–postsecondary 1,581,200 602,700 38

** **

Teachers–preschool, kindergarten,

elementary, middle,

and secondary 3,754,400 665,600 18

Teachers–special

education 432,900 129,800 30

Art and design

Artists and related

workers 148,700 21,400 14

Designers 531,900 92,700 17

Entertainers and performers and sports and related

Actors, producers and

directors 139,200 25,100 18

Athletes, coaches, umpires,

and related workers 158,400 29,000 18

Dancers and

choreographers 37,300 5,000 13

Musicians, singers, and

related workers 215,400 34,800 16

Media and communication-related

Announcers 75,700 -7,600 -10

Broadcast and sound engineering

technicians and radio

operators 93,000 18,200 20

Interpreters and

translators 24,100 5,300 22

News analysts, reporters,

and correspondents 65,700 4,100 6

Photographers 130,400 17,800 14

Public relations

specialists 158,100 52,100 33

Television, video, and motion picture

camera operators and

editors 47,500 8,900 19

Writers and editors 318,600 51,100 16

Health diagnosing and treating

Audiologists 10,900 3,200 29

Chiropractors 48,900 11,400 23

Dentists 152,600 6,300 4

Dietitians and

nutritionists 48,900 8,700 18

Occupational therapists 81,600 28,700 35

Optometrists 32,100 5,500 17

Pharmacists 230,200 69,200 30

Physical therapists 136,900 48,300 35

Physician assistants 63,000 30,800 49

*

Physicians and surgeons 583,000 113,500 19

Podiatrists 13,300 2,000 15

Recreational therapists 26,700 2,400 9

Registered nurses 2,284,500 623,200 27

**

Respiratory therapists 112,200 38,900 35

Speech-language

pathologists 94,300 25,600 27

Veterinarians 57,500 14,400 25

Health technologists and technicians

Cardiovascular technologists

and technicians 43,400 14,600 34

Clinical laboratory technologists

and technicians 297,400 57,600 19

Dental hygienists 148,000 63,700 43

Diagnostic medical

sonographers 36,500 8,800 24

Emergency medical technicians

and paramedics 179,100 59,300 33

Licensed practical and licensed

vocational nurses 701,900 141,800 20

Medical records and health

information

technicians 146,900 68,700 47

Nuclear medicine

technologists 17,100 4,100 24

Occupational health and safety

specialists and

technicians 41,400 5,400 13

Opticians, dispensing 63,200 11,500 18

Pharmacy technicians 210,800 60,700 29

Radiologic technologists

and technicians 174,100 40,000 23

Surgical technologists 72,200 20,200 28

Veterinary technologists

and technicians 52,700 23,200 44

**

Healthcare support

Dental assistants 266,000 113,000 42

**

Medical assistants 364,600 214,800 59

Medical

transcriptionists 100,800 22,800 23

Nursing, psychiatric, and

home health aides 2,014,300 630,400 31

**

Occupational therapist

assistants and aides 26,800 10,800 40

Pharmacy aides 60,300 10,600 18

Physical therapist

assistants and aides 87,200 39,500 45

**

Protective service

Correctional officers 475,600 111,100 23

Fire fighting

occupations 358,900 71,800 20

Police and detectives 840,100 192,700 23

Private detectives and

investigators 48,000 12,200 25

Security guards and gaming

surveillance officers 1,004,400 319,300 32

**

Food preparation and serving related

Chefs, cooks, and food

preparation workers 2,968,200 366,700 12

**

Food and beverage serving

and related workers 6,539,000 1,133,000 17

**

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

Building cleaning

workers 3,988,700 587,700 15

**

Grounds maintenance

workers 1,310,000 282,500 22

**

Pest control workers 61,600 10,400 17

Personal care and service

Animal care and service

workers 151,300 31,500 21

Barbers, cosmetologists, and other

personal appearance

workers 754,100 111,100 15

Child care workers 1,211,100 141,600 12

Flight attendants 104,000 16,600 16

Gaming services

occupations 192,000 40,400 21

Personal and home care

aides 607,600 245,900 40

** **

Recreation and fitness

workers 484,800 143,100 30

Sales and Related

Cashiers 3,465,000 462,100 13

**

Counter and rental

clerks 435,800 114,400 26

Demonstrators, product promoters,

and models 179,200 30,300 17

Insurance sales agents 381,400 32,100 8

Real estate brokers and

sales agents 406,800 19,900 5

Retail salespersons 4,075,800 595,900 15

**

Sales engineers 81,700 16,300 20

Sales representatives, wholesale

and manufacturing 1,857,100 356,300 19

**

Sales worker

supervisors 2,395,000 204,000 9

**

Securities, commodities, and financial

services sales agents 299,900 39,000 13

Travel agents 118,500 -16,400 -14

Office and administrative support

Communications equipment

operators 303,700 -31,900 -11

Computer operators 181,800 -30,400 -17

Customer service

representatives 1,894,100 459,700 24

**

Data entry and information

processing workers 632,800 -114,300 -18

Desktop publishers 35,000 10,200 29

Financial clerks (2) 3,725,900 260,700 7

**

Bill and account

collectors 413,000 101,000 24

Billing and posting clerks and

machine operators 506,600 40,200 8

Bookkeeping, accounting,

and auditing clerks 1,983,100 59,300 3

Gaming cage workers 18,300 2,700 15

Payroll and timekeeping

clerks 197,700 12,900 7

Procurement clerks 76,800 -5,200 -7

Tellers 530,400 49,800 9

Information and record

clerks (2) 5,090,000 913,900 18

**

Brokerage clerks 77,900 -11,400 -15

Credit authorizers, checkers,

and clerks 79,700 -5,400 -7

File clerks 264,600 -700 0

Hotel, motel, and resort

desk clerks 177,700 42,500 24

Human resources assistants, except

payroll and

timekeeping 173,800 33,500 19

Interviewers 457,200 18,700 4

Library assistants,

clerical 120,400 25,900 21

Order clerks 329,700 -18,600 -6

Receptionists and

information clerks 1,100,300 324,600 29

**

Reservation and transportation

ticket agents and

travel clerks 177,300 21,700 12

Material recording, scheduling, dispatching,

and distributing

occupations (2) 4,004,900 20,500 1

Cargo and freight agents 59,100 9,200 15

Couriers and messengers 132,300 5,300 4

Dispatchers 262,200 36,200 14

Meter readers, utilities 54,000 -7,600 -14

Production, planning,

and expediting clerks 287,600 40,400 14

Shipping, receiving, and

traffic clerks 803,000 24,200 3

Stock clerks and order

fillers 1,627,700 -68,100 -4

Weighers, measurers, checkers,

and samplers,

recordkeeping 80,700 11,800 15

Office and administrative support worker

supervisors and

managers 1,459,400 95,900 7

Office clerks, general 2,991,100 309,600 10

**

Postal Service workers 664,200 -28,500 -4

Secretaries and

administrative

assistants 4,104,300 183,600 4

Farming, fishing, and forestry

Agricultural workers 795,100 35,600 4

Fishers and fishing

vessel operators 36,400 -9,800 -27

Forest, conservation, and

logging workers 81,100 -1,500 -2

Construction trades and related

Boilermakers 24,600 400 2

Brickmasons, blockmasons,

and stonemasons 164,900 23,400 14

Carpenters 1,208,600 122,400 10

Carpet, floor, and tile installers

and finishers 163,700 27,400 17

Cement masons, concrete finishers,

segmental pavers, and

terrazzo workers 190,200 48,700 26

Construction and building

inspectors 83,700 11,600 14

Construction equipment

operators 415,800 44,500 11

Construction laborers 937,800 132,700 14

Drywall installers, ceiling tile

installers, and

tapers 176,100 37,500 21

Electricians 659,400 154,500 23

Elevator installers and

repairers 21,000 3,600 17

Glaziers 48,500 8,300 17

Hazardous materials removal

workers 37,600 16,200 43

*

Insulation workers 53,500 8,500 16

Painters and

paperhangers 467,600 53,100 11

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters,

and steamfitters 550,100 98,800 18

Plasterers and stucco

masons 59,100 8,000 14

Roofers 166,200 30,900 19

Sheet metal workers 205,000 40,600 20

Structural and reinforcing iron

and metal workers 106,700 17,200 16

Installation, maintenance, and repair

Electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and

repairers

Computer, automated teller, and

office machine

repairers 156,300 23,500 15

Electrical and electronics

installers and

repairers 172,200 14,200 8

Electronic home entertainment equipment

installers and

repairers 42,600 3,700 9

Radio and telecommunications equipment

installers and

repairers 226,000 -3,500 -2

Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

Aircraft and avionics equipment mechanics

and service

technicians 154,000 15,200 10

Automotive body and

related repairers 220,100 28,600 13

Automotive service technicians

and mechanics 818,200 101,200 12

Diesel service technicians

and mechanics 267,200 37,800 14

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment

service technicians

and mechanics 175,600 15,400 9

Small engine mechanics 66,900 12,500 19

Other installation, maintenance, and repair

Coin, vending, and amusement machine

servicers and

repairers 42,700 6,500 15

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration

mechanics and

installers 248,700 79,100 32

Home appliance

repairers 42,000 2,300 5

Industrial machinery installation,

repair, and maintenance workers,

except millwrights 289,200 16,300 6

Line installers and

repairers 268,400 33,000 12

Maintenance and repair workers,

general 1,265,600 206,800 16

**

Millwrights 69,500 3,700 5

Precision instrument and

equipment repairers 63,700 5,500 9

Assemblers and fabricators

2,121,800 -77,300 4

Food processing occupations

756,600 79,300 10

Metal workers and plastics workers

Computer control programmers

and operators 151,200 14,800 10

Machinists 386,800 31,900 8

Machine setters, operators, and

tenders–metal and

plastic 1,267,400 63,400 5

Tool and die makers 109,500 400 0

Welding, soldering, and

brazing workers 451,700 66,700 15

Printing

Bookbinders and bindery

workers 98,000 -4,700 -5

Prepress technicians and

workers 147,600 -5,100 -3

Printing machine

operators 198,700 9,100 5

Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations

36,124 -152,500 -14

Woodworkers

373,600 19,200 5

Plant and system operators

Power plant operators, distributors,

and dispatchers 50,900 -300 -1

Stationary engineers and

boiler operators 55,400 100 0

Water and liquid waste treatment plant

and system operators 99,300 15,900 16

Other production occupations

Dental laboratory

technicians 46,900 1,700 4

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers,

and weighers 515,400 24,100 5

Jewelers and precious stone

and metal workers 40,300 1,800 4

Ophthalmic laboratory

technicians 33,100 3,000 9

Painting and coating workers,

except construction and

maintenance 186,600 24,300 13

Photographic process workers

and processing machine

operators 82,400 6,500 8

Semiconductor

processors 46,500 -4,900 -11

Transportation and material moving

Air transportation

Aircraft pilots and flight

engineers 100,200 17,800 18

Air traffic controllers 25,600 3,200 13

Material moving occupations

4,869,400 442,600 9

**

Motor vehicle operators

Bus drivers 654,400 106,300 16

Taxi drivers and

chauffeurs 132,200 28,700 22

Truck drivers and

driver/sales workers 3,220,800 592,200 18

**

Rail transportation occupations

101,100 -5,400 -5

Water transportation occupations

68,000 2,300 3

Job opportunities in the U.S. Armed Forces

2,500,000 (4) (5) (5)

Occupation Employment prospects

Management

Administrative services

managers Average growth. Businesses are placing

more importance on maintaining and

operating facilities efficiently,

increasing the need for these workers.

Applicants are expected to face keen

competition due to the substantial

supply of experienced workers seeking

managerial jobs.

Advertising, marketing,

promotions, public

relations, and sales

managers Faster than average growth. Employment

growth is projected as businesses

increasingly compete for consumers. Keen

competition is expected for these highly

coveted jobs. Opportunities should be

best for those who have a bachelor’s

degree and who have related experience,

creativity, and strong communication

skills.

Computer and information

systems managers Much faster than average growth. More

sophisticated technologies and greater

use of computer networks should increase

employment of computer workers and,

therefore, their managers. Opportunities

are expected to be best for workers who

have a master’s degree in business

administration with technology as a core

component, advanced technical knowledge,

and strong communication and administra-

tive skills.

Construction managers Average growth. Increased technology and

regulation have made construction pro-

jects more complex and should spur

growth. Good employment opportunities

are expected, in part because of the

need to replace workers who retire.

Prospects should be best for those who

have a bachelor’s or higher degree in

construction science, construction

management, or civil engineering and

have experience working in construction.

Education administrators Faster than average growth. Demand

should be driven by increasing student

enrollments, particularly in postsecond-

ary schools in the private and for-

profit sectors and in pre-schools and

childcare centers, many of which are

expanding in response to government

programs. Job opportunities should be

excellent because of the large number

of workers expected to retire.

Engineering and natural

sciences managers Average growth. Job growth should be

closely related to that of the engineers

and scientists these workers supervise.

Opportunities are expected to be best

for workers who have advanced technical

knowledge and good business and

communication skills.

Farmers, ranchers, and

agricultural managers Declining employment. Increased worker

productivity and the continuing conso-

lidation of small farms are expected to

reduce employment of farmers and

ranchers but create modest job growth

for salaried agricultural managers.

Raising nursery and greenhouse products

and organic food is expected to provide

the best opportunities.

Financial managers Average growth. Employment is expected

to grow as the economy expands and as

organizations continue to rely on these

workers’ financial expertise. But keen

competition for jobs is expected;

candidates who have a master’s degree in

accounting or finance are expected to

have the most favorable prospects.

Food service managers Average growth. As demand and population

grow, the number of eating and drinking

places is expected to increase, creating

jobs for these workers. Applicants who

have an associate or bachelor’s degree

in restaurant and institutional food

service management should have the best

prospects.

Funeral directors Slower than average growth. Employment

growth is expected as both the popula-

tion and the number of deaths increase.

Employment opportunities are expected

to be good, particularly for workers who

also embalm. But graduates of mortuary

science programs may have to relocate

to find jobs.

Human resources, training,

and labor relations

managers and

specialists Faster than average growth. New employ-

ment regulations, ongoing efforts to

recruit and retain employees, and the

growing importance of employee training

should increase demand for workers in

this occupation. However, the abundant

supply of qualified applicants is

expected to create keen competition for

jobs.

Industrial production

managers Slower than average growth. The

increasing productivity of production

workers is expected to limit employment

growth of their managers. Applicants

who have a degree in industrial engi-

neering, management, or business

administration, particularly those who

have a bachelor’s degree in engineering

and a master’s degree in business

administration or industrial management,

should enjoy the best job prospects.

Lodging managers Slower than average growth. Employment

growth is expected to be tempered by an

increase in low-cost and extended-stay

hotels, which require fewer managers,

and the transfer of some managerial

duties to front desk clerks. Job

opportunities are expected to be best

for those who have a college degree in

hotel or restaurant management.

Medical and health

services managers Faster than average growth. Employment

is expected to grow fastest–and

opportunities are expected to be

especially good–in home healthcare

services, outpatient care centers, and

offices of physicians and other health

practitioners. Applicants who have a

master’s degree, healthcare experience,

and strong business skills should have

the best prospects.

Property, real estate, and community

association managers Average employment growth. A growing

number of apartments, houses, and

offices are expected to require

managers. New homes increasingly are

organized with community or homeowner

associations that provide services and

oversight and require professional

management. Opportunities should be best

for those who have a bachelor’s degree

in business administration, real

estate, or a related field and have a

professional designation.

Purchasing managers, buyers,

and purchasing agents Slower than average growth. Increased

use of computerized purchasing systems

should restrain employment growth. The

best opportunities are expected for

purchasing agents of complex equipment,

workers in the services sector, and

those who have a bachelor’s degree in

business.

Top executives Average growth. Projected employment

growth of these workers varies by

industry–for example, growth is

projected to be faster than average in

professional, scientific, and technical

services but to decline in some manu-

facturing industries. Keen competition

is expected because the prestige and

high pay attract many qualified

applicants. Expected to have the best

opportunities are experienced managers

whose accomplishments reflect strong

leadership and an ability to improve an

organization’s efficiency or

competitive position.

Business and financial operations

Accountants and auditors Average growth. Employment growth is

expected because of changing financial

regulations, rising scrutiny of business

finances, and an increase in the number

of businesses. Job prospects are

expected to be favorable overall and

best for those who have a master’s

degree, professional certification,

and knowledge of accounting software.

Budget analysts Average growth. Employment growth

should be driven by the continuing

demand for expert analysis of complex

financial information. Job competition

is expected to be keen; candidates who

have a master’s degree should have the

best opportunities.

Claims adjusters,

appraisers, examiners, and

investigators Average growth. Because these jobs are

not easily automated, employment should

grow as the number of insurance claims

increases. Keen competition is expected

for investigator jobs, with college

graduates having the best prospects.

Cost estimators Average growth. Growth of the construc-

tion industry is expected to drive

demand for these workers. Job prospects

in construction and manufacturing–the

primary employers of cost estima-

tors–should be best for those who have

industry work experience and a

bachelor’s degree in a related field.

Financial analysts and personal

financial advisors Faster than average growth. Rising

levels of investment by businesses and

individuals should drive growth. Baby

boomers saving for retirement and a

population that is generally better

educated and wealthier are expected to

require more financial advice. However,

competition for financial analyst jobs

is expected to be keen.

Insurance underwriters Average growth. Underwriting software

should continue to increase worker

productivity. But because human skills

are still needed, employment is expected

to increase with rising insurance needs.

Opportunities should be best for under-

writers specializing in long-term care

and other areas that are expected to

have significant new business.

Loan counselors and

officers Average growth. Population increases and

economic expansion are expected to spur

above-average demand for loans, but

increased automation of lending pro-

cesses should curb employment. Those who

have a bachelor’s degree and have

banking, lending, or sales experience

should have the best job prospects.

Management analysts Faster than average growth. Organiza-

tional changes, growth of international

business, and changing technology are

expected to provide opportunities for

these workers. Despite fast growth,

keen job competition is anticipated

because the high salaries, good

benefits, and prestigious work attract

many jobseekers. Opportunities are

expected to be best for those who have

a master’s degree and management

experience.

Tax examiners, collectors,

and revenue agents Slower than average growth. Government

budgetary constraints, the increased

use of computers in filing and

processing tax returns, and the

contracting out of tax collections to

the private sector are expected to

dampen employment growth. Because of

the relatively small number of openings,

jobseekers should expect keen

competition.

Professional and related

Computer and mathematical

Actuaries Average growth. More workers should be

needed to analyze an increasing array

of risks related to health, terrorism,

and environmental hazards. Employment

in the insurance industry–the largest

employer of actuaries–should be stable.

The best opportunities are expected to

be in consulting.

Computer programmers Average growth. Job growth is expected

to be slower than in the previous

decade, as some routine programming

tasks increasingly are eliminated by

sophisticated software or are outsour-

ced overseas. Prospects should be best

for those with a bachelor’s degree who

know many programming languages and

tools; those without formal education

or equivalent. Work experience may face

keen competition.

Computer software

engineers Much faster than average growth. Strong

demand for software engineers is

projected as organizations continue to

adopt and integrate new technologies

and seek to maximize the efficiency of

their computer systems. Job growth will

be slower than in the previous decade

as the software industry matures and as

some routine tasks are increasingly

outsourced overseas. Very good

opportunities are expected for those

who have work experience and at least a

bachelor’s degree in computer

engineering or computer science.

Computer support specialists and

systems administrators Faster than average growth. As

computers and software becomes more

complex and new innovations are

introduced, support specialists will be

needed to help users. Job growth is not

expected to be as explosive as in the

previous decade, partly because some of

these jobs are being outsourced

overseas. Strong demand for network

administrators also is expected as

electronic commerce and computer

applications develop and cybersecurity

becomes a priority. Job prospects

should be best for associate or

bachelor’s degree holders who keep

current with the latest skills and

technologies.

Computer systems analysts, database

administrators, and

computer scientists Much faster than average growth. Growth

should be driven by rapid increases in

computer systems design and related

services. Employment prospects should

be favorable, especially for candidates

who have either a bachelor’s degree in

computer science or computer

engineering or a master’s degree in

business administration with a concen-

tration in information systems.

Mathematicians Declining employment. The number of

jobs for people with the title of

mathematician is expected to decline,

despite rising demand for workers with

mathematical skills. This work is

becoming more integrated with other

fields, such as engineering, computer

science, physics, and finance. Workers

who have strong backgrounds in these

related disciplines should have better

opportunities. Competition should be

keen.

Operations research

analysts Slower than average growth. Projected

employment reflects a slowing in the

use of this job title. Many operations-

research positions instead use titles

such as operations analyst, management

analyst, systems analyst, or policy

analyst. But opportunities are expected

to increase as organizations strive to

improve their productivity and

competitiveness. Jobseekers who have a

graduate degree in operations research,

management science, or a closely related

field should have the best prospects.

Statisticians Slower than average growth. The use of

this job title is expected to slow as

workers who study statistics increa-

singly hold jobs with other titles.

Opportunities will be best for those who

analyze and interpret data related to

economics, biological science,

psychology, and computer software

engineering.

Architects, surveyors, and cartographers

Architects, except

landscape and naval Average employment growth. Growth in

construction, particularly of nonresi-

dential structures such as office

buildings, shopping centers, schools,

and healthcare facilities, is expected

to spur employment. Due to the

popularity of the occupation, jobseekers

may face keen competition.

Landscape architects Faster than average growth. Homeowners’

and businesses’ increasing desire for

extensive landscaping projects and the

need to design large-scale government

transportation and water management

projects are expected to generate high

demand for these workers.

Surveyors, cartographers, photogrammetrists,

and surveying

technicians Average growth. Increasing availability

and use of geographic data and

geographic information systems (GIS) are

expected to spur employment. Technician

jobs are expected to grow faster than

average, creating many opportunities,

but low entry requirements could create

competition among applicants. For

surveyors, cartographers, and photo-

grammetrists, opportunities are expected

to be best for those who have at

least a bachelor’s degree and strong

technical skills.

Engineers (2)

Slower than average growth. Expected

changes in employment and, thus, job

opportunities vary by specialty.

Overall, job opportunities in

engineering are expected to be good.

Aerospace engineers Declining employment. Foreign

competition and the slow-down in air

travel are expected to limit demand for

commercial aircraft and reduce

employment in this occupation.

Nevertheless, favorable opportunities

are expected because of the declining

number of degrees granted in aerospace

engineering over the last decade.

Agricultural engineers Average growth. Job opportunities should

result from an increased demand for

resource conservation and the global

standardization of agricultural

equipment.

Biomedical engineers Faster than average growth. The demand

for more advanced medical equipment is

expected to spur employment growth. The

number of degrees granted in biomedical

engineering has increased, however,

making competition for jobs more

likely.

Chemical engineers Little or no growth. Chemical companies

are expected to continue researching

and developing new chemicals and

processes. The pharmaceuticals industry

and the research and testing services

industry may provide the best opportu-

nities. Overall employment in the

chemical manufacturing industry is

projected to decline, but the need to

replace workers who retire should create

some opportunities.

Civil engineers Slower than average growth. Spurred by

general population growth and an

increased emphasis on infrastructure and

security, employment of these workers is

projected to increase somewhat.

Computer hardware

engineers Slower than average growth. Although the

use of information technology continues

to expand rapidly, intense foreign

competition and high worker productivity

are projected to restrain employment

growth. Computer hardware engineers may

face keen competition for jobs because

the number of degrees granted in this

field has increased rapidly.

Electrical and electronics engineers,

except computer Slower than average growth. Despite

rising demand for electrical and

electronic goods–such as advanced

coumaunications equipment, defense-

related electronic equipment, and

consumer electronics products–

engineering services and electronic

products from other countries are

expected to limit employment growth.

Favorable opportunities are expected,

in part because of the need to replace

workers who retire.

Environmental engineers Much faster than average growth. More

of these workers will be hired to

develop ways to clean hazards and comply

with environmental regulations,

especially as this specialty becomes

better known. Opportunities are expected

to be favorable.

Industrial engineers, including

health and safety Average growth. As firms seek to reduce

costs and as concern for safety grows,

employment of these workers is projected

to increase. Employment of safety and

health engineers is expected to grow

less than employment of other types of

industrial engineers.

Materials engineers Slower than average growth. Although job

declines are expected in many of the

manufacturing industries that employ

these workers, engineers should still be

needed to develop new materials for

electronics, biotechnology, and plastics

products. As firms contract for engi-

neering services, fast employment

growth is projected in many profe-

ssional, scientific, and technical

services industries.

Mechanical engineers Slower than average growth. Despite job

declines in manufacturing, opportunities

should result from the demand for more

complex and efficient machinery and

processes, growth in biotechnology and

material science, and the contracting

of work to business and engineering

services firms.

Mining and geological engineers,

including mining

safety engineers Declining employment. Employment is

projected to fall in most of the

industries employing these workers.

However, very good opportunities are

expected because of the small number of

graduates in this field and the need to

replace the many workers expected to

retire.

Nuclear engineers Little or no growth. No new nuclear

power plants have been constructed in

many years, so little or no employment

growth is projected. Nevertheless, good

job prospects are expected as current

workers retire and the number of

graduates in this field remains small.

Petroleum engineers Declining employment. Most of the po-

tential petroleum-producing areas in

the United States have been explored,

reducing employment in this country.

Good employment opportunities are

expected, however, as workers retire and

the number of degrees granted in this

field remains small. In addition,

employment opportunities abound in other

countries for U.S.-trained petroleum

engineers.

Drafters and engineering technicians

Drafters Slower than average growth. Industrial

growth and increasingly complex design

problems are expected to boost the

demand for drafting services. However,

increased use of computer-assisted

design and drafting (CADD) equipment

should improve productivity and limit

employment of less-skilled drafters.

Job opportunities are expected to be

best for people who have at least 2

years of postsecondary training and

experience using CADD systems.

Engineering technicians Average growth. Competitive pressures

are expected to force companies to

improve and update facilities and

product designs more rapidly than in

the past, creating job growth for these

workers. Opportunities are expected to

be best for individuals who have an

associate degree or extensive job

training.

Life scientists

Agricultural and food

scientists Slower than average growth. These

workers are projected to have little

job growth in the Federal Government

and modest growth in State and local

governments, the largest employers of

these scientists. Workers seeking

research scientist and postsecondary

teaching positions may face competition

as the number of doctoral recipients

increases and the number of positions

remains limited. Opportunities may be

more numerous for research assistants

who have a master’s degree.

Biological scientists Average growth. The demand for medical

research is expected to drive growth.

But doctoral degree holders can expect

keen competition for basic research

positions as the number of Ph.D.

recipients increases. More opportunities

are expected for bachelor’s degree

holders in nonresearch positions.

Conservation scientists

and foresters Slower than average growth. Opportuni-

ties with State governments are expected

to be limited by budget constraints and

a decreasing emphasis on timber

programs. Stronger growth is expected in

consulting firms that specialize in

issues related to environmental pro-

tection, land management, and water.

Medical scientists Faster than average growth. Growth will

be generated by medical research and

the demand for new drugs. Infection-

control programs and concerns about

bioterrorism also are projected to

create jobs, particularly in epidemio-

logy. But as the number of Ph.D.

recipients grows, workers can expect

competition for basic research

positions.

Physical scientists

Atmospheric scientists Average growth. Consulting firms are

expected to provide the best job

prospects as weather predictions become

more detailed and useful to businesses.

The National Weather Service, the

largest employer of atmospheric

scientists, is expected to have limited

job growth.

Chemists and materials

scientists Average growth. Most job growth is

expected in pharmaceutical and medicine

manufacturing and research and

development firms, reflecting demand for

new drugs and personal-care products.

Those who have a graduate degree are

expected to enjoy better opportunities

than are those who have a bachelor’s

degree.

Environmental scientists

and geoscientists Average growth. Environmental scientist

and hydrologist jobs are expected to

grow faster than average as these

workers help organizations comply with

environmental laws. Average growth is

expected for geoscientists as oil and

gas exploration becomes more efficient.

Geoscientists who speak a foreign

language and are willing to work abroad

should have the best prospects.

Physicists and

astronomers Slower than average growth. An emphasis

on applied research means that many

people whose work relates to physics

will have other job titles. Increased

undergraduate enrollment in science and

limited research funds are expected to

create competition among Ph.D.s for

basic research jobs. Opportunities may

be more numerous for master’s degree

holders in applied research and

development.

Social scientists and related

Economists Average growth. Demand for economists

stems from the growing complexity of

the global economy and increased

reliance on quantitative methods for

analyzing and forecasting business,

sales, and other economic trends.

Bachelor’s degree holders face

competition for the limited number of

positions for which they qualify.

Opportunities should be best for workers

who have advanced degrees and strong

quantitative skills.

Market and survey

researchers Faster than average growth. Increasing

competition among companies and demand

for public-opinion research are expected

to fuel demand for these workers.

Opportunities are expected to be best

for those who have strong quantitative

skills and a graduate degree in

marketing or a related field.

Psychologists Faster than average growth. Opportu-

nities may be best for school psycholo-

gists as more student services are

provided. Opportunities also are

expected for clinical and counseling

specialists, especially for those who

hold doctorates, as they help clients

deal with their stress, family problems,

and other issues.

Urban and regional

planners Average growth. These workers will be

needed to plan for the housing, land

use, and transportation of a growing

population. Budget constraints could

limit job growth in local governments,

the primary employers of planners.

Growth should be more rapid in

consulting firms. Most new jobs are

expected to be in rapidly growing

communities.

Social scientists, other Average growth. Anthropologists,

geographers, and sociologists are

expected to have better job prospects

than will historians and political

scientists. Social scientists are

expected to find some job opportunities

in the private sector in product

development, marketing, policy research,

and application of GIS technology. Job

competition is expected to remain keen

for all specialties.

Science technicians

Average growth. Increases in scientific

and medical research, especially in

biotechnology and environmental science,

should stimulate demand for technicians.

Employment of biological, forensic

science, and environmental technicians

is expected to grow more rapidly than

that of other technicians. A high rate

of retirement is expected to provide

jobs for entry-level chemical

technicians.

Community and social services

Clergy Opportunities should be very good for

clergy as the number of graduates of

seminaries and other theological

schools is less than the number of

openings. Roman Catholic priests should

have the best job prospects. Rabbis also

should have good opportunities. Openings

for Protestant ministers vary by

denomination.

Counselors Faster than average growth. Employment

is expected to increase with growth of

educational, employment, rehabilitation,

and other counseling services. Numerous

job openings should result from the

need to replace counselors who retire.

Probation officers and correctional

treatment specialists Average growth. The increasing prison,

parole, and probation populations should

spur demand for these workers, but job

growth depends primarily on the level of

government funding for probation and

parole agencies.

Social and human service

assistants Much faster than average growth. Growth

should result from the increasing demand

for social and human services for

substance abusers, the elderly, and the

mentally and physically disabled. Job

opportunities should be excellent,

particularly for jobseekers who have

appropriate postsecondary education.

Social workers Faster than average growth. The rapidly

increasing elderly population is

expected to spur demand for social

services. Competition for jobs is

strongest in cities, but opportunities

should be good in rural areas.

Employment prospects should be best for

social workers with experience in

gerontology and substance abuse

treatment.

Legal

Court reporters Average growth. Employment should be

spurred by the continuing need for court

records and increasing demand for

captioned television programs and

Internet broadcasts.

Judges, magistrates, and

other judicial workers Slower than average growth. Tight State

and Federal budgets are expected to

limit the number of jobs for new judges.

Most openings should arise as judges

retire. Opportunities should be good for

arbitrators, mediators, and conciliators

due to the growing popularity of cost-

effective alternatives to litigation.

Lawyers Average growth. Projected demand results

primarily from increased legal activity

in some areas, such as healthcare and

intellectual property, and from

population growth. Competition for jobs

at the best law firms is expected to be

keen.

Paralegals and legal

assistants Faster than average growth. As they

become more skilled, paralegals’ duties

are increasing. These workers are

assuming some tasks previously done by

lawyers. Firms are expected to hire more

paralegals to lower costs. Jobseekers

with formal training have the best

prospects.

Education, training, library, and museum

Archivists, curators, and

museum technicians Average growth. Jobs are expected to

grow as organizations give priority to

establishing archives and organizing

information and as public interest in

science, art, history, and technology

results in more museums. Keen

competition is expected for these

popular jobs. Jobseekers who have

extensive computer skills should have

the best opportunities.

Instructional

coordinators Faster than average growth. Growing

numbers of instructional coordinators

are expected to be needed to incorporate

government standards into curriculums

and to help teachers and administrators

understand changes. Opportunities are

expected to be best for those who

specialize in subject areas–

specifically, reading, mathematics, and

science–that have been targeted for

improvement by recent legislation.

Librarians Average growth. Rising enrollments

should increase the demand for school

and university librarians; however, job

growth is expected to be offset somewhat

by computer systems that simplify

cataloging, a task increasingly handled

by library technicians. Very good

opportunities should arise from the

need to replace retirees.

Library technicians Average growth. Projected employment

growth reflects the continuing trend of

library automation, offering technicians

more responsibility. Budget constraints

could result in the hiring of more

library technicians than higher paid

librarians. Opportunities should be

good in special libraries.

Teacher assistants Faster than average growth. Fast growth

in enrollments of special education

students and students for whom English

is not a first language should generate

high demand for teacher assistants who

provide extra help. A greater focus on

educational quality and accountability

also is likely to lead to increased

demand for the remedial instruction that

these workers provide. Opportunities

should be best for workers who have

experience in special education and for

those who can speak a foreign language.

Teachers–adult literacy and remedial

and self-enrichment

education Faster than average growth. Demand for

self-enrichment courses is expected to

rise as retirees and others have more

free time. Opportunities also should be

very good for teachers of English as a

Second Language.

Teachers–postsecondary Much faster than average growth.

Workers’ need to regularly update their

skills should create new opportunities

for postsecondary teachers, particularly

at community colleges and for-profit

institutions that cater to working

adults. A rising young-adult population

also will spur growth. Many new jobs

are likely to be part time.

Teachers–preschool, kindergarten,

elementary, middle,

and secondary Average growth. Student enrollments, a

key factor in employment growth for

teachers, are expected to rise,

especially in the South and West.

Opportunities should be best for

those willing to relocate or work in

urban or rural areas. The large number

of teachers expected to retire should

lead to numerous job openings,

particularly at the secondary level.

Teachers–special

education Faster than average growth. Projected

growth reflects legislation emphasizing

training for people with disabilities,

education reforms requiring higher

graduation standards, and continued

increases in the number of students who

need special education services. Job

prospects are expected to be best for

applicants who are bilingual or have

multicultural experience.

Art and design

Artists and related

workers Average growth. Expanding electronic

and interactive media should create

opportunities for illustrators,

animators, and multimedia artists.

Competition for jobs is expected to be

keen.

Designers Average growth. Among the design

specialties, graphic designers should

have the most new jobs because of a

rapidly expanding market for Web-based

graphics and video entertainment.

Competition for openings is expected to

be extremely keen because many creative

and talented people want to become

designers.

Entertainers and performers and sports and related

Actors, producers and

directors Average growth. Employment is projected

to grow rapidly for workers who produce

Internet, cable, and subscription

broadcast media; motion pictures; and

videos but to grow more slowly in

traditional broadcast and performing

arts media. Competition for jobs is

expected to be keen because much of the

work is short-term.

Athletes, coaches, umpires,

and related workers Average growth. Employment is expected

to grow as the public continues to

participate in organized sports.

Opportunities for coaches and

instructors should be abundant at

high schools and at the amateur level

as school athletic programs grow and as

the public places a higher value on

fitness. Competition for professional

athlete and scouting jobs is expected

to remain keen.

Dancers and

choreographers Average growth. Competition for jobs in

musical theater, dance, and opera

companies should be keen because many

companies are reducing the number of

performances and limiting the number of

dancers. Although still competitive,

jobs in more commercial arenas, such as

theme parks, film, and other

entertainment industries, should be more

plentiful.

Musicians, singers, and

related workers Average growth. Most job growth is

expected in religious organizations.

Overall competition for jobs, especially

among freelance musicians, is expected

to be keen.

Media and communication-related

Announcers Declining employment. Technological

advances, station consolidation, and

lack of new stations are expected to

reduce employment. Competition for jobs

is expected to be keen.

Broadcast and sound engineering

technicians and radio

operators Average growth. Employment growth should

be tempered by station consolidation

and laborsaving technical advances,

such as computer-controlled programming.

Employment of these workers in the

motion picture industry should grow

rapidly, but jobs are expected to remain

competitive because of the number of

people attracted by the glamour of the

industry. People seeking entry-level

jobs are expected to face strong

competition in major metropolitan areas,

where pay generally is higher;

prospects are better in small cities and

towns.

Interpreters and

translators Faster than average growth. Employment

growth is expected to result from

increased international ties and

increasing numbers of foreign language

speakers in the United States.

Job prospects vary by specialty and

language.

News analysts, reporters,

and correspondents Slower than average growth. Employment

growth is expected to be limited by

mergers, consolidations, and closures

of newspapers; decreased circulation;

increased expenses; and a decline in

advertising profits. Small-town and

suburban newspapers and radio and

television stations are expected to

provide the most opportunities.

Competition should continue to be keen

for jobs in large metropolitan and

national outlets.

Photographers Average growth. Growth in the popula-

tion, with its accompanying demand for

portrait photography, and an increase

in Internet magazines and websites that

require photographs are expected to

increase demand for photography

services. However, workers should expect

keen competition, particularly in

commercial and news photography, because

the work attracts many people.

Public relations

specialists Faster than average growth. The need for

good public relations in an

increasingly competitive business

environment is expected to spur job

growth. However, keen competition is

expected for entry-level jobs, as many

people are attracted to this high-

profile profession. Opportunities should

be best for jobseekers who combine a

bachelor’s degree in a communications-

related field with an internship or

related work experience. Employment

change.

Television, video, and motion picture

camera operators and

editors Average growth. Rapid expansion of the

entertainment market, including motion

picture production and distribution and

made-for-Internet broadcasts, should

spur growth in this occupation.

Competition for jobs is expected to be

keen. Those who succeed in getting a

salaried job or in attracting enough

freelance work to earn a living are

likely to be creative, highly motivated,

able to adapt to rapidly changing

technologies, and adept at operating a

business.

Writers and editors Average growth. Technical writers, who

prepare user manuals and write technical

documentation, should experience

rapid employment growth. More opportu-

nities for self-employed writers,

authors, and editors also are expected

because many publishers increasingly

rely on contract or freelance work. But

short-term and irregular assignments

also mean keen competition for work.

Health diagnosing and treating

Audiologists Faster than average growth. As the

population ages, the number of people

with hearing loss will increase,

boosting demand for audiologists.

Additionally, rising school enrollments

and increasing services for special

education students are expected to

create jobs.

Chiropractors Faster than average growth. The desire

for alternative, noninvasive healthcare

is expected to increase the demand for

chiropractic services. Job prospects are

expected to be good.

Dentists Slower than average growth. As baby-

boomers age, many are expected to need

maintenance on complicated dental work.

And people today are more likely to keep

their teeth and, thus, to require care.

But growth is expected to be offset by

dental hygienists and assistants

increasingly handling more routine

services. Job prospects should be good.

Dietitians and

nutritionists Average growth. The increased emphasis

on healthy eating for disease prevention

is expected to boost employment. But

growth may be constrained by limits on

insurance reimbursement and by health

educators or dietetic technicians

assuming some of these workers’ tasks.

Occupational therapists Faster than average growth. Demand for

therapeutic services is expected to

rise because of a growing elderly

population and the increasing number of

individuals with disabilities or

limited function.

Optometrists Average growth. Demand for vision care

should grow steadily because of an aging

population that is susceptible to vision

problems. Replacement needs are low

because optometrists usually remain in

the profession until they retire.

Pharmacists Faster than average growth. Continued

employment increases are expected

because of an aging population, a rise

in the number of medications, and an

increase in pharmacists’ patient-care

duties. Very good opportunities are

expected.

Physical therapists Faster than average growth. The

increasing number of individuals with

disabilities or limited function,

including the elderly, is expected to

spur demand for physical therapy.

Physician assistants Much faster than average growth. Pro-

jected growth reflects the expansion of

health services and efforts to contain

costs by using assistants. Prospects are

expected to be good, particularly in

rural and inner city clinics.

Physicians and surgeons Average growth. The growing and aging

population is expected to drive

employment, as consumers continue to

demand high levels of care that use the

latest technologies, diagnostic tests,

and therapies. Demand for physician

services changes with consumer

preferences, healthcare reimbursement

policies, and legislation. Favorable

prospects are expected, particularly in

rural and low-income areas.

Podiatrists Average growth. Demand for podiatric

services is expected to rise as an

active and aging population sustains

more foot injuries. A limited number of

job openings is expected, however,

because the occupation is small and most

podiatrists remain in it until they

retire.

Recreational therapists Slower than average growth. Employment

is expected to grow in assisted living,

residential care, and adult daycare

facilities but decline slightly in

hospitals as companies try to contain

costs. Opportunities should be best for

people who have either a bachelor’s

degree in therapeutic recreation or in

a related subject with a concentration

in therapeutic recreation.

Registered nurses Faster than average growth. An increasing

demand for healthcare from an aging

population and an increasing emphasis on

preventive care are expected to spur

growth. Employment opportunities are

expected to be very good.

Respiratory therapists Faster than average growth. A rise in

the incidence of cardiopulmonary and

respiratory ailments is expected as the

population ages, spurring demand for

respiratory-therapy services. Job

opportunities should be very good,

especially for those who have cardio-

pulmonary care skills or experience

working with infants.

Speech-language

pathologists Faster than average growth. An increase

in the elderly population is expected to

raise the incidence of stroke and

increase the need for these workers.

Medical advances will help patients

survive longer. Additionally, rising

school enrollments and an increase in

services for special education students

is expected to create jobs.

Veterinarians Faster than average growth. Pet owners are

expected to spend more on advanced

veterinary medical care, creating

more employment. Very good opportunities

are expected, but competition for

admittance to veterinary school is keen.

Health technologists and technicians

Cardiovascular technologists

and technicians Faster than average growth. An aging

population is expected to boost demand

for cardiovascular procedures.

Employment in most specialties is

expected to grow rapidly, but fewer EKG

technicians will be needed as other

workers take over basic testing.

Clinical laboratory technologists

and technicians Average growth. Technological advances

are expected to have two opposing

effects on employment. New, increasingly

powerful diagnostic tests are expected

to encourage additional testing and

spur employment; however, simplified

testing procedures may allow nonlabora-

tory personnel to perform routine tests.

Job opportunities are expected to be

excellent.

Dental hygienists Much faster than average growth. Employ-

ment is expected to grow as demand for

dental services increases and as

hygienists increasingly perform services

previously performed by dentists. Job

opportunities should be excellent.

Diagnostic medical

sonographers Faster than average growth. A growing

and aging population is expected to spur

job growth. Opportunities should be

favorable as patients seek ultrasound as

an alternative to radiologic procedures.

Emergency medical technicians

and paramedics Faster than average growth. Population

growth and urbanization are expected to

increase demand for professional, rather

than volunteer, emergency medical

technicians and paramedics. Competition

is expected to be greater for jobs in

local fire, police, and rescue-squad

departments than for jobs in private

ambulance services. Opportunities are

expected to be best for those who have

advanced certifications.

Licensed practical and licensed

vocational nurses Average growth. Employment is expected to

grow with the aging population’s long-term

care needs and with a general increase in

healthcare. Nursing-care facilities are

expected to offer the most new jobs;

employment in hospitals is projected to

decline.

Medical records and health

information

technicians Much faster than average growth. Rising

employment is expected to result from rapid

growth in the number of medical tests,

treatments, and procedures performed and

from increased scrutiny by third-party

payers, regulators, and consumers. Job

prospects should be very good.

Nuclear medicine

technologists Faster than average growth. New jobs are

expected to arise from an increase in the

number of middle-aged and older people, the

primary users of diagnostic procedures such

as nuclear medicine tests. However, because

the occupation is small, relatively few

openings are expected.

Occupational health and safety

specialists and

technicians Average growth. Continuing demand for safe

workplaces is expected to offset the desire

for fewer regulations. Projected job

increases reflect business growth and

continuing efforts to comply with

government and company regulations and

policies.

Opticians, dispensing Average growth. Sustained demand for

eyeglasses and contact lenses is expected

to create jobs, particularly with the

growing number of middle-aged and elderly

people, who use more eyewear than younger

people. However, the number of job openings

is expected to be low because the

occupation is small.

Pharmacy technicians Faster than average growth. More

medications, increased medical needs of an

aging population, and additional tasks

given to these workers in an effort to

increase efficiency are expected to result

in good job opportunities, especially for

those who have formal training and

certification.

Radiologic technologists

and technicians Faster than average growth. The growing and

aging population is expected to increase

the demand for diagnostic imaging. Job

opportunities are expected to be favorable.

Surgical technologists Faster than average growth. Demand for

these workers is expected to rise as an

aging population and new surgical

procedures lead to more surgeries.

Hospitals are expected to remain the

primary employer, but employment in

physician offices and ambulatory surgical

centers is expected to grow at a faster

rate. Job opportunities are expected to be

favorable.

Veterinary technologists

and technicians Much faster than average growth. The pet

population is expected to increase, as is

the willingness of pet owners to spend

money on their pets; more jobs should

result. In addition, technicians are

expected to continue to replace

less-skilled veterinary assistants because

services are requiring more advanced

skills. Keen competition is expected for

jobs in zoos.

Healthcare support

Dental assistants Much faster than average growth. Job growth

should be spurred by rising demand for

dental care from an aging population and

the increasing reliance on dental

assistants to perform routine tasks. Job

prospects are expected to be excellent.

Medical assistants Much faster than average growth. This is

projected to be the fastest growing

occupation because of technological

advances in medicine, a growing and aging

population, and the increasing use of

these workers in group practices, clinics,

and other outpatient facilities. Job

prospects are expected to be best for

workers who have experience or formal

training, particularly those who have

certification.

Medical

transcriptionists Faster than average growth. An older

population, primary recipients of medical

tests, treatments, and procedures, is

expected to drive growth–as is the

continuing need for medial documentation

that can be shared electronically. Job

opportunities are expected to be good.

Nursing, psychiatric, and

home health aides Faster than average growth. Employment

growth should be spurred by increasing

demand for long-term care. Growth will be

much faster than average for home health

aides, faster than average for nursing

aides, and about average for psychiatric

aides. Job opportunities are expected to be

excellent.

Occupational therapist

assistants and aides Much faster than average growth. An aging

population and an increase in the number of

individuals with disabilities or limited

function are expected to increase the

demand for therapeutic services in the long

term. Furthermore, occupational therapists

are expected to delegate more work to

assistants and aides.

Pharmacy aides Average growth. Many new jobs, mostly in

retail pharmacies, are expected as these

workers help pharmacists and techni-

cians dispense more medications. Good

opportunities are expected, especially for

those who have related work experience.

Physical therapist

assistants and aides Much faster than average growth. Demand for

these workers will be driven by the growing

number of individuals with disabilities or

limited function, including the elderly,

and the increasing use of assistants in an

effort to reduce the cost of therapy.

Protective service

Correctional officers Faster than average growth. Employment will

be spurred by a growing inmate population,

the expansion of correctional facilities,

and mandatory sentencing guidelines that

call for longer sentences and reduced

parole. Excellent job opportunities are

expected, especially in some rural

locations.

Fire fighting

occupations Average growth. Most job growth is expected

to come from volunteer positions being

converted to paid positions. Pro-

spective fire fighters are expected to face

keen competition for jobs because many

people are attracted to the occupation’s

challenge and service opportunities.

Police and detectives Faster than average growth. A more

security-conscious society and concern

about drug-related crimes are expected to

contribute to the increasing demand for

police services. Competition should remain

keen for high-paying jobs with State and

Federal agencies and police departments in

More affluent areas; opportunities should

be better in local and special police

departments, especially in areas with

relatively high crime rates. Applicants who

have military experience or college

training in police science should have the

best opportunities.

Private detectives and

investigators Faster than average growth. Increased

employment is expected to stem from concern

about crime, increased litigation, and the

need to protect confidential information

and property. Keen competition is expected.

Many entry-level jobs are part-time

positions with detective agencies or

stores.

Security guards and gaming

surveillance officers Faster than average growth. Concern about

crime, vandalism, and terrorism will drive

employment growth. Opportunities should be

favorable overall, but competition is

expected for high-paying positions that

require longer periods of training

and a higher level of security, such as

those at nuclear power plants and weapons

installations.

Food preparation and serving related

Chefs, cooks, and food

preparation workers Average growth. Population growth and the

expansion of full-service, casual

restaurants are expected to spur growth.

Job openings in this very large occupation

should be plentiful because of high

replacement needs.

Food and beverage serving

and related workers Average growth. Job opportunities should be

excellent because of high replacement needs

and because rising population and incomes

will lead to more family-dining

restaurants.

Building and grounds cleaning and maintenance

Building cleaning

workers Average growth. More workers are expected

to be needed to clean new offices, schools,

and institutional buildings. Additionally,

more time-pressed households are expected

to hire cleaners instead of doing the

work themselves. But most openings expected

will result from the need to replace

workers who permanently leave this large

occupation.

Grounds maintenance

workers Faster than average growth. Homeowners’

increasing desire for landscaping is

expected to drive demand for these work-

ers. Additionally, the need to care for

institutional grounds is expected to create

growth. Good prospects are expected

due to growth and replacement needs.

Pest control workers Average growth. Increases in construction,

more complex pest-control techniques, and

population growth in the pest-susceptible

South and West are projected to generate

jobs. Good job prospects are expected

because of the need to replace workers who

permanently leave the occupation.

Personal care and service

Animal care and service

workers Faster than average growth. The pet

population is expected to increase, as is

the willingness of pet owners to spend

money on their pets, resulting in increased

jobs. Openings are expected to be plentiful,

in part because of the need to replace

workers who permanently leave the

occupation.

Barbers, cosmetologists, and other

personal appearance

workers Average growth. Job growth is expected due

to increasing population, incomes, and

demand for cosmetology services. Job

opportunities should be favorable,

especially because of the need to replace

workers who leave the occupation

permanently. Competition is expected for

jobs at high-paying salons.

Child care workers Average growth. A slight increase in the

number of young children and of women in

the labor force is expected, resulting in

increasing participation in after-school

daycare and early childhood education

programs. High replacement needs should

create good job prospects.

Flight attendants Average growth. An improving economy and a

Growing population are expected to boost

demand for airline travel and,

consequently, these workers. The

attractiveness of this occupation is

expected to create keen competition for

jobs. Those who have attended college for

at least 2 years and who have experience

dealing with the public should have

the best prospects.

Gaming services

occupations Faster than average growth. A growing

interest in gaining and the opening of

casinos in more States and Native American

lands are expected to create demand for

these occupations. Prospects are best for

those who have a degree or certification in

gaining or a hospitality-related field,

previous training or work experience in

casino gaming, and strong customer-

service skills.

Personal and home care

aides Much faster than average growth. The rapid

growth of this occupation reflects an

increasing number of older people

who need assistance, technology that allows

more home care, and shorter hospital stays.

Excellent job prospects are expected.

Recreation and fitness

workers Faster than average growth. Increased

demand for leisure and fitness activities

is expected to drive employment. Job

growth is expected to be faster for fitness

workers than for recreation workers. Keen

competition is expected for full-time

positions for recreation workers; better

opportunities are expected for fitness

workers.

Sales and Related

Cashiers Average growth. Increased purchases of

good, and services will drive growth. Job

growth and replacement needs are expected

to create favorable prospects, especially

in retail trade.

Counter and rental

clerks Faster than average growth. Plentiful

entry-level and part-time jobs are

expected as businesses grow and work to

improve customer service.

Demonstrators, product promoters,

and models Average growth. Greater use of trade shows

and in-store demonstrations is expected to

spur employment, especially for part-time

work. Job openings should continue to be

plentiful for demonstrators and product

promoters, but keen competition is

expected for modeling jobs.

Insurance sales agents Slower than average growth. Sales of

insurance products are expected to grow.

Employment is not projected to increase

as fast as sales, however, because of

competition from Internet and direct

marketing and the ability of agents to

handle more clients. Job opportunities

should be good for those who have a

bachelor’s degree and proven sales ability.

Real estate brokers and

sales agents Slower than average growth. Employment is

expected to grow as housing needs rise and

real estate is used increasingly

as an investment, but growth will be

tempered by the Internet and other

productivity-enhancing technologies.

Most openings will come from the need to

replace agents who leave the occupation

permanently. Beginning workers

often face stiff competition from

full-time, experienced workers.

Retail salespersons Average growth. Job growth reflects rising

sales to an increasing population. Good

opportunities are expected because of

the need to replace workers who permanently

leave this large occupation. Opportunities

should be abundant for part-time and

temporary work.

Sales engineers Average growth. Employment growth is

projected to stem from the increasing

production and sale of technical goods.

Job prospects are expected to be best for

those who have sales skills and an

appropriate technical background.

Sales representatives, wholesale

and manufacturing Average growth. An increasing variety and

number of goods will drive growth. Job

prospects for wholesale sales

representatives should be better than those

for manufacturing sales representatives

because manufacturers are expected to con-

tinue contracting sales duties to

independent agents, reducing the overall

number of agents. Prospects will be best

for those who have sales ability and

technical expertise.

Sales worker

supervisors Slower than average growth. Employment

growth is projected to be restrained

somewhat as companies increase the

number of workers each supervisor

overseas. Competition is expected for

these jobs, particularly those with

attractive earnings and working

conditions. Candidates who have retail

experience should have the best

opportunities. The number of self-employed

supervisors is expected to decline as inde-

pendent retailers face increasing

competition from national chains.

Securities, commodities, and financial

services sales agents Average growth. As personal incomes

increase, investors will seek more services

and advice from these workers. Some

beginning sales agents are unable to

develop a sizeable clientele and leave the

occupation, creating additional job open-

ings. Considerable competition is expected

for available positions because of the

occupation’s high earnings potential.

Travel agents Declining employment. As people

increasingly use websites to make their own

travel arrangements, the need for agents is

expected to shrink. Keen competition is

expected because many people are attracted

to the occupation’s travel benefits.

Office and administrative support

Communications equipment

operators Declining employment. Employment is

expected to decline due to new laborsaving

communications technologies, the movement

of jobs overseas, and consolidation of jobs

into fewer locations. Some openings are

expected to result from the need to replace

existing workers who leave the occupation

permanently.

Computer operators Declining employment. Software that makes

computer operations easier should greatly

reduce the need for these workers.

Opportunities are expected be best for

experienced operators who have formal

computer-related education and familiarity

with a variety of operating systems.

Customer service

representatives Faster than average growth. Significant

employment growth is expected as

organizations increasingly rely on these

workers to assist customers. Replacement

needs also should create numerous openings

in this large occupation. As technology

eliminates these workers’ simpler

functions, job duties are becoming more

complex and postsecondary training more

valued. Excellent opportunities are

expected, especially for bilingual

jobseekers.

Data entry and information

processing workers Declining employment. As personal computers

and data-capturing technologies are more

widely used and as businesses increasingly

contract out this work, demand for these

workers is expected to continue to decline.

But because of replacement needs, numerous

openings are expected, especially for

jobseekers proficient in the latest

software.

Desktop publishers Faster than average growth. Sophisticated

publishing software that allows page layout

and design work to be performed in-house is

expected to increase demand for these

workers. Jobseekers who have certificates

or degrees should have the best

opportunities.

Financial clerks (2) Slower than average growth. Office

automation, industry consolidation, and the

contracting out of these jobs is ex-

pected to make financial clerks more

productive and to slow their job growth.

But due to high replacement needs, open-

ings are expected to be plentiful.

Bill and account

collectors Faster than average growth. High demand for

collectors is expected as debt levels rise

and as businesses emphasize cash flow and

the faster collection of payments.

Billing and posting clerks and

machine operators Slower than average growth. Increasing

automation is expected to limit growth. At

the same time, however, the increased

complexity of medical billing is expected

to create new healthcare jobs. The need to

send bills out faster will create

additional employment.

Bookkeeping, accounting,

and auditing clerks Slower than average growth. Office

automation, downsizing of administrative

departments, and consolidation of

recordkeeping functions are expected to

reduce demand for accounting clerks.

Bookkeepers, those who can perform a

variety of accounting tasks, and those who

have college training are expected to have

the best job prospects.

Gaming cage workers Average growth. Employment of gaming cage

workers is not expected to grow as fast as

some other gaining occupations, due to an

increase in cashless gaming where

debit-like cards substitute for cash.

Payroll and timekeeping

clerks Slower than average growth. Despite

automation and outsourcing, the increasing

complexity of payroll matters and

regulations is expected to create some

demand for pay-roll clerks. Automation of

the timekeeping function is expected to

cause employment of timekeepers to decline.

Replacement needs should create numerous

opportunities, especially for jobseekers

with certifications.

Procurement clerks Declining employment. The growing use of

computers and the Internet for ordering

supplies is expected to reduce demand

for these clerks.

Tellers Slower than average growth. Banks are

opening more branch offices and are

extending their hours, thus creating jobs

for tellers, particularly part-time ones.

Those who can sell bank products and who

are skilled in customer service and cash

handling will have the best job prospects.

Information and record

clerks (2) Average growth. In addition to job openings

from the general expansion of business,

numerous openings should result from the

need to replace workers who permanently

leave these large occupations.

Brokerage clerks Declining employment. Demand for these

workers is expected to be limited by the

proliferation of online trading and

widespread automation in the securities and

commodities industry.

Credit authorizers, checkers,

and clerks Declining employment. Computerized credit

scoring and other technologies will allow

fewer workers to process an increasing

number of credit applications.

File clerks Little or no growth. Employment is expected

to be slowed by automation and the

consolidation of clerical jobs. Jobseekers

who have typing and other secretarial

skills and are familiar with a range of

office machines should have the best

prospects.

Hotel, motel, and resort

desk clerks Faster than average growth. Demand for

workers is expected to increase as more

hotels, motels, and other lodging

establishments are built and as occupancy

rates rise. Opportunities for part-time

and nighttime work should be plentiful as

front desks remain open around the clock.

Human resources assistants, except

payroll and

timekeeping Average growth. Although limited by

computer automation, some growth is

expected as assistants take on new roles in

recruitment.

Interviewers Slower than average growth. Employment of

loan interviewers and eligibility

interviewers for government programs is

projected to decline due to automated data

collection, but employment of data

collectors and healthcare admissions

interviewers is expected to increase faster

than average, reflecting rapid growth in

healthcare services. Prospects should be

best for jobseekers who have customer

service, mathematics, and telephone skills.

Library assistants,

clerical Faster than average growth. Efforts to

contain costs in local governments and

academic institutions are expected to

create a preference for hiring library-

support staff instead of librarians. Good

job prospects are expected due to growth

and high replacement needs.

Order clerks Declining employment. Demand for these

workers is expected to decrease because of

growth in online retailing, business-to-

business electronic commerce, and the use

of automated systems that simplify order

placement. Many openings, especially for

seasonal work, will result from the need to

replace workers who leave the occupation

permanently.

Receptionists and

information clerks Faster than average growth. Job growth will

be driven by rapid increases in services

industries, where most receptionists are

employed. Opportunities should be best for

people who have comprehensive clerical and

technical skills and related work

experience.

Reservation and transportation

ticket agents and

travel clerks Average growth. Employment growth from

increased travel should be offset by

technology that allows travelers to make

their own arrangements. Keen competition is

expected because of the travel benefits and

glamour associated with travel jobs and the

minimal training requirements.

Material recording, scheduling, dispatching,

and distributing

occupations (2) Little or no change. Growth varies by

detailed occupation. Numerous job openings

are expected to result from the need to

replace workers who permanently leave these

very large occupations.

Cargo and freight agents Average growth. The increasing use of the

Internet to purchase goods and the growing

importance of same-day delivery are

expected to create demand for cargo and

freight agents. However, technological

advancements, such as the use of bar codes

to track shipments, are expected to curb

growth.

Couriers and messengers Slower than average growth. Employment

growth should be dampened by the

increasing use of e-mail, Internet

downloads, and other information-handling

technologies to deliver documents. But

couriers will still be needed to trans-

port materials that cannot be sent

electronically, such as passports and

medical samples.

Dispatchers Average growth. Demand for police, fire,

and ambulance dispatchers should be fueled

by a growing and aging population that

will demand more emergency services.

Economic expansion and population growth

also are expected to spur demand for other

types of dispatchers.

Meter readers, utilities Declining employment. The increasing use of

automated meter-reading technology is

expected to reduce the need for these

workers.

Production, planning,

and expediting clerks Average growth. Increasing pressure on

manufacturing firms to produce and deliver

goods efficiently is expected to spur

job growth.

Shipping, receiving, and

traffic clerks Slower than average growth. Growth should

be moderated by the use of computers to

store and retrieve shipping and

receiving records.

Stock clerks and order

fillers Declining employment. Automation in

factories and stores is expected to thwart

job growth. There may be more opportunities

in apparel, grocery, and department stores.

Because this occupation is very large,

numerous openings are expected to be

created from replacement needs.

Weighers, measurers, checkers,

and samplers,

recordkeeping Average growth. The need for accurate

measurements and high-quality materials and

the use of records to verify infor-

mation are expected to spur demand for

these workers.

Office and administrative support worker

supervisors and

managers Slower than average growth. As technology

increases productivity, demand for office

and administrative support workers and,

consequently, their supervisors and

managers, is projected to slow. Competition

for these jobs is expected to be keen.

Office clerks, general Average growth. Demand for general office

clerks is expected to increase as jobs for

more specialized clerks decline. Office:

automation has led to consolidation of

clerical tasks and more variety in each

worker’s responsibilities. Plentiful

full-time, part-time, and temporary

opportunities should result from job

growth, the large size of the occupation,

and the need to replace workers who

permanently leave the occupation. Prospects

should be best for those who are

proficient in the use of office software

and machinery and who have good writing

and communication skills.

Postal Service workers Declining employment. Declining trail

volume and increasing use of automated

mail-processing systems are expected

to decrease employment within these

occupations. Keen competition is expected

for jobs.

Secretaries and

administrative

assistants Slower than average growth. Organizational

restructuring and increasing office

automation are expected to slow job growth

overall. Average growth is projected for

legal, medical, and executive secretaries,

with employment of other secretaries

declining. Many openings are expected to

result from the need to replace workers who

permanently leave this very large

occupation. Opportunities should be best

for experienced applicants who have

extensive knowledge of office software.

Farming, fishing, and forestry

Agricultural workers Slower than average growth. New jobs are

expected for farmworkers and nursery and

greenhouse workers. But employment will be

dampened by farm consolidation and

laborsaving farming equipment. Abundant

opportunities are expected because of the

need to replace farmworkers and because of

faster growth among nursery and greenhouse

workers.

Fishers and fishing

vessel operators Declining employment. Job decline’s are

projected due to increased competition from

imported and farm-raised fish, a lack of

new wild fish stocks, and an expected

increase in fishing restrictions.

Forest, conservation, and

logging workers Declining employment. Employment of logging

workers is expected to decline because of

increased mechanization and imported wood.

Employment of forest and conservation

workers, however, is expected to grow as

States set aside more land for ecological

purposes.

Construction trades and related

Boilermakers Little or no growth. Employment growth is

expected to be limited by the use of

smaller boilers and the trend toward boiler

repair rather than replacement. Despite the

lack of new jobs, many openings are

expected because of the need to replace

workers who leave the occupation

permanently; many boilermakers retire

early, in part because the work is

physically demanding. Good opportunities

are expected in some locations.

Brickmasons, blockmasons,

and stonemasons Average growth. Opportunities for

employment are expected to be excellent

because more buildings will be constructed

or repaired and many experienced workers

are expected to retire.

Carpenters Average growth. Employment growth is

expected as construction activity

increases. The rise in demand for larger

homes with more amenities and for

retirees’ second homes is expected to

continue. Excellent job opportunities are

projected, primarily due to the many

retirements from this large occupation.

Carpenters with versatile skills should

have the best opportunities for steady

work.

Carpet, floor, and tile installers

and finishers Average growth. Projected job growth

primarily reflects the continued need to

refurbish existing floors. But employment

of one specialty–floor sanders and

finishers–is projected to grow more

slowly than average as more people opt for

prefinished flooring. Carpet installers,

the largest specialty, should have the

best job prospects.

Cement masons, concrete finishers,

segmental pavers, and

terrazzo workers Faster than average growth. Favorable

opportunities are projected. The need for

new bridges, factories, and other

structures and the greater use of

concrete will create growth.

Construction and building

inspectors Average growth. Rising concern for public

safety should increase the demand for these

workers; and, as the volume of real-estate

transactions increases, the demand for home

inspections should rise. Opportunities

should be best for highly experienced

supervisors and craft workers who have some

college education, engineering or

architectural training, or certification.

Construction equipment

operators Average growth. Employment is expected to

increase as business growth and public-

works finding leads to new houses, bridges,

and other structures. Job opportunities for

these workers are expected to be good–due,

in part, to the small number of training

programs and, consequently, trained

jobseekers.

Construction laborers Average growth. Employment growth from

infrastructure rebuilding is expected to be

tempered by automation of some job tasks.

Favorable opportunities are expected, due

to the large number of workers expected to

leave the occupation permanently.

Drywall installers, ceiling tile

installers, and

tapers Faster than average growth. Employment

growth reflects increased remodeling, new

construction, and rising popularity of

insulated exterior wall systems. Good job

opportunities are expected.

Electricians Faster than average growth. As the

population and economy grow, more

electricians are expected to be needed to

install and maintain electrical devices

and wiring in homes, factories, and other

structures. Wiring for telecommunications

and other new technologies also is expected

to stimulate demand. Job opportunities are

expected to be good.

Elevator installers and

repairers Average growth. Nonresidential construction

and the need to install increasingly

complex elevators are expected to drive

growth. Job opportunities are expected to

be limited in this small occupation.

Prospects should be best for those

who have postsecondary education in

electronics.

Glaziers Average growth. Employment growth is

expected because of growth in construction

and improvements in glass safety and

insulation. As older glaziers retire,

excellent job opportunities are expected.

Prospects vary by geographic area.

Hazardous materials removal

workers Much faster than average growth. Projected

growth reflects increasing concern for a

safe, clean environment. Job opportunities

are expected to be good.

Insulation workers Average growth. Job growth is expected to

be spurred by new construction, renovation,

and demand for more efficient heating and

cooling systems. Excellent job opportuni-

ties are expected.

Painters and

paperhangers Average growth. Renovation and new

construction are expected to drive job

growth. Generally, the most versatile

workers will be best able to find work

during economic downturns. Good job

prospects are expected because of the

need to replace workers who leave the

occupation permanently.

Pipelayers, plumbers, pipefitters,

and steamfitters Average growth. Employment is expected to

be tempered by the use of plastic pipes

but spurred by construction,

renovation, and increasing use of

sprinkler systems. Excellent opportunities

are expected.

Plasterers and stucco

masons Average growth. Job opportunities are

expected to be favorable, especially in

the South and Southwest, as the popularity

of plaster and decorative finishes

increases.

Roofers Average growth. More roof replacements and

repairs are expected to drive growth. Jobs

should be plentiful due to greater

replacement needs in this occupation

compared with that in other construction

trades.

Sheet metal workers Average growth. Job opportunities are

expected to be good in the construction

industry because of the demand for

sheet-metal installations in industrial,

commercial, and residential structures;

the popularity of decorative sheet-metal

products; and increased architectural

restoration. Prospects in manufacturing are

expected to be less favorable.

Structural and reinforcing iron

and metal workers Average growth. Growth in industrial and

commercial construction and the

rehabilitation and replacement of an in-

creasing number of older buildings, power

plants, and bridges is expected to create

employment. Job openings for ironworkers

usually are more abundant in spring and

summer, when construction increases.

Installation, maintenance, and repair

Electrical and electronic equipment mechanics, installers, and

repairers

Computer, automated teller, and

office machine

repairers Average growth. Job increases are expected

as business and residential customers

increasingly rely on computers and office

machines in their daily activities. Job

prospects should be best for computer

repairers and applicants who have ex-

perience and electronics knowledge.

Electrical and electronics

installers and

repairers Slower than average growth. Employment

growth is expected to vary by specialty,

growing fastest in commercial,

industrial, and automotive equipment

specialties. Improvements in equipment

design should limit job growth somewhat

by simplifying repair tasks.

Electronic home entertainment equipment

installers and

repairers Slower than average growth. Technological

advancements are expected to improve the

reliability of entertainment equipment

and lower maintenance requirements.

Jobseekers who have hands-on experience

and knowledge of electronics

should have the best opportunities.

Radio and telecommunications equipment

installers and

repairers Declining employment. Some workers will

be needed to upgrade telecommunications

networks, but total employment is

expected to decline because of

increasingly reliable self-monitoring

and self-diagnosing equipment and because

higher capacity equipment is expected to

reduce the overall amount of equipment

needed. Moreover, the replacement

of two-way radio systems with wireless

systems, especially in service vehicles,

is expected to reduce the need for onsite

radio mechanics.

Vehicle and mobile equipment mechanics, installers, and repairers

Aircraft and avionics equipment mechanics

and service

technicians Average growth. More mechanics are expected

to be needed as air traffic resumes its

upward trend and recovers from the

effects of terrorism fears and the

recession. In addition, many

aircraft mechanics are expected to retire

over the next decade, creating many job

openings. People who complete aircraft

mechanic training programs should have

excellent job prospects, especially toward

the end of the projections decade.

Automotive body and

related repairers Average growth. Demand is expected to

increase as the number of vehicles grows.

But demand is expected to be tempered by

technology that improves safety and reduces

the likelihood of accidents. Employment

growth also should be lessened by changes

in body-shop management that increase

productivity, reduce overhead expenses, and

improve standardization. Opportunities

should be best for people who have formal

training in automotive body repair and

mechanics.

Automotive service technicians

and mechanics Average growth. Increasing demand for

automotive services, due to growth in the

number of vehicles, is expected to be

tempered by improvements in vehicle quality

that reduce the need for extensive repairs

and maintenance. Job opportunities should

be very good for people who complete au-

tomotive training programs–especially

those that include basic electronics–in

high schools, vocational and technical

schools, or community colleges.

Diesel service technicians

and mechanics Average growth. As the volume of freight

increases, the number of diesel trucks and

the need for technicians and mechanics are

expected to increase. Opportunities should

be good for people who complete formal

training in diesel mechanics. Applicants

who do not have formal training may face

stiffer competition.

Heavy vehicle and mobile equipment

service technicians

and mechanics Slower than average growth. Increasing

numbers of technicians will be required to

support growth in construction.

Opportunities should be good for people

who complete formal training.

Small engine mechanics Average growth. As disposable incomes

rise, ownership of motorcycles, boats, and

lawn and garden equipment is expected to

increase, spurring demand for the mechanics

who service them. Job prospects are

expected to be especially favorable for

those who complete formal training

programs.

Other installation, maintenance, and repair

Coin, vending, and amusement machine

servicers and

repairers Average growth. New jobs are expected

because of the increasing number of vending

and amusement machines in use.

Opportunities should be especially good for

people who have some knowledge of

electronics.

Heating, air conditioning, and refrigeration

mechanics and

installers Faster than average growth. The demand for

climate-control systems is expected to

increase with population and economic

growth. Employment also should be spurred

by the need to replace older systems and to

comply with environmental regulations. Good

job prospects are expected, particularly

for those who have technical-school or

apprenticeship training. Workers who

specialize in installation may experience

unemployment when construction activity

declines, but maintenance and repair work

usually remains stable.

Home appliance

repairers Slower than average growth. Job growth is

expected as more appliances are used and

as they become more complicated and

expensive. Good prospects are expected as

job openings continue to outnumber

jobseekers. Self-employment in this

occupation is expected to decline.

Industrial machinery installation,

repair, and maintenance workers,

except millwrights Slower than average growth. More workers

will be needed to install, repair, and

maintain the growing amount of auto-

mated production machinery. And because

many workers are expected to retire,

applicants who have broad skills in

machine repair and maintenance should have

favorable prospects.

Line installers and

repairers Average growth. New jobs are expected to

result from growth in the construction

and telecommunications industries and the

modernization of telecommunications net-

works.

Maintenance and repair workers,

general Average growth. Employment of general

maintenance and repair workers is expected

to increase with the number of buildings.

Job openings should be plentiful due to the

need to replace the many workers who

permanently leave this large occupation.

Millwrights Slower than average growth. Millwrights

will be needed to install new machinery,

but demand for their services is expected

to be dampened by their rising productivity

and by lower skilled workers taking over

some tasks. Skilled candidates, especially

those who are trained to install new pro-

duction technologies, should have good

opportunities.

Precision instrument and

equipment repairers Slower than average growth. Employment

should be spurred by greater use of

medical equipment and by increases in the

number of children learning musical

instruments. Mainly because of the small

number of trained applicants, good

opportunities are expected in most

occupational specialties.

Assemblers and fabricators

Declining employment. Automation and the

movement of assembly tasks to countries

that have lower labor costs are expected

to cause job declines. But the need to

replace workers who leave the occupation

permanently should create many openings.

Food processing occupations

Average growth. Increased demand for

bakeries and processed and prepared meats

is expected to spur growth over-all. But

less expensive meat imports are expected

to curtail employment growth in many food

processing occupations. Job growth will be

concentrated in manufacturing, as meat

cutting and processing shifts from retail

stores to food processing plants.

Metal workers and plastics workers

Computer control programmers

and operators Average growth. These occupations should

provide excellent job opportunities due to

the small number of people entering

training programs. Employment growth of

computer-controlled machine tool operators

is projected to be slower than average.

Employment growth of numerical tool and

process control programmers is expected to

be about average. Job growth in both

occupations is driven by the

increasing use of computerized machine

tools but is limited by technological

improvements.

Machinists Slower than average growth. Technological

advances that increase productivity are

expected to slow growth, but workers

still will be needed to create parts,

maintain automated systems, and do other

tasks. Job opportunities should be

excellent.

Machine setters, operators, and

tenders–metal and

plastic Slower than average growth. Automation,

trade, the demand for goods, and the

reorganization of production processes

are expected to spur employment growth

among some operators, such as multiple

machine tool operators and plastics-

molding, core-making, and casting machine

operators. But those trends are expected

to create declines in other operator

specialties, including cutting, punching,

and press machine setters, operators, and

tenders. Retirements are expected to

create many openings.

Tool and die makers Little or no growth. Job growth will be

slowed by automation, even though some of

these workers are needed to maintain

automated equipment. Because many workers

are retiring, skilled applicants should

enjoy excellent opportunities.

Welding, soldering, and

brazing workers Average growth. As some manufacturing and

construction industries grow, so will jobs

for welders who work in those industries.

Improved technology also is creating jobs

by making welding more effective. Job

prospects should be excellent.

Printing

Bookbinders and bindery

workers Declining employment. Automation is

reducing the need for bindery workers and

allowing other press operators to per-

form bindery work. Additionally, rising

imports of printed products are expected to

lessen employment. Hand book-binding is

expected to remain highly specialized, with

limited demand for more workers.

Prepress technicians and

workers Declining employment. Computerization and

desktop publishing are expected to cause

prepress jobs to decline. However,

employment of job printers, who handle a

variety of printing jobs, should continue

to rise as technology makes smaller

printing jobs economically viable.

Prospects are expected to be best for those

who have printing-industry experience or

formal training and the ability to perform

a variety of printing processes.

Printing machine

operators Slower than average growth. Rising demand

for printed materials in schools and in

advertisements will be offset by con-

solidation in the newspaper industry and

computerization of these workers’ tasks.

Good job opportunities are expected

because many workers are expected to

retire.

Textile, apparel, and furnishings occupations

Declining employment. Employment in most

apparel and textile occupations is expected

to decline because of imports, offshore

assembly, and increased productivity

through automation. But replacement needs

will create many openings. Experienced

upholsterers should have good

opportunities despite falling employment

because few people are training for the

occupation.

Woodworkers

Slower than average growth. Model- and

pattern-makers are expected to have average

growth. Little or no growth is expected

among woodworking machine setters,

operators, and tenders; slower than average

growth is expected for cabinet-makers and

bench carpenters and furniture finishers.

Employment is expected to be adversely

affected by technological advances,

imports, substitution of other materials

for wood, and environmental measures. Job

prospects should be best for highly skilled

woodworkers who can operate computerized

machine tools.

Plant and system operators

Power plant operators, distributors,

and dispatchers Declining employment. Increased automation,

low replacement needs, and more

competition among electricity providers

are expected to limit opportunities. Job

applicants may face keen competition. Those

trained in computers and automated

equipment should have the best prospects.

Stationary engineers and

boiler operators Little or no growth. Commercial and

industrial development will increase the

amount of equipment that is operated and

maintained, but automation and increased

productivity are expected to limit job

growth. Applicants may face keen

competition.

Water and liquid waste treatment plant

and system operators Average growth. A growing population is

expected to increase demand for water and

waste services, spurring employment. Job

prospects are expected to be good for

qualified applicants.

Other production occupations

Dental laboratory

technicians Slower than average growth. Rising

disposable income should spur demand for

cosmetic prosthetics, but improved dental

health is expected to reduce demand for

full dentures. Job opportunities should be

favorable, in part because of the public’s

unfamiliarity with the occupation lessens

the number of applicants.

Inspectors, testers, sorters, samplers,

and weighers Slower than average growth. The growing

use of automated inspection and the

shift of quality-control responsibilities

from inspectors to production workers are

expected to slow growth. The need to

replace workers who permanently leave this

large occupation should create numerous

openings, but most are expected to be

filled by experienced workers who have

advanced skills.

Jewelers and precious stone

and metal workers Slower than average growth. Job growth

stems from increased demand for jewelry by

a more affluent population. Opportunities

should be excellent because the number of

retiring master jewelers exceeds the

number of trainees.

Ophthalmic laboratory

technicians Slower than average growth. Increased

automation is expected to continue to

improve worker productivity and cur-

tail growth. Job openings are expected

to be few because the occupation is small.

Painting and coating workers,

except construction and

maintenance Average growth. Employment growth for

highly skilled transportation painters and

automotive refinishers is projected to be

faster than that for lower skilled

painting, coating, and spraying machine

operators, whose jobs are subject to

automation.

Photographic process workers

and processing machine

operators Slower than average growth. Increasing use

of digital technology to download,

retouch, and print images is expected

to slow demand for these workers.

Semiconductor

processors Declining employment. Automation and rising

imports are expected to lower employment.

Those with an associate degree in a

technology field should have the best

prospects.

Transportation and material moving

Air transportation

Aircraft pilots and flight

engineers Average growth. Employment of pilots is

expected to increase as the population

grows and the economy improves.

Smaller regional airlines and

corporate-owned aircraft are expected to

provide the best prospects. Keen

competition is expected, particularly

for airline pilots, because many quali-

fied people are attracted to the high

earnings, prestige, and travel benefits

of this occupation. Flight engineers’

employment is projected to decline because

some new planes do not require their

services.

Air traffic controllers Average growth. Increased air traffic is

expected to require more controllers.

But growth is expected to be tempered by

automation and budget constraints.

Competition to get into

Federal Aviation Administration training

programs is expected to remain keen.

Material moving occupations

Slower than average growth. Employment

growth is expected to stem from an

expanding economy and increased spending

on roads and infrastructure. However,

equipment improvements, including

automation of material handling, will

continue to raise productivity and moderate

employment. Job openings should be numerous

because the occupation is very large and

replacement needs are great.

Motor vehicle operators

Bus drivers Average growth. Projected growth reflects

increasing school enrollments and a rise

in population, especially in the sub-

urbs. Good job prospects are expected.

Opportunities should be best for those who

have good driving records and

are willing to start on a part-time or

irregular schedule.

Taxi drivers and

chauffeurs Faster than average growth. As the

population grows, local and suburban

travel is expected to rise. Good

opportunities should result from the need

to replace the many drivers who

permanently leave the occupation after a

short time. Opportunities should be best

for those who have good driving records

and the ability to work flexible schedules.

Truck drivers and

driver/sales workers Average growth. An expanding economy and

the need to move more freight are

expected to spur faster than average growth

for truck drivers. Slower than average

growth among driver/sales workers is

expected as companies increasingly

shift sales, ordering, and customer service

tasks to sales and office staffs. Job

opportunities should be favorable for truck

drivers due to the growth of this large

occupation and the need to replace drivers

who leave permanently, but keen

competition is expected for jobs that have

the most attractive earnings and working

conditions.

Rail transportation occupations

Declining employment. Job consolidation and

rules that allow smaller crews are

expected to reduce railroad employment.

Employment growth for subway and streetcar

operators, however, is expected to be

average as the demand for public rail

transportation increases. Keen job

competition is expected because of these

occupations’ high pay job security, and

minimum educational requirements.

Water transportation occupations

Slower than average growth. Expected

increases in international trade will cause

more goods to be shipped, resulting in

increased demand for these occupations. In

addition, higher insurance costs for

foreign-flag ships will generate more

jobs on U.S.-flag ships. Keen competition

is expected, but prospects vary.

Job opportunities in the U.S. Armed Forces

Opportunities for qualified people should

be good in all branches of the U.S. Armed

Forces.

(1) Numeric and percent changes are calculated from unrounded figures

for current and projected employment.

(2) Individual estimates do not sum to total due to rounding.

(3) These matrix data are not published in the Occupational Outlook

Handbook.

(4) This estimate is from the U.S. Department of Defense.

(5) Projections are not available from the Bureau of Labor Statistics.

COPYRIGHT 2004 U.S. Government Printing Office

COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group