How six online newspapers use Web technologies
This content analysis compared the use of World Wide Web technologies on the sites of six online newspapers. The study showed heavy presence of consumer services but little use of plug-in based technologies.
Observers have proclaimed the Internet to be the future of communication. Katz, for example,-believed that the future of journalism is found on the Internet and that online news will one day become mainstream journalism. “The [World Wide] Web is transforming culture, it is transforming language, transforming information and we’re seeing this in very dramatic and measurable ways, which some liken to the invention of movable type.”1 He noted that the old model of a few people providing information to many is “breaking down” in favor of many providing to many. Rules are being rewritten and the news media are being transformed. The way in which news organizations relate and interact with their audiences is also in transition.’
What does this fundamental shift in communication mean to journalism? How are journalists using these new network tools to reach audiences? In recent years, news media have flocked to the Web. The number of newspapers in the United States offering online editions has grown rapidly. One study reported online editions had increased from 745 in July 1996 to 2,059 a year later.3 The amount of change that has occurred in online newspapers has been significant. One observable shift has been toward increasing original news reporting by online news site staffs. Journalists are less likely to serve as traditional information gatekeepers. Users have larger amounts of information and a wider range of sources upon which to draw .4
The role of many online newspapers has yet to be defined. In some cases, online editions are not much more than electronic versions of the parent newspaper. Some others are a hybrid of printed newspaper and original content. Some online news sites contain large amounts of original content created by separate staffs. Sources of news and information are being widened to meet the needs. At least one journalist has argued that online newspapers should think of themselves as full-service independent Web sites. He argued that sites should work with 24-hour deadlines and update content on a frequent and regular basis.5
A key content issue has been whether newspaper Web sites are considered part of the print edition or a separate and competing medium. Similar questions about the role of the print medium arose when newspapers competed against and developed their own radio stations in the 1920s and again with television stations in the 1950s. While the heart of the competition is advertising dollars, news content is also a concern in the face of any developing medium.7 Commercial media influences, such as those by online newspapers, point to a “colonization” metaphor describing the Internet instead of the commonly described “community.”8 The ideals of democratic community building on the Internet, they offered, are resisted by online newspapers as they “stake out” territories by discouraging access to other sites. Peng, Tham and Xiaoming found differing online objectives in online newspapers, but online newspapers were similar in the goals of seeking additional readers, increasing revenue and promoting the print edition.9 South recently observed that online newspaper staffs often must urge their print colleagues to think about the needs of online sites.10 For example, print reporters and editors do not usually gather audio or video for the print editions, but will assist their online counterparts.
Many newspapers with Web sites have not found the right online model. The Buffalo News, The Clarion-Ledger and The Honolulu Advertiser did not have sites with daily news content as recently as summer 1999.11 The rapidly evolving state of online news can be characterized by considerable experimentation with content, technologies and distribution. Furthermore, the results are frequent changes and often radical site redesigns. Online newspapers are at an important stage of media convergence. Online newspapers still have many ties to traditional print newspapers, but they also have the potential to use many new features from the world of mixed-media digital communication. These include audio, video, animation and increased user control. The Internet, when available to the general public and commercial news companies, is expected to have a significant content- and process-changing influence.12 Experts have already speculated that gathering and distributing news as well as public consumption will be quite different.13
How do these evolving technologies change news? That question remains unanswered in the literature. This study explored one aspect of the problem by focusing on use of available Web technologies. This study compares use on the basis of newspaper market type and explores whether there are differences between the market types of online newspapers.
Critics have pointed out that newspapers are not using new technologies to full potential.14 They argue that daily newspapers have not made necessary changes in the way they collect and distribute news.15 Some authorities have said that newspapers are following the old model of presenting news every 24 hours instead of providing continuous updates and that they are just creating “shovelware”- the process of taking the content of a print edition and reproducing it on a Web site.16 Experts have also argued that newspapers are not taking advantage of interactivity, hypertext and multimedia.17
Singer suggested four theoretical foundations for study of online journalism and online journalists.18 She pointed to gatekeeping theory, diffusion of innovation theory, sociology of news work and the role of journalism as a cohesive force in a fragmenting society. Other new technologies research has focused on uses and gratifications theory as the foundation for study.19 Analysis of technological devices used for online news delivery, however, may be best seen within the diffusion of innovation context.20
Technologies Used For Online News
Research shows increased use of newspaper sites. Many users are seeking local news at the sites.21 Increasing numbers of women are reading online news.22 While audiences that use the Web are growing, a technology gap has evolved. A recent federal study determined that, while the Internet has become a major communication force, it has done so at the expense of some elements of American society. The study concluded that there is a “digital divide” between technology haves and have-nots. Some of the gap is based on economic levels, but race and geography are also factors.23 Another study concluded that Internet news audiences are becoming more “ordinary” in addition to becoming larger. Among its findings are that weather was the most popular online news attraction in 1999, replacing technology news and information that had been the top subject two years earlier. The report noted that users were less well educated than they were two years ago and there were more users with modest incomes. These demographics indicate changing news interests. Weather and entertainment news are growing in popularity much faster than politics and international news.24 Despite the growing interest in online news, many news organizations do not emphasize it nor satisfy demand for it. Web editors admitted that they are still learning how to use the Web.25 Usability of sites is a focal point of some research. Researchers van Oostendorp and van Nimwegen studied scrolling and use of hypertext links for reading and finding information contained in an online newspaper and concluded that site designers should “avoid presenting information on deeper hypertextual levels for which scrolling is necessary.”26
Web designers use a handful of interactive tools. These options include links to other stories, E-mail contact with journalists, chat rooms, forums, animations, photographs and biographical information about reporters and columnists, related coverage and searchable databases. The tools also include multimedia capabilities such as providing archived or live audio and video. Archived news and other information are also available.
Outing found that the majority of sites had yet to make their archives available online.27 He determined that a number of sites included staff listings but no E-mail addresses, offering no way for readers to interact with the staff. He also found an absence of obituaries, birth notices and other matters of interest to local readers, especially for small-town newspaper sites. Few sites operated online discussion forums .28
Cochran noted that the San Jose Mercury Center is one of the best examples of sites using interactivity.29 It incorporates ways to send electronic mail to groups related to the topic of the article, links to related sites and connections to sites that offer more information. Cochran said The Wall Street journal’s personalized version of the newspaper that contained news on just the topics the reader selects was another positive use of available technologies.30 Massey and Levy used a five-dimensional conceptualization of interactivity.31 They looked at complexity of content choice, responsiveness, ease of adding information, facilitation of interpersonal communication and immediacy. They found a relatively complex choice of content, but the sites did not rate highly on the remaining four dimensions.
Content, Design, Deadlines and Distribution
Production of an online news site requires more than the effort of one individual, just as traditional newspapers require numerous teams of specialists with a wide range of newsgathering, editing, production and distribution talents. 32 A major characteristic of online news that differentiates it from traditional newspaper news, however, is the nonlinear nature of writing and reporting. Analysis of online news sites has shown that nonlinear storytelling is increasing. Newspaper sites use fewer links than broadcast news station sites but, in general, both types of news sites were increasing in their use of links. With links and other writing devices, sites can offer users additional depth, background information, graphics and references to previous coverage.33
Some online authorities feel newspapers should offer more breaking news. Companies like Marimba, PointCast and Starwave made push news software popular. Push news software allows the originating news site to send information to a reader by a previous standing request, such as an on-going subscription. Multiple deadlines are necessary for newspapers to keep up with other news sites. “If you look at newspaper deadlines, that’s an artificial deadline based on distribution needs,” observed Scott Woelfel, editor-in-chief of CNN Interactive.34 “In a way, it’s a throwback to the old days when newspapers had three or four editions a day. It will require newsrooms to recruit staff members with an entirely different set of skills,” added Valerie Hyman, a professor at the Poynter Institute.35
Other critics feel that online news sites often depend too much on wire service content, such as that from Associated Press or Reuters, even though there is no substantial limit to the volume of information that can be provided.36 This is attributed to small budgets, few staff members and other limits to resources. Another criticism of online news is that it often is too fast in passing along information to readers. Some observers feel Web publications are often careless in posting unconfirmed information during breaking stories as well as during other less deadline-intensive circumstances.37
When the Los Angeles Times first launched its site, its goal was to offer the most comprehensive guide to California. It offered calendar events, archived reviews, community databases and minimal discussion forums and live chat sessions.38 Users of news sites seek local news from local news sites.39 Local news content (72 percent) was more valued than weather information (40 percent), national news (39 percent) and classified advertising (38 percent), among other types of content. Even users (58 percent) of newspaper sites with circulation over 250,000 sought local news. For newspapers with less than 250,000 circulations, the figure jumped (83 percent).
Individuals who direct or manage newspaper sites feel content should drive the site’s design, not technology or appearance.40 While traditional print design concerns and principles apply to the Web, there are differences. Many of these involve use of technologies, such as links or multimedia features, available to Web designers but not to print designers. One study focused on online newspapers’ errors and corrections policies, noting that news organizations did not use the technologies of the Web, such as archiving and hyperlinking, to do a more effective job to influence the flow of accurate information to the public.41
Skills and High Tech Resources
The nature of the Web demands technical skills to maximize its communication potential. Neuberger and colleagues found that about half of the newspapers’ staff members they studied had journalistic duties. The authors stated that technical responsibilities were “growing” and that editorial decisions were often left to print editors.42 Distribution of online news requires different, additional skills to those of traditional journalists. While most of those skills involve using computers and associated software, there must also be an ability to look at the profession in an innovative manner. Expertise and versatility are characteristic of these journalists who are able to work in a wide spectrum of news media and use a broad base of technologies.43
Newspapers are learning not to go it alone on the Internet.41 Outing stated “newspaper companies generally do not have all the skills and resources necessary to succeed in new media.”45 An example of online news media working together is The Washington Post, Newsweek and ABC-TV News offering the ElectionLine site. Boston.com is an effort of all competing New England media, including The Boston Globe.46Many of the resources available for online news distribution involve interactivity. For many years before widespread development and use of the Web, bulletin boards provided a virtual space for community discussion and distribution of information. One popular form, used for a number of years through commercial online services, is the chat room. Perlman observed that online newspapers do not use chat rooms or bulletin boards, even though there is potential.47
Online news sites are moving into the realm of electronic commerce.48 One study found that 65 percent of online newspaper users were involved in some type of electronic commerce. While it is not yet as popular as electronic mail, reading news online and searching for information, online news users are also involved in online shopping and making purchases.49 BarnesandNoble.com started on “Affiliate Network” that created co-branded marketing and book selling opportunities. Newspapers involved in the affiliate program included the Chicago Tribune, USA Today Online and the LATimes.com. Other newspapers, such as the Hartford Courant Online, have launched online auctions. The SunOne Web site of The Gainesville Sun launched a sports boutique. Tampa Bay Online offers CDROMs. The Star Tribune Online developed a project called Gift Generator to connect buyers and sellers.50
Astor discussed the quantity and revenues of using syndicated materials on newspaper sites.51 Newspapers have had difficulty publishing their syndicated and supplemental news service material on their Web sites for legal and other reasons. The Star Tribune’s online service was one of the first online newspapers to offer syndicated general-interest columns. But, since newspapers have started to generate more revenue, the extra cost of using syndicated materials has become less of a problem.
Online Newspaper Market Models
Traditional newspaper markets have been divided into small, medium and large circulation sizes. Outing looked at small and medium size newspaper Web sites although he did not directly define these classifications.52 Garrison defined large newspapers as those with a circulation larger than 50,000 and small newspapers as those with a circulation smaller than 50,000.53 Chyi and Sylvie noted differences in the print newspaper’s traditional local focus and the boundary-transcending capacity of the Internet.54 They offered an “umbrella” model of online newspaper economic markets that focused emphasis on the ability of online news to seek markets at a variety of different levels. Their model included a five-layer approach that was described as community, metro, regional, national and international. This differs, they noted, from the conventional community, metro and national levels most often used to describe print newspapers. Chyi and Sylvie concluded that geography is not relevant for online newspapers, but that online news media do have market boundaries.53 They also concluded that newspapers must cease “thinking ‘local’ when it comes to online markets,” especially for advertising.’ They concluded that “the larger the print market, the larger the online product’s long-distance market.”57
The goal of this study was to determine how different types of U.S. daily newspapers use the Web. More specifically, this study compared the approaches of three different market types of online newspapers:
Are US. daily pers us_ng,ologies available for development of World Wide Web sites If so, to what extent?
How do local, regional and national online newspapers vary in their use of the technological features commonly found in the design of a Web site?
How much change in these technology use patterns has occured within the past year?
Three major market types were studied, a modification of the Chyi and Sylvie approach.58 Market types were chosen in relation to the audience they cater to, which, in some ways, is based on circulation and market served. USA Today and The New York Times were selected as the national publications. The Boston Globe and The Orlando Sentinel were the regional newspapers chosen. The Naples Daily News in Naples, Fla. and The Macon Telegraph in Macon, Ga., were the local publications used. These six newspapers were chosen because they fit the market types analyzed and because of their journalistic reputations for quality. Each had maintained Web sites for several years. Many other newspapers fit into the three market types and could have been used; however, for the needs of this study, only two newspapers for each category were selected.
A longitudinal design was used to determine change in technology use. Eleven consecutive days (November 5-15, 1998) of home pages and top news story pages of the above six electronic newspapers were content analyzed for the t content analysis. A second set of eleven days (July 12-22,1999) was studied for the t2 content analysis. Li used the eleven-day time frame of analysis. These dates were selected because it was believed that there were no significant scheduled news events that could skew routine coverage practices.59
The home page was defined as the initial page of the newspaper’s Web site. Top news story page was defined as the story link on the home page that is given the most prominence, either by position, size of type, or use of art on the page and was found on the home page as the first news story link that also had a large type size (point size 14 or higher as an image or font size 4 or higher in HTML) or was accompanied by art (photograph or graph) or both. For analysis purposes, the data collected from each of these pages were combined for a total number of use occurrences per day, per site. The units of analysis were the pages of the Web site.
Fifteen technology variables were used that included consumer services, electronic mail and related information for stories (see Appendix 1). Each instance of the features, as well as links to one of the features, was counted on both the home page and the top news article page by two trained coders. The inter-coder reliability coefficient was 0.96 for the first analysis and 0.99 for the second analysis.60
To what extent are U.S. daily newspapers using technologies available for development of Web sites? Data in Table 1 show that by summer 1999, a majority of pages had forums, related information, electronic mail, site searches and consumer services. Very little use of chat rooms, other languages, polls with instantaneous updates and sign-up for personal delivery was found. No instances of other plugin based technologies were found on any of the sites studied. Flash was not found in 1998, but appeared on a small percentage of pages in 1999. Java applets saw little use in 1998, but dropped to no use in 1999. This was the only decline found among the 15 technology variables. Instantaneous updates, audio and video were used on certain sites, but had not taken hold on the majority of newspaper sites.
A breakdown of the technologies used by each newspaper in November 1998 shows dominance by the two regional newspapers. The Orlando Sentinel had more occurrences per day in links to related information, audio, video and polls with instantaneous results. The Boston Globe had the most occurrences of search engines, consumer services, signup for personal delivery and instantaneous updates. The Naples Daily News had the most occurrences of chat rooms and electronic mail, The Macon Telegraph had the most occurrences of Java applets and The New York Times had the most occurrences of forums, but none lead by a very large margin, as shown in Table 2.
Nearly a year later, the regional dominance still held. The Orlando Sentinel had more occurrences per day in forums, audio, video, other language use and polls with instantaneous results. The Boston Globe had the most occurrences of links to related information, chat rooms and electronic mail. Local newspapers’ domination disappeared in July. The national newspapers grew in dominance in some areas. USA Today had the most occurrences of Flash, search engines and consumer services. The New York Times had more occurrences per day of signup for personal delivery and instantaneous updates.
In less than a year, there was growth in almost all areas. July 1999 data show significantly higher occurrences per day in forums, chat rooms, links to related information, video, electronic mail, polls with instantaneous updates, consumer services and sign-up for personal delivery. The use of Java applets dropped to nothing in July 1999, as shown in Table 3.
Technological innovations change routines and processes. Development of the technology of the Internet and Web in itself may become the most significant change in world communication in a half-century or longer. It continues to create change in all aspects of life. When technology is so rapidly evolving as the devices and processes of communicating on the Internet have been during this decade, businesses and institutions are required to redefine old rules and create new ones.61
The Internet has been considered by some social scientists to be an equalizer. It has the potential to bring communication to equal terms for social and economic groups as well as for businesses and industries. In one way, this study analyzed whether the Internet was a technology equalizer for newspapers that have used the Web to extend their news distribution reach and contact with audiences. Should small newspapers be different from large ones? Their financial, human and other resources certainly vary. But this difference has not been found to be the case in terms of social classes using the Internet.62 There are differences in how newspapers are using the Web and their use of technologies to distribute information to audiences.
The most prominent technology used by all three categories of online newspapers was consumer services. This is a potentially interactive component that any person with browser software and online service can use. Consumer services usually allow a person to insert a value of something that is desired and it returns what is available in the database. In can be used for automobile sales, home rental and sales, dating services and many other classified related services. The area for the greatest growth, perhaps one of the most significant findings, is electronic commerce. Newspapers are using this tool to increase interaction with site visitors for a variety of purposes and growth of use is occurring at all three levels of service.
The two technologies that were not used or had very limited use were both plug-in based technologies. These technologies require readers to have extra software on their computers to use the technologies. The disappearance of the use of the Java applet can possibly be explained by the inability of the computer industry to standardize this technology in browsers. Java applets cause some readers problems (including computer crashes), so newspapers discontinued use so as not to upset readers.
Since their creation, online newspapers have experienced change. For example, The Orlando Sentinel added new services that offer readers e-mail. Some of the newer services were still in testing mode on some sites in late 1998. Although they are offered, they may not have shown up very prominently. With time, it is expected that more of the technologies will appear with more prominence on the sites. Since this is still a very new medium and the technology is still being developed, changes occur every day. With this growth, it will be interesting to see how the popularity of online newspapers will grow along with it. The regional newspapers, with a large base of technological use, will steadily grow in popularity. Unless national and local online newspapers catch up in the use of technologies, regional newspapers will take their readership. It is not probable that any online newspapers will take up use of plug-in based technologies, such as Flash and Shockwave, unless they are made easier to use. Software must be standardized. Integration of these technologies into browsers, for instance, would be one way to increase use.
The study revealed that the most widely used technology categories must be studied beyond the limits of this project. It appears one approach would be to divide categories such as consumer services, electronic mail and related information into subdivisions. This was done, in part, when electronic commerce was split from consumer services for the second stage, suggesting considerable growth in use of electronic commerce. There are also different applications of electronic mail and use of related information devices such as pop-up boxes, for example, that require further investigation. As new technologies are developed, these also will require study to understand their contributions to the uses and effects of online news.
1. Jon Katz, “The Future is the Net,” Media Studies Journal 13, no. 2 (spring/summer 1999):1415.
2. John Pavlik, “New Media and the News: Implications for the Future of Journalism,” New Media & Society 1, no. 1 (April 1999): 54-59.
3. Xigen Li, “Web Page Design and Graphic Use of Three U.S. Newspapers,” Journalism &Mass Communication Quarterly 75, no. 2 (summer 1998): 353-365.
4. J.D. Lasica, “Media Watch/Online Focus: An Evolving Medium,” Online NewsHour, 26 April 1999, (29 August 2001); Terrence Smith, “Online Focus: Internet News,” Online NewsHour, 26 April 1999, (29 August 2001).
5. James Derk, “A Plea for New Thinking: Let’s Think of Ourselves as Web Sites, Not Online Newspapers,” mediainfo.com, 10 July 1999, (24 June 2001).
6. Martha L. Stone, “Print to Web: It Takes Teamwork,” mediainfo.com 10 July 1999,
display.cgi?id=3b8d0e5a3901lMpqaweblP1101&doc=results.html> (29 August 2001); Martha L. Stone, “Look Who’s Talking,” mediainfo.com, 7 July 1999, (24 June 2001).
7. David Shaw, “Can Newspapers Find Their Niche in the Internet Age?” Los Angeles Times, 16 June 1997, quoted in Kathleen Wickham, ed., Perspectives: Online Journalism (Boulder, Colo.: CourseWise Publishing, 1998).
8. Patricia Riley, et al., “Community or Colony: The Case of Online Newspapers and the Web,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4, no. 1 (1998), (12 June 1999).
9. Foo Yeuh Peng, Naphtali Irene Tham, and Hao Xiaoming, “Trends in Online Newspapers: A Look at the US Web,” Newspaper Research Journal 20, no. 2 (spring 1999): 52-63.
10. Jeff South, “Web Staffs Urge the Print Side to Think Ahead,” Online journalism Review, 11 June 1999, (15June 1999).
11. Randy Dotinga, “The Great Pretenders,” mediainfo.com, 10 July 1999, (24 June 2001).
12. Jennie L. Phipps, “Online Journalism: Superfast Internet Access Will Change Reporting and Broadcasting,” mediainfo.com, 10 July 1999,
display.cgi?id=3b3a88731054eMpqaweb 1P11001&doc=results.html> (24 June 2001). 13. Ibid.
14. Steve Outing, “Too Many Newspaper Web Sites Get Poor Grades,” Editor &Publisher Online (1998), (20 July 1999).
15. J.D. Lasica, “Time to Freshen Up Online Newspapers,” American journalism Review NewsLink 19, no. 5 (1997), (26 July 1999).
16. Wendell Cochran, “Searching for Right Mixture: On-line Newspapers Seek Own Identities to Compete with Ink-Stained Brethren,” Quill 83, no. 4 (May 1995): 36; Andrew Marlatt, “Advice to Newspapers: Stop the Shoveling: Publishing on the Web is No Simple Cut-and-Paste Affair,” Internet World Online, (9 Tune 1999)
17. Cochran, “On-line Newspapers Seek Own Identities;” Marlatt, “Advice to Newspapers.” 18. Jane B. Singer, “Online Journalists: Foundations for Research into Their Changing Roles,”
Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4, no. 1 (1998), (12 June 1999). See also Jane B. Singer, “The Metro Wide Web: How Newspapers’ Gatekeeping Role is Changing Online,” working paper, Newspaper Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, New Orleans, La., 1999.
19. Louis Leung and Ran Wei, “More Than Just Talk on the Move: Uses and Gratifications of the Cellular Phone,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 77, no. 2 (summer 2000): 308-320. 20. Scott R. Maier, “Digital Diffusion in Newsrooms: The Uneven Advance of Computer
Assisted Reporting,” Newspaper Research Journal 21, no. 2 (spring 2000):95-110; Bruce Garrison, “The Role of Computers in Newsgathering,” Newspaper Research Journal 22, no. 1 (winter 2001); Everett M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed. (New York: Free Press, 1995).
21. Joe Strupp, “Welcomed Visitors,” Editor & Publisher132, no. 27 (3 July 1999): 22-27.
22. Jennifer L. Flagg, “Women Joining Men in Droves on the Web,” Editor & Publisher 132, no. 27 (3 Tulv 1999): 27-28.
23. Larry Irving, “Falling Through the Net: Defining the Digital Divide: Report on the Telecommunications and Information Technology Gap in America,” a report prepared at the request of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, D.C., July 1999.
24. The Pew Research Center for the People & the Press, “The Internet News Audience Goes Ordinary: Online Newcomers More Middle-Brow, Less Work-Oriented,” 1998, (28 April 1999).
25. Strupp, “Welcomed Visitors.”
26. Herre van Oostendorp and Christof van Nimwegen, “Locating Information in an Online Newspaper,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4, no. 1 (1998), (13 June 1999).
27. Outing, “Poor Grades.” 28. Ibid.
29. Cochran, “On-line Newspapers Seek Own Identities.” 30. Ibid.
31. Brian L. Massey and Mark R. Levy, “Interactivity, Online Journalism, and EnglishLanguage Web Newspapers in Asia,” Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 76, no. 1 (spring 1999): 138-151.
32. Stone, “Print to Web.”
33. Mark Tremayne, “Use of Nonlinear Storytelling on News Web Sites” (paper presented to the Communication and Technology Division, International Communication Association, San Francisco, May 1999).
34. J.D. Lasica, “Get It Fast, But Get It Right,”American Journalism Review 19, no. 8 (1997), (15 June 1999).
36. Matt Welch, “Is Reliance on the AP Draining the Life from Online News,” Online Journalism Review (1999), (14 Junel999).
38. Steve Outing, “L.A. Times Launches Online … Again,” Editor&Punblisher Online
fastweb?getdoc+archives+Interactive+254+153++electronic%20newspapers> (8 April 1996).
39. Jennie L. Phipps, “Local is Everything on Newspaper Web Sites,” mediainfo.com, 10 July 1999, (24 June 2001).
40. Wilson Lowrey, “Visual Journalism Online: Exploring the Current Wisdom on Internet News Design” (paper presented at the Southeast Colloquium, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Lexington, Ky., March 1999).
41. Berlinsa Nadarajan and Penghwa Ang, “Credibility and Journalism on the Internet: How Online Newspapers Handle Errors and Corrections” (paper presented at the Communication Technology and Policy Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, New Orleans, La., August 1999).
42. Christoph Neuberger et al., “Online- The Future of Newspapers? Germany’s Dailies on the World Wide Web,” Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 4, no. 1 (1998), (16 June 1999).
43. Carl Sessions Stepp, “The New Journalist: The On-Line Era Demands Added Skills and Innovative Ways of Looking at the Profession,” American Journalism Review 18, no. 3 (1996), (10 July 1999).
44. Steve Outing, “Newspapers on the Internet: Lessons They Are Learning,” Editor & Publisher Online, (26 March 1996). 45. Ibid.
47. Jeffrey A. Perlman, “Print Sites Still Wary of Chatting It Up,” Online Journalism Review (6 May 1999).
48. David Noack, “eBuy: Users of Newspaper Web Sites Open Their Cyberwallets,” Editor & Publisher 132, no. 28 (10 July 1999): 18-21.
50. PR Newswire, “New Java-Powered Crossword Gives Online Newspapers A Truly Interactive Puzzle,” PR Newswire (1997), (19 July 1999).
51. David Astor, “Syndicated Features on the Web: Quantity and Revenues?” Editor & Publisher (1996), (10 July 1999).
52. Outing, “Poor Grades.”
53. Bruce Garrison, “Newspaper Size as a Factor in Use of Computer-Assisted Reporting” (paper presented at the Communication Technology and Policy Division of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, Baltimore, August 1998).
54. Hsiang Iris Chyi and George Sylvie, “Opening the Umbrella: An Economic Analysis of Online Newspaper Geography” (paper presented at the Media Management and Economics Division, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, New Orleans, August 1999).
55. Ibid, 29. 56. Ibid, 31. 57. Ibid.
58. Chyi and Sylvie, “Economic Analysis.”
59. Li, “Webpage Design and Graphic Use.”
60. Richard W. Budd, Robert K. Thorp, and Lewis Donohew, Content Analysis of Communications (New York: Macmillan, 1967); Daniel Riffe, Stephen Lacy, and Frederick G. Fico, Analyzing Media Messages: Using Quantitative Content Analysis in Research (Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1998), 127-133.
61. Bosah Ebo, “Internet or Outemet”? in Cyberghetto or Cybertopia? Race, Class, and Gender on the Internet, Bosah Ebo, ed. (Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1998), 1-12.
62. Alecia Wolf, “Exposing the Great Equalizer: Demythologizing Internet Equity,” inCyberghetto or Cybertopia? Race, Class, and Gender on the Internet, Bosah Ebo, ed. (Westport, Conn.: Praeger Publishers, 1998), 15-32.
Dibean is a master’s student and the University of Miami webmaster, and Garrison is a professor in the School of Communication at the University of Miami.
Copyright Newspaper Research Journal, Department of Journalism, University of Memphis Spring 2001
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