Advertising agencies reduce reliance on newspaper ads

Advertising agencies reduce reliance on newspaper ads

Maxwell, Ann

A survey of 211 U.S. advertising agency executives showed that the main reason for the decreased reliance was the inefficiency of newspaper advertising in reaching audiences.

The two main sources of income for newspapers have both reached near all-time highs. Combined subscriptions to daily and weekly newspapers stood at 137 million in 1996.1 Advertising revenues have risen as well, increasing by 7 percent in 1997.2

Newspaper executives, nonetheless, are concerned. Newspaper readership has not kept pace with increases in the U.S. population. Thus, while readership has increased, penetration – or the percentage of the households that subscribe to a newspaper – has not.

Similar concerns surround advertising revenue. While ad revenue is growing, newspapers are losing ground to television on the percentage of advertising revenue the two media attract. Television now receives a higher percentage of ad revenue than do newspapers. Thus, while ad revenue is on the upswing, reliance on newspaper advertising is declining.’

The reasons behind this decreased reliance on newspaper advertising are the focus of the present study. A national mail survey of advertising executives examines the extent to which agencies are decreasing their reliance on newspaper advertising and asks the executives to rate several concerns that have been identified as some of the reasons for this decreasing reliance. Further, we compare the concerns across those agencies that have reduced their reliance on newspaper advertising, those that have increased their reliance on newspaper advertising and those that have not changed their reliance. Thus, we will look at whether certain concerns are more significant with advertising agencies that are actually decreasing their reliance on newspaper advertising. Finally, we compare concerns across large, medium and small ad agencies.

The results could have far-reaching implications for the newspaper industry. Responses may identify problems with the image of newspapers and potential shortcomings in the use of newspapers as an advertising vehicle. In addition, the results could point to areas that the newspaper industry will need to address if it wants to reclaim the leadership position in advertising revenue.

Newspapers provide an important source of information about the key issues and events of the day. Attracting increased advertising revenue will ensure that newspapers will continue to survive to provide this important service to members of society.

Background

Since 1993, U.S. newspaper advertising revenues have steadily increased, fueled by a robust American economy. The good news is that revenue is expected to continue to grow beyond the year 2000, with the millennium bringing in even more advertising spending.’ More specific reasons cited for this growth include: expanded classified advertising sales growing at an average annual rate of 10 percent, increased national advertising as a result of new product introductions and improvements in rate and sales management programs provided by large newspaper organizations such as Gannett.5

In spite of this resurgence and in spite of being the largest advertising revenue shareholding medium for decades, newspapers have recently fallen behind a relative newcomer, television. In 1997, television passed newspapers to establish primacy in advertising spending.’ Even though newspapers were inched out by only a small margin, this gap is widening as television continues its move into the future with a 1997 share of 23.8 percent to newspapers’ share of 22.2 percent. Thus, while the raw dollar figures spent on newspaper advertising are increasing, editors and publishers are concerned that newspapers are getting a smaller percentage of advertising revenue.

The decline in reliance of newspaper advertising can be traced back to developments from two decades ago. Beginning in the 1970s when technology began to change the face of media, newspaper companies with high capital improvement and unionized labor costs fell behind when all other media were profiting. Media that had depended upon technology from their beginnings, such as television and direct mail, were able to reap sizable rewards during the roaring 1980s. By the early 1990s, national advertising had faded as a major contributor to most newspapers’ bottom line, and local advertising began to sustain newspapers’ first-place position in advertising spending. While local advertising had always outdistanced national advertising for newspapers, this gap has grown significantly in recent years.

This led an industry leader, Cathleen Black, CEO of the Newspaper Association of America, to remind the Advertising Research Foundation that newspaper readership was on the rise, with 115 million readers in 1993 compared to 113 million in 1991.7 And on any Sunday morning, more than twothirds of the adult population read a newspaper.

Aware of newspapers’ current situation, Black also urged newspaper executives to respond to advertisers’ concerns by creating a national newspaper network. She cited several “inextricably linked” obstacles affecting newspaper sales efforts and the continual decline in newspapers’ share of advertising dollars. Among the concerns were: negative perceptions that advertisers and agencies hold toward newspapers as a medium; young media buyers’ lack of experience with newspapers and potential bias against them when choosing a medium; the well-publicized decline in readership that suggests a dying medium and collective negative perceptions causing newspapers to be eliminated from consideration for national advertisers.

Black didn’t assign all of the responsibility to advertisers’ perceptions or advertising agency bias, however. She also mentioned newspaper industry issues, such as the lack of invoice and rate card standardization, the absence of a “one order, one bill” system and the shift in retail advertising with new marketplace entrants like warehouse clubs, which are not heavy users of newspaper advertising.8

Questions raised by the issues plaguing the newspaper industry have been examined in a number of studies.

One study examined advertising practitioners’ opinions about newspapers as an advertising medium for national accounts.9 This study surveyed media specialists in the top 200 U. S. advertising agencies to find out what they thought of newspapers as a medium for national advertising. Agencies represented in the study ranged from less than $75 million to more than $300 million in 1993 domestic billing.

Results showed newspapers coming in second to last, only ahead of billboards, when rated for effectiveness on factors used to select media for national accounts. Network television was judged the most effective medium for national advertising accounts by 87 percent of the respondents in the study.10 Media specialists’ backgrounds, including personal use of or non-use of newspapers, did not affect their judgments about newspapers as a medium.

Amid many negative perceptions, newspapers were perceived to be more effective when compared to others as a secondary medium, for coordination of promotion with image advertising and as a vehicle for complex sales messages. Newspapers were judged low on their ability to meet cost, efficiently target a market or offer opportunities for creative execution. Also, media specialists were interested in having the newspaper industry look for ways to increase the medium’s targeting abilities.

One potential problem with the King et al. study was the low level of use of newspapers as an advertising medium among agencies included in the sample.” Only a fourth of the sample worked for agencies that placed more than 15 percent of their national billings in newspapers, while almost half (44 percent) of the respondents worked for agencies where national newspaper billings were less than 5 percent.

Although King et al. found newspapers were perceived to be a less effective vehicle than network television when it comes to producing sales, share or trial results,12 Tolley found newspaper advertisements to be effective in actual application.13 In a study examining the effects of newspaper advertisements on national brands, Tolley conducted a split-run experiment testing previously untested, non-promotional, color ads for four packaged good products. Results were based on scanner data collected on newspaper subscribers shopping at a city’s major supermarket.

This study found untested, small newspaper, Run-Of-Paper image ads provided strong support for newspapers as a medium for branding. Three of the four ads increased both sales and share of market significantly. Brand trial increased 20 percent by non-users of one of the tested products. Overall, the four ads produced a 10 percent increase in sales. Even with evidence suggesting the effectiveness of newspaper advertising for national brands, however, it is still local advertising that has sustained the medium during difficult times.

Local businesses and merchants use a variety of media in their advertising, and they rely heavily on daily newspaper advertising, according to Nowak, Cameron and Krugman.14 In this study, 77 percent of the sample used daily newspapers as a medium. This medium accounted for 43 percent of their budget compared to 27 percent for radio, 26 percent for weekly newspapers, 23 percent for television and 23 percent for outdoor. Opposing the myth that local advertisers choose the medium based on cost, this study provided evidence that local decision-makers are most influenced by audience factors that support advertising as a good investment.

An understanding of the difficulties surrounding the image of newspapers among advertising agency personnel led former agency executive Ray Gaulke, vice president of the Newspaper Advertising Bureau, to encourage newspaper advertising representatives to “take on more responsibility … be tough with clients,” and ” tell them when they are doing things wrong.” He blamed the newspaper industry’s slowness to change and its inflexibility and stodginess on the declining image and use of newspapers among national advertisers.ls Echoing Cathleen Black, Gaulke called for more realistic pricing and a “one order, one bill” system.

The newspaper industry, having responded to these concerns with price packaging, has allayed some of the advertising agencies’ resistance to choosing newspapers as a medium.16 But other issues have not been adequately addressed. Among these findings and observations, one consistent thread emerges: the recognition that newspapers need to be more specifically targeted.17 Thus, some have called for newspapers to more thoroughly explore marketing segmentation – to produce differing editions for different segments of readers. 18

Marketing theorist Wendell R. Smith first introduced the concept of marketing segmentation.19 The newspaper industry has not been the only industry late to adopt this concept. “While it may not exactly be news, public relations practitioners and media representatives alike agree that this trend, which began in the 1970s, has contributed to nearly every major development in the print media in this decade and will continue to do so in the next.”20

Target marketing becomes even more relevant as media choices splinter. The task of the media specialist becomes that of media strategist as he or she has to “identify which media vehicles attract which consumers, and what media patterns those consumers follow through a day or week or month,” commented Keith Reinhard, chairman and CEO of DDB Needham Worldwide.21

While some regions draw more advertising dollars targeted to the resident population than others, Mike Drexler, a senior advertising executive from Bozell/NYC, said, “I have never seen any advertiser spend in terms of population. They only spend in terms of sales potential for their products.”22 To increase value, newspapers should prioritize target segments within the mass market.23

This wake-up call for the newspaper industry was particularly timely in light of the advancements being made by another new medium, the Internet. With subscribers joining one advertising driven, free Internet access service NetZero – at the rate of one every 13.5 seconds, newspapers cannot afford to ignore the value of specific targeting anymore.24 NetZero is being promoted as “the first company to provide consumers nationwide completely free Internet access and e-mail while offering advertisers the most sophisticated targeting capabilities available today.”

Additionally, NetZero’s revenue willbe generated through advertising and e-commerce sponsorships. Some of that advertising will come from national advertisers, ranging from Avis to MetLife, which have already begun to localize their marketing using local web sites. Localized national ads account for about 10 percent of the revenue for local web sites.” But this is expected to change. “By 2003, however, The Kelsey Group forecasts that localized national ads will represent 30 percent of local revenues or between $450 million and $550 million.”

Microsoft is only one of many corporations observing the Internet shift from a global to a local focus. Microsoft, for example, has begun to invest heavily in its “Sidewalk web sites.” These sites, targeted toward local residents, do not have newspapers’ shortcoming of limited pages. Bill Gates plans on having Sidewalk web sites available in five major U.S. cities by the end of 1999.

Clearly, then, the newspaper industry faces several pressures as it seeks to maintain or increase current levels of advertising revenue. There is pressure as a result of the newspaper industry being in the mature phase of its lifecycle. Because of the industry’s age, infrastructure problems with out-of-date systems have caused newspapers to be less flexible than other media. One example of this inflexibility is the fee structure used to charge national advertisers. Another related problem is the misperception held by advertising agency personnel surrounding newspapers’ ability to affect sales, share and trial for national advertisers. Pressures also are emerging from new media, which are gaining users at a phenomenal rate and are flexible enough to address very specific target audiences.

Considering these pressures, this study examines senior account management personnel’s perceptions and behavior toward newspaper advertising as a medium.

Research Questions

The present study addresses four research questions.

RQ1:

To what extent are advertising agencies decreasing their reliance on newspaper advertising?

Previous research has found that agencies are decreasing their reliance on newspaper advertising.16 Our survey examines the degree to which newspapers should be concerned about this trend.

RQ 2:

What are the main reasons that some agencies are decreasing their reliance on newspaper advertising?

Our survey asks agency executives to rate the significance of several concerns regarding newspaper advertising. The concerns range from the high cost of newspaper advertising to whether their agencies view newspapers as an old-fashioned medium. This series of concerns, then, could identify areas that newspapers should address if they wish to attract advertising clients.

RQ3:

Do agencies that have decreased their reliance on newspaper advertising have concerns that differ from those of agencies that have not changed their reliance on newspaper advertising or from those of agencies that have increased their reliance on newspaper advertising?

Agencies that rely on newspaper advertising to differing degrees are likely to view newspapers differently as well. Differences across these agencies could highlight important concerns that newspapers will need to address in the future if they hope to stem the tide of decreasing reliance on newspaper advertising.

RQ4:

Do concerns about newspaper advertising vary among large, medium and small agencies?

Larger agencies are especially important for newspapers. These agencies, with higher gross billings, offer the potential for more revenue for newspapers than do medium and small agencies. Thus, concerns of large agencies again could highlight areas that newspapers need to address.

Method

Data for this study were collected through a mail survey of advertising executives in the United States. Agencies and their addresses were selected from the July 1997 Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies using a systematic randomization method. First, a randomly generated set of numbers was used to select a page and an agency on that page. From this starting point, every eighth agency that had at least 10 employees was included in the study. If a selected agency did not meet the criteria, the next agency on the list was used. Surveys returned due to bad addresses and/or executives no longer at the specified agencies were discarded for the study. The selection process generated 432 agencies.

Individual questionnaires labeled “Survey of Advertising Executives” were addressed and mailed in early March 1998 to the selected agency’s account manager or an equivalent executive if no account manager was listed. A reminder postcard was sent to the addressees who had not responded two weeks after the initial mailing. Four weeks after the initial mailing, a follow-up letter and another copy of the questionnaire were sent to advertising executives who had not responded. A total of 211 advertising executives responded, for a 49 percent response rate, an acceptable rate for mail surveys, according to Babbie.27

Executives were asked several questions dealing with newspaper advertising. One question asked respondents “Do you have any accounts that utilize newspaper advertising?” Seventeen agencies answered “no” and were not included in subsequent analyses.

A second question asked respondents if their agency is relying more or less on newspaper advertising than in past years. Response categories were: much more, a little more, about the same, a little less or much less. Responses to this question were used to group agencies into those that increased their reliance on newspaper advertising, decreased their reliance on newspaper advertising and did not change their reliance on newspaper advertising.

Agencies were purposefully asked about their reliance on newspaper advertising rather than specific dollar amounts for several reasons. A specific dollar amount would not allow for meaningful comparisons across agencies of differing sizes. Is a decrease of $1 million at a small agency less than $50 million at a large agency? Thus, agencies were allowed to estimate their relative reliance upon newspaper advertising in comparison to past years. Furthermore, since agencies were asked about their reliance, an attitudinal measure, rather than usage, a behavior variable, this more closely matched other questions on the survey, which dealt mainly with attitudes. Finally, while newspaper advertising revenues are rising, newspaper executives, nonetheless, are concerned because a large proportion of advertising is going to other media, especially television. Thus, reliance on newspaper advertising, and not actual dollar figures, is the executives’ chief concern.

Next, a series of questions examined potential reasons for decreasing newspaper advertising use. Respondents were asked to rate the reasons as not at all important, a little important, somewhat important, very important or extremely important – a one to five scale. The reasons were: “Your agency feels other media are better at reaching target audience,” “Your agency is concerned with high cost of newspaper advertising,” “Your agency views newspapers as an old-fashioned medium,” “Clients are concerned about decreasing readership rates,” “Clients are concerned about demographics of newspaper readers,” and “Clients are more interested in investing in online communication.”

Respondents also were asked to estimate their gross billings in the past year. Responses were used to group agencies into categories of small (under $10 million in gross billings), medium (between $10.1 million and $49.9 million) and large (more than $50 million).

Frequencies were used to address research questions 1 and 2, which examined how many agencies have decreased their reliance on newspaper advertising (RQ1) and their views on the reasons some agencies have decreased their reliance on newspaper advertising (RQ2). Analysis of variance tests were computed for research questions 3 and 4. Here, for RQ3, ANOVAs compared responses for agencies reporting decreases in newspaper ad reliance, increases in newspaper ad reliance and no change in newspaper ad reliance. For RQ4, ANOVAs compared responses for large, medium and small agencies.

Results

Research question one asked the degree to which advertising agencies were decreasing their reliance on newspaper advertising. A total of 20.3 percent of the 194 respondents reported relying on newspaper advertising much less than in the past years, while 28.4 percent reported relying on newspaper advertising a little less. Thus, nearly half of our respondents reported relying on newspaper advertising less than in past years. On the other hand, only 3.6 percent responded that they relied on newspaper advertising much more and only 9.1 percent reported that they relied on newspaper advertising a little more. A total of 38.6 percent of the respondents reported relying on newspaper advertising about the same as in past years. Clearly, newspaper executives have reason to be concerned about diminishing reliance upon newspaper advertisingby ad agencies.

Research question two examined the perceived reasons that some agencies have decreased their reliance on newspaper advertising. Table 1 lists the results of our survey . According to the responses, advertising executives felt the most significant reason for cutting back on newspaper advertising was that other media are better at reaching the target audience. Other important concerns were the high cost of newspaper advertising – ranked second – and concerns over demographics of newspaper readers — ranked third. Less important were decreasing readership rates and clients who are more interested in investing in online communication. The concern cited as being least significant is the view that newspapers are an old-fashioned medium.

Research question three asked whether agencies that have decreased their reliance on newspaper advertising have concerns that are different from those at agencies that have not changed their reliance on newspaper advertising or from those at agencies that have increased their reliance on newspaper advertising. Table 2 shows the mean scores, rankings of the concerns about newspaper advertising and the ANOVA tests.

Only one ranking differed among agency categories. While high cost ranked as the second-highest concern about newspaper advertising for both agencies that increased reliance on newspaper advertising and agencies that didn’t change their reliance, high cost was ranked as the fourth most important concern by agencies that cut back on newspaper ads. In other words, the high cost of newspaper ads was a comparatively minor issue for decreased reliance on newspaper advertising by the agencies that actually cut back on their reliance on newspaper ads.

Three of the ANOVAs were statistically significant. Agencies that cut back on newspaper advertising were more likely to think that other media were better at reaching target audiences, that decreasing rates of readership were important and that their agency viewed newspapers as oldfashioned.

Research question four asked whether the concerns about newspaper advertising varied among large, medium and small agencies. The results are shown in Table 3.

Again, only one reason was ranked differently across the three agency groups. Here, concerns about the high cost of newspaper advertising ranked third among small agencies but was ranked second by both medium and large agencies.

None of the ANOVAs was statistically significant. In other words, large, medium and small agencies viewed concerns about newspaper advertising to remarkably similar degrees.

A comparison of newspaper ad reliance by agency size was not statistically significant (Table 4). The results suggest that large, medium and small agencies changed their reliance on newspaper advertising at a similar rate – mirroring the ANOVA results.

Discussion

The present study examined the apparent decreasing reliance upon newspapers as an advertising vehicle. From responses to our random survey of national advertising executives, several conclusions can be drawn.

Perhaps the most important finding here is the dramatic extent to which agencies have reduced their reliance on newspaper advertising. Nearly half of the respondents (48.7 percent) reported decreasing their reliance on newspaper advertising either a little or a great deal. In contrast, only 12.7 percent reported increasing their reliance on newspaper advertising. Newspaper publishers’ concerns over diminishing advertising dollars, then, is not without due cause.21

The main concern that advertising executives stated about newspapers was the difficulty in reaching the target audience with their messages. Indeed, when faced with decisions regarding the clearly defined audiences of more specialized media such as magazines and cable television, advertising executives see newspapers as an inefficient vehicle for carrying their messages to pertinent consumers.

The results suggest two ways of addressing this shortcoming. First, newspapers should attempt to position themselves as a key medium for reaching an important target audience – namely, local readers. Certainly, newspapers will wage a losing battle on attracting advertising for some products – say, dog food – when other media – such as pet magazines, or the Animal Planet cable network – provide a more focused audience. And newspapers cannot afford to lose important accounts for all national products.

But newspapers do provide an important source of information that is utilized by concerned citizens, many of whom work and shop in a clearly defined local area. Thus, newspapers may offset national account losses by concentrating more on local clients. Indeed, local newspapers are a useful medium for local advertisers.

Second, newspapers should attempt to investigate new ways of implementing marketing segmentation. Concerns over reaching target audiences could be lessened if newspaper readers were segmented into more clearly defined audiences.

The results, thus, show support for a recommendation by King et al. that media specialists look for ways to increase newspaper targeting abilities.9 If newspapers can target certain audience segments more efficiently and position themselves as effective vehicles for reaching these target segments, perhaps national advertising dollars will increase.

Targeted newspaper sections, however, have met with mixed success. Hawley and Kreshel interviewed newspaper staff at the Arizona Republic and the Chicago Tribune about each newspaper’s respective stand-alone women’s pages, AZW and WomanNews.30 Staffers at both papers expected to have great success with these sections. The Chicago Tribune considers WomanNews a success even though the section has not attracted large retailers. This failure to attract large retail clients is attributed to the “main news mentality” of the big retailers. Staffers report these businesses continue to want to be in the front sections that they have anchored for so long because readers know to look for them there. Advertisers also told staffers that targeting women wasn’t enough. They need the zone editions as well for particular geographic areas.

Concerns about the high cost of newspaper advertising were conflicting. On the one hand, cost is a significant concern for agencies — ranking second overall after only the problem of reaching target audiences. On the other hand, concerns over cost are apparently not the reason for the decreasing reliance on newspaper advertising among agencies. Agencies that actually have reduced their reliance on newspaper advertising ranked three of the six concerns in our survey above cost: problems reaching the target audience, concerns over reader demographics and concerns about declining readership. Thus, the decreasing reliance on newspaper advertising is due more to concerns over the readers of newspapers than to cost.

The analysis of variance tests point to a similar conclusion. Two of the three significant ANOVAs deal with audience characteristics. Agencies that have reduced their reliance on newspaper advertising voiced stronger concern with problems reaching target audiences and low newspaper readership. Thus, while cost is still a significant concern among all agencies, the consumers actually seeing the ads in newspapers are more important for many agencies.

The third significant ANOVA revealed that agencies that reported reduced reliance on newspaper advertising also were concerned more than other agencies that newspapers are an old-fashioned medium. This concern, however, was still the lowest ranking of the concerns by all agency groups. Thus, while this was a higher concern at agencies cutting back on newspaper advertising reliance, it nonetheless was the least important concern of these agencies. In other words, the image of newspapers is still relatively positive among advertising agency executives.

Also a low concern for agencies was online advertising. Of course, this could change in the future, as more people become wired into the Internet. As with all research on the fast-changing, new-technology Internet, the results here were dated as soon as the survey period ended. Since the survey period of 1998, advertising online has increased significantly. But the results here suggest that online communication was not yet serious competition for advertising dollars. Future research should track subsequent changes in the relationship between online advertising and newspaper advertising.

While the degree of concern with three of the items varied between agencies that reduced their reliance on newspaper advertising and other agencies, little difference was found here between large, medium and small agencies. Only one concern approached statistical significance: whether agencies viewed newspapers as an old-fashioned medium (F = 2.79, p = .06). Four of the six ANOVAs did not even produce an F-score of more than 1.0. Indeed, size of agency appears to have little influence on how ad executives view newspaper advertising. This offers newspapers some encouragement. Large agencies, with their bigger budgets, do not view newspapers more negatively than do small and medium agencies. Thus, it follows that newspapers are not more likely to lose accounts from large agencies than from small. On the other hand, however, all agencies, large and small alike, are reducing their reliance on newspaper advertising, as seen in Table 4.

Taken as a whole, the results here suggest that agencies still view newspapers positively, and not as an old-fashioned medium. They also are not viewing online communications as a replacement for newspapers. However, agencies also appear to have concerns about the audiences they will reach through newspaper advertisements. In other words, the newspaper product is still attractive to advertising agencies, but the audiences that newspapers provide are key concerns. Newspaper executives, then, must address concerns over their readership if they wish to attract future advertising dollars.

Notes

1. NAA, “Facts about Newspapers,” Newspaper Association of America on the Web, (30 March 1999).

2. Robert J. Coen, “Ad Revenue Growth Hits 7% in 1997 to Surpass Forecasts,” Advertising Age 68, no. 20 (18 May 1998): 50.

3. Stacy Jones, “Happy Days Here Again: The Strongest Surge in a Decade Lifts Ad Revenue Beyond Expectations – Led by National, Help Wanted,” Editor & Publisher130, no. 40 (4 October 1997): 8.

4. Jones, “Happy Days Here Again.”

5. Ibid

6. Kip Cassino, “Newspapers: In Deep Ink?” Media Week (19 May 1997): 37.

7. Ann Marie Kerwin, “NAA President Issues a General Call to Arms: Cathleen Black Says Newspapers Must Focus Their Marketing and Communications Efforts in Order to Compete and Survive,” Editor & Publisher 126, no. 14 (3 April 1993): 24.

8. Kerwin, “NAA President Issues a General Call to Arms.”

9. Karen Whitehill King, Leonard N. Reid, and Margaret Morrison,”Large-Agency Media Specialists’ Opinions on Newspaper Advertising for National Accounts,” Journal of Advertising 26, no. 2 (summer 1997): 1.

10. King, Reid and Morrison, “Large-Agency Media Specialists’.” 11. Ibid.

12. Ibid.

13. Stuart B. Tolley, “A Study of National Advertising’s Payout: Image Ads in Newspaper ROP. (Run of Paper),” Journal of Advertising Research 33, no. 5 (September/October 1993): 11.

14. Glen J. Nowak, Glen T. Cameron, and Dean M. Krugman, “How Local Advertisers Choose and Use Advertising Media,” Journal of Advertising Research 33, no. 6 (November/December 1993): 39.

15. Ray Gaulke, “Laying It on the Line: Newspaper Ad Bureau Exec Says Reps’ Failure to Motivate Is the Reason Newspapers Have Image Problems with Advertisers and Ad Agencies,” Editor & Publisher 125, no. 18 (4 April 1992): 14.

16. Jones, “Happy Days Here Again.”

17. Kerwin, “NAA President Issues a General Call to Arms;” Ann Marie Kerwin, “Ad Agency Execs Get a Reminder About Newspapers: Newspaper Association of America President Cathleen Black Addresses the Advertising Research Foundation,” Editor & Publisher 126, no. 27 (3 July 1993): 30-31; King, Reid, and Morrison, “Large-Agency Media Specialists;”‘ Nowak, Cameron, and Krugman, “How Local Advertisers Choose and Use Advertising;” Bruce W. Prater, Paul Wang, and John M. Lavine, “Enhancing Newspapers’ Value as Local Advertising Medium,” Newspaper Research Journal 15, no. 3 (summer 1994): 131.

18. Mary Sabolik, “Print Media: Placement Strategies for the New Segmentation,” Public Relations Journal 45, no. 11 (November 1989):15.

19. Wendell R. Smith, “Product Differentiation and Market Segmentation as Alternative Marketing Strategies,” Journal of Marketing 21, no. 1 (July 1956): 33..

20. Sabolik, “Print Media: Placement Strategies.”

21. Bickley Townsend, “The Media Jungle (Re-Vamping Advertising Strategies),” American Demographics 10, no. 12 (December1988): 8.

22. Kip Cassino, “An Advertising Atlas,” American Demographics 16, no. 8 (August 1994): 44. 23. Prater, Wang, and Lavine, “Enhancing Newspapers’ Value.”

24. Ken Greenberg and Janet Daly, “NetZero Subscriber Base Tops Half Million as Consumers Embrace Ad-Driven, Free Internet Access,” Netzero, 17 March 1999, (11 July 2001).

25. The Kelsey Group, “‘Targeted Marketing’ Key to Localized National Ad Sales; TKG Forecasts $450 Million Marketby 2003,” The Kelsey Group, 12 March 1999, (11 July 2001).

26. King, Reid, and Morrison, “Large Agency Media Specialists.”‘

27. Earl R. Babbie, Survey Research Methods (Belmont, Calif.: Wadsworth, 1972). 28. Ray Gaulke, “Laying It on the Line.”

29. King, Reid, and Morrison, “Large-Agency Media Specialists.'”

30. Melinda D. Hawley and Peggy J. Kreshel, “Gender Zoning: Newspaper Women’s Pages Reconnecting with Women Readers and Advertisers” (paper presented at the 1999 American Academy of Advertising Proceedings, Albuquerque, N.M., 1999).

Maxwell is an associate professor in the School of Journalism and Communication at the University of Oregon. Wanta is a professor in the School of Journalism at the University of Missouri.

Copyright Newspaper Research Journal, Department of Journalism, University of Memphis Spring 2001

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