African-American westward migration after Civil War cruuiculum planner

Flight to freedom: African-American westward migration after Civil War cruuiculum planner

Part I: Lesson One: Family Ties Through History

Relevant Standards Addressed by These Lessons:

Standards in Historical Thinking

* Standard 2, E: The student thinks chronologically and can read historical narratives imaginatively, taking into account what the narrative reveals of the humanity of the individuals and groups involved;

* Standard 2, F: The student appreciates historical perspectives;

* Standard 3, A: The student engages in historical analysis and interpretation and can compare and contrast differing sets of ideas and values by identifying likenesses and differences;

* Standard 3, F: The student can compare competing historical narratives.

United Slates History Standards for Grades 5-12:

* Era 4, Standard 2: How the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions;

* Era 5, Standard 3: How various Reconstruction plans succeeded or failed.

At the End of This Unit Students Will Be Able to:

* Identify the reasons for African American and Native American migration into Kansas after the Civil War;

* Discuss the general motivations for African American and Native American migration out of the South as a means of survival in this period;

* Identify and differentiate historical interpretations;

* Identify primary and secondary sources;

* Practice the use of library research skills;

* Practice reading, writing and critical thinking skills.

Materials from the Bulletin:

“Tracing Trails of Blood on Ice: Commemorating `The Great Escape in 1861-62′ of Indians and Blacks into Kansas”

Teacher Resources: If you need to build background quickly consult the following Website, “Introduction: Persons of African Descent in a Definable American West” at http://www.grad. cgu.edu/~ruffinh/webpage/defining.htm. It contains several short, well-documented essays on the history of people of African descent in the West. The teacher should be able to glean from this source a solid introductory lecture or reading to set the basis for class group work and writing assignments.

Other Materials: Students may begin their research with the following:

Library of Congress: The African American Mosaic http://lcweb.loc.gov/exhibits/african/afam001.html

Questions for Analyzing Primary Sources http://lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ndlpedu/lessons/pso urces/studqsts.html

Instructional Strategy: Have the students read the essay by Professor Willard R. Johnson then ask them to break up into small groups to consider the following questions.

1. What is Professor Willard’s personal connection to the history he is chronicling in his article? Why does Johnson describe the relationships between, Native Americans and African Americans as being complex? What concerns did both groups have on the eve of the Civil War? In what ways were their experiences similar? In what ways were they different?

2. The teacher might have the groups report their findings to the class, taking notes of the various views offered by each group. The teacher might emphasize Johnson’s connection to the event he is depicting, Humboldt, Kansas, and his grandmother. The teacher could suggest to the students how personal historical inquiry can be a window into larger historical questions.

3. The teacher might assign the students the task of informally researching some aspect of their family history connected with an important national event or time period. The students could be asked to interview teachers, ministers, family members and family friends about important periods in history which had a profound impact on them. Some suggestions might be the Great Depression, World War II, the Korean War, the Civil Rights Movement, the assassination of John F. Kennedy, the Vietnam War, the OPEC oil embargo, the Iranian hostage crisis, the Challenger disaster, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the Gulf War, and the first bombing of the World Trade Center.

4. Once the students have completed their preliminary research the teacher might assign them the task of finding two articles from the period or event they are most interested in researching further. They would then be assigned to read those articles and conduct a formal interview with the person who shared the experience.

Assessment

5. Finally the student would be asked to compare the account given by the person they interviewed with the remembrances of the event recorded in newspapers and history books. The students could either report their findings to the class through oral reports, or prepare a short written assignment to address the questions posed by their research.

Adaptations: The teacher might also assign students the task of writing their own account of the event in question utilizing their textbook, the personal interview and the newspaper accounts. Like Johnson, they should be encouraged to record what questions their research raises as well as what questions it seeks to answer. Have the students consider what events in the recent past might be of historic significance?

Assessment Adaptations: Traditional Essay

Assignment: Have the students read the Johnson article as well as Scott J. Lucas’s article “High Expectations: African Americans in Civil War Kentucky,” and “Poetic Justice: The Whipping of William H. Clopton” by Leonne M. Hudson.

1. As students are reading the articles have them answer a few detailed questions based on the readings. For teachers seeking group work, the class might be divided into small teams each of which would consider one of the readings and report back to the class on its findings. The teacher might divide the chalkboard/screen into three spaces to compare and contrast the post Civil War experiences of the three groups discussed: blacks, whites and Native Americans. Students would use the class discussion and group work to help build content knowledge for an essay comparing Reconstruction in different geographic areas. In order to facilitate this, the teacher might assign additional questions for homework. These might include questions that ask them to compare the experience of Native Americas and African Americans in Kansas with those of blacks in the border state of Kentucky. After reviewing the answers in class, have the students read the relevant sections of their textbook along with the articles to answer the following essay.

2. In an analytical essay discuss the challenges associated with Federal Reconstruction in federal territories and border states following the Civil War. Why did African Americans and Native Americans have “high expectations” for the future following the war? What grim realities helped to dampen their enthusiasm? What particular legal and political issues “exasperated” Reconstruction in these locations? What economic, political and social problems did African Americans and other groups face in the course of state and Federal Reconstruction programs aimed at restoring the Union?

Part II: Lesson Plan Two: Mapping the Past

Relevant Standards Addressed by These Lessons:

* Geography Standard 1: How the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influenced the division and control on Earth’s surface;

* Geography Standard 13: How the forces of cooperation and conflict among people influences the division and control of Earth’s surface;

* Geography Standard 14: How human actions modify the physical environment.

Standards in Historical Thinking:

* Standard 2, E: The student thinks chronologically and can read historical narratives imaginatively, taking into account what the narrative reveals of the humanity of the individuals and groups involved;

* Standard 2, F: The student appreciates historical perspectives;

* Standard 3, A: The student engages in historical analysis and interpretation and can compare and contrast differing sets of ideas and values by identifying likenesses and differences;

* Standard 3, F: The student can compare competing historical narratives.

United States History Standards for Grades 5-12:

* Era 4, Standard 2: How the industrial revolution, increasing immigration, the rapid expansion of slavery, and the westward movement changed the lives of Americans and led toward regional tensions.

At the End of This Unit Students Will Be Able to:

* Read, identify and chart events utilizing a time line;

* Use a map to identify and chart human migration patterns over time;

* Practice map reading skills;

* Practice reading, writing and critical thinking skills.

Materials from the Bulletin: This lesson can be adapted to fit all of the articles in this issue of the Bulletin. However, it works best with the article by Roger Hardaway on black Cowboys in the West, the article by Scott Lucas on African Americans during the Civil War in Kentucky, and the article on black migration to Los Angeles by Homer Fleetwood. Teachers with more time might assign all three articles dealing with the larger issue of African American migration over time rather than during a particular period.

Teacher Resources: Same as Part I

Other Materials: Same as Part I

Instructional Strategy: Teachers can easily use the readings in this issue to teach history while also introducing Geography Standards 1, 13, and 14. Have the students read the articles for this section then have them create a map that shows African American and Native American migration patterns from 1865-1920. In order to fully incorporate Geography Standard 13 and 14, the teacher might devise an essay that asks the students to consider the social, economic and political factors which encouraged the movement of African Americans out of the South following the close of the Civil War. The students could then be instructed to create a map and time line that shows the migration of these groups over time along with the important historical events that may have influenced their movements.

Example: Civil War 1861-1865, Reconstruction 1865-1877, the rise of Jim Crow segregation 1877-1896, World War I 1914-1919, etc.

Assessment:

There are several ways that teachers can assess this unit. One would be to assign a map quiz or test that measures how well students were able to comprehend the material. A more imaginative assessment would allow students to further practice the skills acquired through this unit by applying them to immigrant groups such as the Chinese and Italians who began immigrating to America en masse after the 1880s. While this would take considerably more work it would certainly provide students with the opportunity to continue working with maps and honing their critical thinking and analytical skills.

Part III:

Lesson Plan Tree: Beyond Nat Love, Reading Comprehension Questions on Black Cowboys and Cowgirls in American History

These questions can be assigned for the various readings in this issue of the Bulletin. They can be used to help focus student interest and discussion on key issues relative to the above lesson plans. They might also be adapted as assessment items for tests, homework, or quizzes.

Reading Comprehension Questions (Hardaway)

1. Who is the author of the article? What time period is he/she discussing? Before reading the article write down some things you already know about this period. How did the author’s work expand or enhance your knowledge of this period? What questions did the article raise that could be explored in more depth? What questions did it answer?

2. What were some of the diverse occupations blacks engaged in the West mentioned by the author? What do these occupations tell us about the social, economic, political, cultural and physical structure of the frontier in this period?

3. How many African American migrants does the author say were cowboys in the 1870s and 1880s? What was their chief form of employment? Despite their important contributions to the shaping of the American West, how does the author account for their relative absence from the historical and popular culture representations of the period?

4. (Critical Thinking History/Geography Question) What was the geographic center of the cattle kingdom in the United States? Find Texas on a map and draw the routes that African Americans would likely have traveled along to reach Texas and other western states. How might these routes help explain black settlement patterns and racial representation in certain locations even today?

5. What advantages did African Americans enjoy in the West? How did the stain of racial prejudice limit these advantages even on the rugged frontier?

Bibliography:

Accessible Works for Students

Burton, Arthur T. Black, Red, and Deadly: Gunfighters of the Indian Territory, 1870-1907. Austin: Eakin Press, 1991.

Durham, Philip and Everett L. Jones. Negro Cowboys. New York: Dodd, Mead, 1965.

Lowry, Jack. “The Forgotten Cowboys.” Texas Highways (May 1991).

Watriss, Wendy and Fred Baldwin. “Soul in the Saddle.” Houston City (February 1981).

Recommended Works for Teachers

There is an excellent bibliography by Dr. Quintard Taylor, one of the most widely recognized scholars on blacks and the West, on the Smithsonian’s National Museum of American History Website which can be accessed by typing in the following address: http://americanhistory.si.edu/paac/aquest/bibliography.htm.

Barr, Alwyn. Black Texans: A History of African Americans in Texas, 1528-1995. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Billington, Monroe Lee, and Roger D. Hardaway, eds. African Americans on the Western Frontier. Niwot: University Press of Colorado, 1998.

DeGraaf, Lawrence B. “Race, Sex, and Region: Black Women in the American West, 1850-1920.” Pacific Historical Review 49:1 (February 1980): 285-314.

Harris, Richard E. The First 100 Years: A History of Arizona Blacks. Apache Junction, Arizona: Relmo Publishers, 1983.

Katz, William Loren. The Black West. Seattle: Open Hand Publishing Inc., 1987.

McLagan, Elizabeth. A Peculiar Paradise: A History of Blacks in Oregon, 1788-1940. Portland: The Georgian Press, 1980.

Overstreet, Everett Louis. Black on a Background of White: A Chronicle of Afro-Americans’ Involvement in America’s Last Frontier, Alaska. Fairbanks: Alaska Black Caucus, 1988.

Oliver, Mamie O. Idaho Ebony: The Afro-American Presence in Idaho State History. Boise: Idaho State Historical Society, 1990.

Porter, Kenneth W. The Negro on the American Frontier. New York: Arno Press, 1971.

Richardson, Barbara J. Black Pioneers of New Mexico: A Documentary and Pictorial History. Rio Rancho, New Mexico: Panorama Press, 1976.

Riley, Glenda. “American Daughters: Black Women in the West.” Montana: The Magazine of Western History 38:2 (Spring 1988): 14-27.

Rusco, Elmer. “Good Time Coming?” Black Nevadans in the Nineteenth Century. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1975.

Savage, W. Sherman. Blacks in the West. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1976.

Taylor, Quintard. In Search of the Racial Frontier: African Americans in the American West, 1528-1990. New York: Norton, 1998.

Wheeler, B. Gordon. Black California: The History of African-Americans in the Golden State. New York: Hippocrene Books, 1993.

Winegarten, Ruthe. Black Texas Women: 150 Years of Trial and Triumph. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1995.

COPYRIGHT 2001 Association for the Study of Afro-American Life and History, Inc.

COPYRIGHT 2002 Gale Group