A History of Native American and African Relations from 1502 to 1900
Arwin D. Smallwood
There is a historic relationship between Indians and blacks from their earliest contact in the 1500s to the early twentieth century. This contact has resulted in the development of communities of blacks who are part African and Indian or part African, Indian, and European like the people who for the last 400 years have lived in a small rural community in northeastern North Carolina, known as Indian Woods. Communities like Indian Woods are scattered throughout the South and all over America. Many of these mixed-blooded people passed for Indian or white. Many others, who could not pass, became part of the African-American community. Sill others isolated themselves in various areas around the nation considering themselves neither Indian, white, nor truly black.(1)
A number of scholars including Charles Joyner, Richard S. Price, and Gary Nash have documented the cultural blending and inter-mixing of Native Americans and Europeans or Europeans and Africans. Nevertheless, few focus on the widespread mixing that occurred between Native Americans and Africans, the impact each had on the other, and how people like those in Indian Woods continue to survive as bi-racial and tri-racial people who have retained much of their Native American and African culture.(2)
According to a number of scholars, Africans and Native Americans have a long history of interaction that predates European contact. They argue that the Spanish were not the first explorers to establish contact with the indigenous populations of the Caribbean and Central America. In Africa and the Discovery of America (1920), Harvard professor Leo Wiener was one of the first to put forth this argument. His position has subsequently been supported by a number of noted scholars, including Ivan Van Sertima, Cheikh Anta Diop, and Michael Bradley. These scholars contend that long before the arrival of the Spanish, Africans were already trading with, warring with, and inter-mixing with the native peoples of the Western Hemisphere.(3)
Columbus’ own logs, along with archeological evidence, reinforce the contention that Africans explored and traded with the Americas long before the Spanish. Columbus noted that when he established communication with the natives, they indicated that the Spanish had arrived from the South, while the Africans who preceded them arrived from the Southeast. Furthermore, Columbus and his crew reported that when they arrived in the Americas they found Africans already there. They also reported that on their arrival on Hispaniola they saw ports already established. Finally, Columbus wrote in his journal that while on his third voyage to the Americas, he observed a ship loaded with goods leaving the coast of Guinea headed west in the direction of the Americas. West African records also document African efforts to cross the Atlantic and trade with the Americas. Arabic documents reveal that from 1305 to 1312, Abu Bakari II, the king of Mali, sent two expeditions across the Atlantic. The first expedition numbered more than 200 ships, only three of which returned. The second numbered over 2,000, which Abu Bakari personally led after relinquishing his throne to Mansa-Musa, who would become one of Africa’s greatest leaders.(4)
There is archeological evidence that supports the presence of East Africans even before the Malian expeditions. According to the evidence, Central American civilization was heavily influenced by East African culture, specifically from Ethiopia, Kemet, or Meroe. It is believed that one or more of these civilizations crossed the Atlantic between 1200 and 400 B.C. Upon arriving in Central America, these early explorers significantly altered the developing cultures of the Maya, Teotihuacan, Monte Alban, and Aztecs by introducing the technology used to create pyramids, Olmec heads, and hieroglyphics. In many ways, structures found in Central America were similar to those of the Nile River Valley and the renowned East African empires of Egypt, Nubia, Ethiopia, Kemet, and Meroe. This is supported by the faces carved into the Olmec heads whose features appear African rather than Native American and date from 1200 to 400 B.C.5
Africans also can be linked to the opening of the European age of exploration when the Portuguese in 1393 drove the North African Moors out of Portugal and united the Portuguese people to create the first modern European nation-state. It is possible that when Prince Henry the Navigator opened his school to train seamen in 1400 that much of this information originated in West Africa and was carried by trade into Portugal. From 1415 to 1474, the seamen trained at Prince Henry’s school explored the Madeira, Canary, Azores, and Cape Verde Islands for Portugal as well as the west coast of Africa from Cape Bojada to the Cape of St. Catherine. The Portuguese, like the Spanish in 1492, initiated explorations in search of a more expeditious trade route to Asia.
King Ferdinand of Aragon and Queen Isabella of Castile married in 1479 to unite the peoples of Spain. In 1492, their combined armies defeated the Moors at Obo and drove them out of Spain. In late 1492, following Spain’s unification, Christopher Columbus, using Prince Henry’s new seafaring techniques, set out to find a quicker trade route to India across the Atlantic Ocean. Columbus’s discovery of the prevailing winds (trade winds) and currents in the Atlantic made trans-Atlantic travel routine. Some scholars argue that when Columbus departed Spain in 1492, he was accompanied by an African, Pedro Alonso Nino, who helped him navigate the Atlantic and explore and map the uncharted islands of the Caribbean. Two years after Columbus’ first voyage in 1494, the Spanish established their first permanent settlement on the Island of Hispaniola. Among these early settlers were African soldiers and explorers, many of whom were from Spain and assisted the Spanish in exploring and conquering the peoples of the Americas.
Because of the influence of the North African Muslims on Portugal and Spain from 733 to 1492 and the West African slave trade, which the Portuguese had conducted since 1441, Africans had become a well-established part of Portuguese and Spanish society by 1492. Some Africans acquired wealth and fame and even retained high ranking positions in the Portuguese and Spanish government and military. As a result, many of the first Africans who arrived in the Americas from Spain were soldiers, explorers, and sailors. A sizable number of the conquistadors who conquered the Aztecs, Mayas, Incas, and the Southwestern Indians were also African. When Vasco Nunez de Balboa discovered the Pacific Ocean in 1513, he was aided by Nuflo de Olano, an African who played an important role in the expedition. Africans were both explorers and conquistadors, traveling with well-known Spanish adventurers such as Cortes, Valas, Alvardo, Pizarro, Almagro, Valdivia, Alarcon, Coronado, Narvaez, and Cabeza de Vaca, as they explored and conquered the Americas. Among the most famous of these Africans was an explorer named Little Stephen (“Estevanico”). Little Stephen explored present day Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona for the Spanish before he was killed by Indians who inhabited the Arizona territory. Thus with African assistance, the Spanish became the first Europeans to explore and colonize the Americas. By 1502, these early Africans were joined by West African slaves who were imported to work on the sugar plantations of the Caribbean.(7)
From 1492 to 1502, the Spanish first enslaved the peoples of the Caribbean and Central and South America to satisfy their labor needs. In 1502, the Spanish were the first Europeans to enslave Africans in the Americas. Yet the native population quickly perished from European diseases like smallpox and from overwork. Thus in 1502, ten years after Columbus’ landing, the Spanish brought the first African slaves to Cuba from West Africa to replace Indian slaves who were dying out. This began the trans-Atlantic slave trade between West Africa and the Americas and the mixing of Native Americans and Africans. The Spanish were followed quickly by the Portuguese and eventually the Dutch, French, and English.(8)
In 1504, the Spanish began their first sugar plantations on Hispaniola. From that point on, countless Indian and African slaves were forced to grow and process sugar and its byproducts. By the mid 1500s, the Spanish had settled the Caribbean, Central America, South America, and the Southern United States, all of which contained large Indian, African, and mixed slave populations. Many of these slaves outwitted their overseers by escaping at the first opportunity. These runaways slaves created all black but mostly Indian and black communities, which became known as maroon communities. The first runaway or maroon was part of the first shipment of African slaves brought to the Spanish colony of Hispaniola in 1502. This slave fled to the mountains, where he found refuge with the Indians who resided there. Neither Africans nor Indians accepted the institution of slavery without resistance. Because of their dislike of Europeans and slavery, many Native Americans befriended Africans and assisted them in their struggle for freedom.(9)
Many of the early runaway slaves developed friendships with the Indians, with whom they lived in peace. As more slaves escaped to freedom in the mountains, swamps, and dense jungles, they created numerous maroon communities throughout the Caribbean and the Americas, including Spanish America, Portuguese America, and, after 1600, the French Caribbean, British Caribbean, and United States. Some maroon communities were so well organized and defended that Europeans were forced to sign treaties with them granting independence. The most powerful of these maroon states were in Cuba, Brazil, Colombia, Ecuador, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Mexico, Florida, the Great Dismal Swamp of North Carolina and Virginia, and Surinam. Africans and Indians were forced to build their communities in the most hostile and unproductive lands. They chose the swamps, mountains, and jungles for two specific reasons–virtual inaccessibility to whites and ease in defending from attackers. These communities were successful also because the maroons laid deadly traps for whites and their dogs. Finally, by developing armies trained by slaves with military experience including guerrilla tactics, the maroon were extremely effective in repelling and defeating the European armies. Owing to their successes, the Europeans often resorted to conscripting Indians and blacks–called “Rangers”–to defeat them. These Rangers were used against the maroons in Brazil, Dominica, Guatemala, Guiana, Mexico, and the United States. The Rangers proved more adroit than their European counterparts, as they were better trackers than whites and were superb guerilla fighters. There were more than fifty maroon communities in the United States and hundreds in South America and the Caribbean. Although many maroon communities were eventually destroyed, some existed into the twentieth century.
The racial mixing and relationships between Indians, Africans, and whites created by slavery is well documented. Although the labor requirements and basic attitudes toward Africans and Indians were the same throughout the colonies, the Spanish, Portuguese, French, and Dutch often intermarried with their African and Indian slaves and cared for the children they fathered creating a mixed-blood class of people including mulattos and meztios. In spite of the English’s refusal to marry or care for their children by African and Indian women, race mixing was just as common in British North America..(10)
Although slavery flourished in the Americas for more than 300 years, it was not without incident and cost. As was true of the preceding 100 years, slavery did not expand without opposition. Neither Indians nor Africans readily accepted servitude, and throughout slavery’s existence, there was a significant number of attacks, revolts, and rebellions that caused great concern and widespread fear among American and Caribbean slave holders. Several of the most famous Indian and slave uprisings occurred during the colonial period and caused major loss of property and life. These uprisings often involved Indians and maroons, and Europeans often used African and Indian slaves to end this unrest. As a result of the rebellions, slave codes, which existed in all of the slaveholding colonies, were strengthened, and white colonists increased their harsh treatment of slaves. One of the most successful of these revolts occurred in Brazil, where the Africans successful won their freedom and created the African state of Palmares in 1630. Although most of the insurrections were not as successful, they did demonstrate African and Indian dislike of slavery and the expansion of white settlements. Slaves also continued to run away and create or join maroon communities in the mountains, swamps, and forests of the Americas and the Caribbean. Many were taken in by friendly native Americans who intermarried with them and accepted them as members of their nations. Some Africans and their descendants rose to become warriors, chiefs, and great shaman.(11)
In a series of world wars waged in the Americas, Europe, and Asia, Europeans fought for control of the Americas and the Caribbean. Africans played a major military role in the armies of all the combatants. Maroons, slaves, and free Blacks were used by the English, French, Dutch, Portuguese, and the Spanish to protect their colonies from invasion and to disrupt the economic interest of their enemies.
As early as 1441 in Europe, the Portuguese and the Spanish used African soldiers to defeat and drive out the North African Moors from their lands. By the early 1500s, these soldiers were conquering the peoples of the Aztec, Mayan, and Incan Empires for Spain. The Portuguese used African to conquer Brazil and protect their colony from Spain. From 1545 to 1548, Africans also fought in the Spanish Colonial Civil wars on both sides and, in 1555 in Cuba, helped the Spanish turn back the French who began the European assault on the Spanish in the Caribbean in 1555.
In 1572 and later in the 1580s, Sir Frances Drake used Spanish maroons, slaves, free blacks and Indians in the interest of England in Central America and the Caribbean. The Spanish again used African soldiers against the Dutch in Peru in 1615, and the Dutch used Africans against the Indians in New Amsterdam in 1641. France, England, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain all used African soldiers in the struggle to control the Caribbean and North America. African soldiers defended territories, put down slave revolts, and subdued unfriendly Indians throughout the colonial period and beyond.(12)
After raiding the Spanish Caribbean with the help of African and West Indian maroons and slaves in 1586, thirty-two years before the purchase of 19 Africans from the Dutch in Jamestown, Virginia, Sir Francis Drake rewarded more than 300 of the victors with their freedom and released them on Roanoke Island in North Carolina. As best can be determined, these maroons and West Indians were absorbed by the Native Americans in the region particularly the Tuscarora. Slaves also helped defend the English colonies from foreign and domestic threats. They fought Indians, European invaders, rebelling slaves. This would continue to be the case during English slavery. Slavery had been practiced by the English in Virginia as early as 1610.(13)
Many of these early slaves were Native Americans, mostly Algonquians of coastal Virginia and North Carolina. By the 1680s, English settlers routinely kidnapped Native American women and children in the coastal plains of North Carolina and Virginia. This Native American slave trade involved a number of colonies, including Virginia, Carolina, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, Jamaica, Barbados, St. Kitts, and Nevis. So many Indian slaves were traded to Pennsylvania that a law was passed in 1705 forbidding the importation of Carolina Indian slaves. This was done in part because many of the slaves were Tuscarora who were aligned militarily with the Iroquois Confederacy, which threatened to intervene to stop the trade. From 1680 to 1715, the English sold thousands of Indians into slavery, some as far away as the Caribbean. Indian slavery, however, had many problems, not the least of which were Indian attacks, and by 1720, most colonies in North America had abandoned it for African slavery. In 1670, Virginia passed a law defining slavery as a lifelong inheritable “racial” status. After the passage of this law many black-Indians found themselves classified as black and forced into slavery.(14)
By the start of the eighteenth century, slavery was well established throughout the Western Hemisphere. It stretched from present day Argentina to Canada. African, Indian, and African-Indian slaves worked the mines of South America, the sugar plantations of the Caribbean, the rice and indigo fields of Georgia and South Carolina, and the tobacco fields of North Carolina, Virginia, and Maryland. They toiled as servants and skilled and unskilled laborers in cities from Bahia to Quebec. British North America saw the creation of the first democratic republic in America and the institutionalization of slavery in that republic. Nevertheless, runaway slaves created maroon communities in the Great Dismal swamp along the northeastern border of North Carolina and Virginia and the Seminole reserve in Central Florida among other places.(15)
As slavery spread and the cruelty of slavery became known among Native Americans, many began to sympathize with Africans and despise the institution of slavery. Many Indian nations began to harbor runaway slaves, intermarry with them and help them to run away from their masters. Indians and Africans began to forge alliances and close friendships with nations like the Tuscarora of North Carolina and the Seminoles of Florida. The Tuscarora were Iroquois and for centuries had maintained political ties to the group of Iroquois that made up the Five Nations, the Iroquois Confederacy of western New York and eastern Canada. The Five Nations included the Mohawks, Cayugas, Oneidas, Senecas, and Onondagas. The Tuscarora rejoined the Confederacy officially in 1715 after their defeat by North Carolina colonists in the Tuscarora War from 1711-1713. The Six Nations grew to mistrust whites and despise the institution of slavery since many of the Tuscarora fell victim to this illicit institution after their defeat in 1713. As a result, many of the Iroquois raided frontier plantations, killed whites, and allowed Africans to go free or join their nations. Even at the start of the Tuscarora War in 1711, warring Native Americans executed John Lawson for mistreating the Tuscarora and held Baron Christopher De Graffenreid prisoner, but released the two slaves who accompanied them unharmed. From 1717 to 1803, the Tuscarora who remained in North Carolina on a reservation known as Indian Woods began to harbor runaway slaves and intermarry with them. Many of the Tuscarora and other Iroquois became so mixed that they appeared more African than Indian.(16)
Later, as members of the Six Nations were subdued and forced onto reservations, they continued to hide runaway slaves as part of the underground railroad. The Meherrin, Nottoways, Delaware and Powhatans also assisted runaway slaves. Fearful that Indians and slaves might create alliances that would destroy white settlements, whites painted Indians as distrustful and the enemy of slaves, causing many slaves to fear them and remain loyal to their masters for protection. Colonists also armed slaves and used them to fight Indians, driving wedges between the two groups in the Tuscarora War and the Yamasee War of 1715.(17)
Whites also taught Indians to fear Africans and recruited them to serve as slave catchers and even slave holders. The most well known Indian nations to adopt European slavery were bitter enemies of the Tuscarora and the Iroquois Confederacy even before the arrival of the Europeans. They included the Five Civilized Tribes–the Seminoles, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Cherokees. Though these nations accepted many of the practices of European slave holders, African slavery among Native Americans was never the same as it was among slave holding whites. For example, Native Americans often intermarried with their African slaves and the children of slaves were considered free and full members of the nation. The Seminoles of Florida became so mixed that like the Tuscarora and other Iroquois, many of their people were as much African as Indian. The mixing of Europeans and Indians and Africans and Indians eventually led to civil wars within the Five Civilized Tribes with most full blooded Indians siding with those mixed with Africans. This might have been because many of the traditional religions and beliefs of Indians and Africans were similar. These beliefs did not recognize the racial superiority of any race over another unlike the Christianity taught to mixed Indians of European ancestry.(18)
From 1755 to 1763, France and England fought the Seven Years War or the French and Indian War as it was known in America. Although the conflict began in Europe, it quickly spilled over into their colonies in the Americas. Most of the fighting in North America occurred along the Western frontier where the Indians aligned themselves with the French and attacked American settlements. In the Caribbean, the French and English extensively used African soldiers. African soldiers helped to capture the French Islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe in 1759 and Havana, Cuba in 1762. The British used more than 3,000 African soldiers, the French and Spanish used even more in the Caribbean including maroons and runaway slaves who served as guides and spies for the both sides during the war. The British, also armed slaves in the thirteen colonies, particularly South Carolina and Georgia and in frontier areas in New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia. In 1763, England defeated France and Spain and, in part as a result of the victories of their African troops in the Caribbean, won favorable concessions at the Paris Peace. In North America, the British gained control of all the land west of the Appalachian Mountains to the Mississippi River and Canada. This left only two European nations in control of North America, Spain and England, both relying on slavery for economic growth and prosperity.
During the war, hundreds of Indians and slaves fought for the French and the British in return for their freedom or security. Since most of the fighting occurred on the western frontier, many French and English slave holders used their slaves to assist in protecting their families, farms and property. During the war, Indians captured slaves and allowed many to go free or join their respective nations. Defeated Indians often found themselves enslaved and forced to work side by side with Africans. In both cases, Indians and blacks continued to develop alliances and friendships that led to even more mixing. The British divided the newly acquired land among the Indians, who were given the Mississippi Territory and the Northwest Territory.(19)
The impact of the mixing of Africans and Indians could be seen in Crispus Attucks, who in 1770, became the first American to die in the American Revolution in the Boston Massacre. Attucks was also part Native American and was known among them as “little deer.” During the American Revolution, more than 5,000 slaves fought for their freedom as allies of the British. The British also enlisted the aid of the Six Nations in the North and the Cherokee in the South. As a result of this alliance, many Indians and blacks found themselves allies against the Americans. In western New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia, warriors of the Six Nations under Joseph Bryant raided plantations killing whites and freeing Slaves.(20)
Slaves who so desired were allowed to become members of the Confederacy, and none were ever returned to slave owners, even after repeated requests. In the South, the Cherokee, who also were aligned with the British, menaced the Carolinas and Georgia. In South Carolina, slave holders on the frontier constantly lost slaves to the Cherokee who had served as slave catchers since the Tuscarora War in 1713. At the end of the Revolutionary War, the British and their Indian allies freed thousands of slaves. The British alone took more than 14,000 Africans when they withdrew from America. While it is unclear exactly how many slaves joined their Indian allies, the number was likely to be in the hundreds if not thousands.(21)
From 1800 to the end of slavery in 1865, Indians and slaves expressed their dissatisfaction with their condition in numerous ways. Slaves continued to escape, organize revolts, and form maroon communities with the aid of Indians. Runaways established more than a hundred maroon communities in the mountains, swamps, bayous, and everglades of the United States. Many of these communities contained as many Indians as Africans. Slaves on the Underground Railroad were routinely assisted by sympathetic Indians. Native Americans also offered runaway slaves protection from slave catchers on their reservations.(22)
The Quakers, who often used their homes and churches to aid runaway slaves, and the Iroquois and their allies, especially the Tuscarora, were among the earliest conductors of the Underground Railroad. In 1802 in Indian Woods, North Carolina, slaves and Tuscarora Indians plotted a major slave uprising, the “Great Negro Conspiracy.” Although discovered and thwarted, the plot caused the worst panic of its kind in North Carolina history. In 1803, the Tuscarora who were not enslaved were forced to leave Indian Woods and North Carolina.(23)
Maroon communities and slave and Indian revolts remained constant threats and reminded slave holders of the uncertainties they faced daily. Africans and Indians did not accept enslavement and exploitation and resisted whites and their institutions into the twentieth century. The maroon communities developed their own government, militia, and culture, which were often a mix of both African and Indian traditions. Although many of America’s Maroon communities flourished and became independent, all remained under constant threat of attack by slave holders. In spite of this, many of the maroon communities continued to exist well into the early twentieth century.(24)
Africans had lived in the West in small numbers since the 1500s. As early as 1526, they explored the region for the Spanish and were used as slaves and soldiers to conquer, work, and protect the region until the arrival of the Americans in the 1800s. During the colonial period, Africans also assisted the French in trading and defending forts along the St. Lawrence, Illinois, and Mississippi Rivers. They helped build the multi-ethnic city of New Orleans, which they helped Andrew Jackson defend from the British in 1815. From 1800 to 1860, more black Americans settled in the West. Some were free; others were fugitive slaves. These blacks were the first to settle in Los Angeles, California and New Mexico. They were miners in Colorado, Montana, Idaho, and Nevada. They joined the nations of western Indians like the Apaches, Navajo, Comanche, Crow, Arapaho, Cheyenne, and the Sioux. They also worked on Spanish haciendas as vaqueros who herded and branded cattle.(25)
Africans and Indians merged in the West as well as the East. Although the West of the 1800s is still seen by many Americans as an untamed and uncivilized hinterland, the region was home to whites, Indians, and blacks who lived and traded there for over three-hundred years before America’s westward march. From 1500 to 1803, much of the West was under Spanish and French rule. The French also used Africans as explorers, soldiers, slaves, and servants. Many individual Africans became pioneers, fur traders, guides, gold miners, and whalers in the north Pacific and carried on vigorous exchanges with the native inhabitants and Europeans. These black frontiersmen did not fear the unknown but met the challenges in the West. Slaves also ran away to the West and were taken in by Indian nations in California, Arizona, and the Great Plains creating mixed people all over the region. Thus when the Americans began to move west in the 1800s, Africans were already there and had been there for more than two centuries. Although most were in the Southwest, they also maintained a significant presence in the Northwest. Several of these black frontiersmen helped to open the floodgate for the American westward expansion. An American slave named York accompanied Lewis and Clark on their exploration of the Louisiana Purchase in the West between 1804 and 1806. York directly attributed to the success of the expedition in many ways, including saving the men from death because of his relationship with an Indian woman.(26)
The institution of slavery affected every aspect of American life. It divided the nation into pro and anti-slavery forces and threatened the future of the country. By 1830, slavery had made an impact on many Native American peoples including the Five Civilized Tribes (Seminoles, Creeks, Choctaws, Chickasaws, and Cherokees), who had been practicing African slavery on their lands for nearly a hundred years. The Five Civilized Tribes had been allies with slave holders since the Tuscarora War of 1711 and served as slave catchers. While they adopted slavery at the insistence of their southern neighbors, they were never fully accepted by white southerners. As cotton production became more profitable and land scarce from over cultivation, southern whites began to demand the removal of these tribes from their fertile lands located in the coastal plains of the lower south. They accused the Indians of harboring runaway slaves, encouraging slave rebellions, and straying off their reservations onto the farms of nearby whites. After the election of Andrew Jackson in 1828, the federal government with little opposition began to forcibly remove these Indians from their ancestral lands to the Oklahoma Territory. On these forced marches, the Indians were accompanied by their African slaves, who also endured the great hardship of these marches. Once the Indians were removed from their lands, they were quickly replaced by Southern plantation owners who brought in slaves to clear the areas and prepared the lands for cotton production. Indians who refused to leave were enslaved and bred with slaves brought into the area from the upper south where many had mixed with Indians a century earlier.(27)
Even during the domestic slave trade, the mixing of Indians and Africans occurred. For example, many of the slaves who were sold to the deep south were of mixed southeastern Indian and African ancestry. Once relocated, many slaves mixed with Seminoles, Cherokee, Choctaw, and Creek who preferred slavery to leaving their ancestral homes.(28)
When the Civil War broke out in 1861, again African Americans, Indians, and those of mixed ancestry were among the first to volunteer for service. More than 200,000 African-Americans, Indians and black Indians served the Union as soldiers, spies, and laborers. More than 36,000 of them died of disease, in battle, or were massacred by Confederate soldiers. Many of these Indians and blacks, like Joseph Cherry, were runaway slaves who served in units like the 37th Colored Infantry, 35th, Colored Heavy Artillery, and the 31st Colored Infantry. Hundreds of mixed Tuscarora and other Iroquois joined the Union Army to fight against the South. Many of these Indians were so mixed with Africans that although they came from reservations in New York and could prove their Indian ancestry, they were forced to fight with the black units during the war. Ironically, the Tuscarora fought mostly in North Carolina and Virginia, their ancestral home, with their African-American cousins who had remained in North Carolina and been enslaved. The Five Civilized Tribes also joined in the fight but as slave holding nations, they fought for the Confederacy. Yet, with 200 years of mixing with slaves, many of the nations fought internal civil wars with many full blooded Indians opposing further enslavement of Africans. By the end of the war, blacks and black Indians had fought in numerous battles all over the South.(29)
After the Civil war, large numbers of former slaves moved west to Texas to work on cattle ranches. Many of the first black cowboys were slaves who were taught their trade by Mexican vaqueros and Indians and their white masters. Their masters brought them to Texas from the South to launch the Cattle Kingdom. In the early years from 1856-65, most black cowboys were in east Texas because slaves in South Texas could easily escape to freedom across the Rio Grande to Mexico. After the Civil War and emancipation, hundreds of blacks moved West in search of work and protection from southern racism and violence. As many as 3,000 blacks became cowboys and herded cattle on the western trails to the railroads in Kansas, Wyoming, Nebraska, Colorado and Missouri including the Good Night-Loving, the Western, the Chisholm, and the Sedalia Trails. The most famous of these cowboys were Bronco Sam, Bill Pickett, Nat Love, Bose Ikard, Bob Lemmons, Cherokee Bill, Ben Hodge, Isom Dart, Jim Young, and Charlie Smith.(30)
During the Civil War, black troops proved to the Union army that they were good soldiers. White officers found that black troops had the character, fortitude, and heart to fight and win. With the Civil War over, the nation quickly switched its attention to the Indian troubles of the West. These conflicts were brought on by primarily by the building of the Transcontinental Railroad and the thousands of white settlers it brought. As Indian attacks increased on white settlements and rail lines, troops not used to reconstruct the South were redeployed in the West under the command of William T. Sherman. Congress decided to gather the best back veterans of the Civil War and send them west to fight the Plains Indians. On July 28, 1866, Congress authorized the establishment of four permanent black military units. The act created two infantry regiments, the U.S. 24th and 25th, and two cavalry regiments, the 9th and 10th.(31)
Command of these troops was originally offered to General Armstrong Custer, but he refused believing that black troops were inferior in every way, particularly intelligence, to white troops. Nevertheless, the four black units served extensively in the Indian Wars from 1866-1880 and earned a reputation as fierce fighters. White soldiers called them “brunettes” while the Indians called them “buffalo soldiers” because their skin and hair resembled that of the sacred buffalo. The buffalo soldiers fought Indians throughout the West, including the Apache, Navajo, Comanche, Crow, Arapaho, Cheyenne, and Sioux. They put down Indian rebellions on reservations, fought Crazy Horse, and captured Geronimo. They prevented Sooners from entering Oklahoma before it opened and protected cattlemen from Indians. They were the best and brightest, hand-picked for their intelligence and physical ability. Many of these men joined the buffalo soldiers because they believed that they represented the black race, and if they fought well, they would help all blacks earn the respect of white Americans. Although these black soldiers served their country well, they did not change the attitudes of white Americans, and their race remained oppressed well into the mid 20th century.(32)
From 1880 to the 1950s, most black leaders were too concerned with survival under Jim Crow in the South and adjusting to urban life in the North to concern themselves with black connections to Native Americans. Most Black leaders like Booker T. Washington, W.E. B. Du Bois, and Marcus Garvey were mostly concerned with teaching African-Americans about their African roots. Their message of self-help and racial pride was needed and embraced by black Americans. Although Garvey’s movement failed, much of his message remained with African-Americans and served as the foundation of American black nationalism. Black nationalism helped to mold the thinking of black America and caused many to focus their search for an identity in Africa rather then in both America and Africa.(33)
During the 1960s, militant black nationalists told African Americans that black was beautiful and that African Americans should be proud of their African heritage. The growth of black nationalism in the late 1960s and early 70s and the belief by many black nationalists that exploring any heritage other than African was an attempt to deny one’s blackness created a climate even among scholars that made it unacceptable to explore the historic relationship with Native Americans. During this period, it became increasingly unpopular for people of Native American and African heritage to openly discuss or research their Native American ancestry. Recently, however, many African Americans and Native Americans are reevaluating what it means to be African American or Native American and discussing those persons of mixed ancestry who want to learn more about both their Native American and African heritage.(36)
(1.) Using the mixed people of Indian Woods, North Carolina, I have attempted to trace the development and evolution of one group of these bi-racial and tri-racial isolates who were part Tuscarora. As a result, I have found that there is a surprisingly large population of these people not only in eastern North Carolina but all over the South and the East Coast. For a through discussion of the tri-racial people of Indian Woods and the Tuscarora Indians see Arwin Smallwood, “A History of Three Cultures: Indian Woods, North Carolina 1585 to 1995,” (Ph.D. Diss., Ohio State Univ., 1997); Billy Arthur, “The Melungeons,” The State (June 1994); Brent N. Kennedy, The Melungeons: The Resurrection of a Proud People: An Untold Story of Ethnic Cleansing in America 2nd ed. (Macon, GA: Mercer Univ., 1997); Edward T. Price, “A Geographic Analysis of White-Negro-Indian Racial Mixtures in Eastern United States,” Association of American Geographers Annals 43 (June 1953): 138-155; Edward T. Price, “Mixed-Blood Populations of Eastern United States As to Origins, Localizations, and Persistence,” (Ph.D. Diss., Univ. of California Berkeley, 1950).
(2.) Gary B. Nash, Red White & Black: The Peoples of Early North America (Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2000).
(3.) Dean R. Snow, The Archaeology of North America (New York: Chelsa, 1989); Roland A. Oliver, The Dawn of African History (London: Oxford Univ. Press, 1968); Roland A. and Caroline Oliver eds. Africa in the Days of Exploration (Englewood Cliff, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965); Michael A. Bradley, Dawn Voyage: The Black African Discovery of America (New York: A & B Books, 1992); Michael A. Bradley, The Columbus Conspiracy (New York: A & B Books, 1992); Cheikh Anta Diop, Pre-colonial Black Africa: A Comparative Study of the Political and Social Systems of Europe and BlackAfrica, From Antiquity to the Formation of Modern States (New York: Lawrence Hill Books, 1987); Ivan Van Sertima, They Came Before Columbus (New York: Vintage Books, 1989); Ivan Van Sertima, African Presence in EarlyAmerica (New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers, 1992); Leo Wiener, Africa and the Discovery of America (New York: A & B Books, 1992).
(4.) Diop, Pre-colonial Black Africa.
(5.) Van Sertima, They Came Before Columbus; Van Sertima, African Presence in Early America.
(6.) Urs Bitterli, Cultures in Conflict: Encounters Between European and Non European Cultures, 14921800 (Cambridge: Polity, 1989); Bernard Lewis, Cultures in Conflict: Christians, Muslims, and Jews in the Age of Discovery (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996); Oliver and Oliver eds., Africa in the Days of Exploration); Geoffrey Vaughn Scammell, The World Encompassed: The First European Maritime Empires 800-1650 (New York: Methuen, 1981); Vincent Bakpetu Thompson, The Making of the African Diaspora in the Americas, 1441-1900 (White Plains, NY: Longman, 1986).
(7.) Peter M. Voelz, Slave and Soldier: The Military Impact of Blacks in the Colonial Americas (New York: Garland, 1993); Darien J. Davis, ed., Slavery and Beyond: The African Impact On Latin America and the Caribbean (Wilmington, DE: SR Books, 1995).
(8.) J. H. Galloway, The Sugar Cane Industry: An Historical Geography From Its Origins to 1914 (New York: Cambridge Univ., 1989); H. Hoetink, Slavery and Race Relations in the Americas: Comparative Notes on Their Nature and Nexus (New York: Harper & Row, 1973); Robert B. Toplin, Slavery and Race Relations in Latin America (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1974); Catholic Church, The Earliest Diplomatic Documents on America: The Papal Bulls of 1493 and the Treaty of Tordesillas (Berlin: P. Gottschalk, 1927); Samuel E. Dawson, Lines of Demarcation of Pope Alexander VI and the Treaty of Tordesillas, A.D. 1493 and i494 (Ottawa: J. Hope & Sons, 1899); Henry Harrisse, The Diplomatic History of America Its First Chapter 1452-1493-1494 (London: B. F. Stevens, 1897); Darlene Clark Hine, More Than Chattel: Black Women and Slavery in the Americas (Bloomington: Indiana Univ., 1996); Herbert S. Klein, African Slavery in Latin America and The Caribbean (Oxford: Oxford Univ., 1994); Mellafe R. Rolando, Negro Slavery In Latin America (Berkeley: Univ. of California, 1975); Richard Price, Maroon Societies: Rebel Slave Communities in the Americas (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ., 1979); L. B. Rout, The African Experience in Spanish America (New York: Cambridge Univ., 1977).
(9.) Price, Maroon Societies; Rout, African Experience in Spanish America.
(10.) Hoetink, Slavery and Race; Toplin, Slavery and Race.
(11.) Richard Price, Maroon Societies; Robert Conrad ed., Children of God’s Fire: A Documentary History of Black Slavery in Brazil (Bloomington: Indiana Univ., 1994); Katia M. Mattoso, To Be A Slave in Brazil, 1550-1888 (New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers Univ., 1989); Gary Y. Okihiro ed., In Resistance: Studies in African, Caribbean and Afro-American History (Amherst: Univ. of Massachusetts, 1986); Herbert Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts (New York: International Publishers, 1993); William Loren Katz, Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage (New York: Atheneum, 1986); Kimberly Ann McClain, “From Black to Indian: the Racial Identity of the Haliwa-Saponi Indians of North Carolina,” (A.B. Honors Thesis, Boston: Harvard Univ., 1989).
(12.) Voelz, Slave and Soldier; Carl and Roberta Bridenbaugh, No Peace Beyond the Line: The English in the Caribbean, 1624-1690 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1972); Jeffrey J. Crow, Paul D. Escott, and Flora J. Harley, A History of African Americans in North Carolina (Raleigh: North Carolina Div. of Archives & History, North Carolina Dept. of Cultural Resources, 1992).
(13.) Smallwood, “Indian Woods”; Crow, Escott, and Harley, History of African Americans; Voelz, Slave and Soldier.
(14.) Nash, Red, White, and Black; James W. Covington, “Some Observations Concerning the Florida-Carolina Indian Slave Trade,” Florida Anthropologist 20 (1967): 10-18; Kathryn E. Holland Braund, “The Creek Indians, Blacks and Slavery,” Journal of Southern History 57 (November 1991): 603-636; Jerome S. Handler, “The Amerindian Slave Population of Barbados in the Seventeenth and Early Eighteenth Centuries,” Caribbean Studies 8 (1969): 38-64; Kenneth W. Porter, “Relations Between Negroes and Indians Within the Present Limits of the United States,” Journal of Negro History 17 (July 1932): 287-367; Alan Watson, Slave Law in the Americas (Athens: Univ. of Georgia, 1989); William S. Willis, “Divide and Rule: Red White and Black in the Southeast,” Journal of Negro History (July 1963); Sanford Winston, “Indian Slavery in the North Carolina Region,” Journal of Negro History, 19 (October 1934): 431-440; Morgan Godwyn, The Negro’s & Indians’ Advocate Suing for their Admission into the Church (London: J. D., 1680); Jack P. Greene, Pursuits of Happiness: The Social Development of Early Modern British Colonies and the formation of American Culture (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina, 1988); Jack P. Greene, The American Colonies in the eighteenth Century, 1689-1763 (Arlington Heights, IL: AHM Publishing, 1969).
(15.) Price, Maroon Societies; Thomas C. Parramore, “Conspiracy and Revivalism in 1802: A Direful Symbiosis,” Negro History Bulletin 43 (1980): 283; Kulikoff, Tobacco and Slaves; Littlefield, Rice and Slaves: Ethnicity and the Slave Trade in Colonial South Carolina (Urbana: Univ. of Illinois, 1991); Voelz, Slave and Soldier; Wilcomb E. Washburn, The Governor and the Rebel: A History of Bacon’s Rebellion in Virginia (New York: Norton, 1972); Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts; Drainer, Native Americans and Black Americans; Jack D. Forbes, Africans and Native Americans: Color, Race, and Caste in the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples (Urbana: Univ. of Illinois, 1993); Jack D. Forbes, Black Africans and Native Americans: The Language of Race and the Evolution of Red-Black Peoples (New York: Blackwell, 1988); Smallwood, “Indian Woods.”
(16.) Smallwood, “Indian Woods.”
(17.) Christine Ann Styrna, “The Winds of Change: The Impact of the Tuscarora War on Proprietary North Carolina, 1690-1729,” (Ph.D. Diss., College of William and Mary, 1990); David Lee Johnson, “The Yamasee War,” (M.A. Thesis, Univ. of South Carolina, 1980); Richard Durschlag, “The First Creek Resistance: Transformation in Creek Indian Existence and the Yamasee War, 1670-1730,” (Ph.D. Diss., Duke Univ., 1995); Smallwood, “Indian Woods.”
(18.) Julie P. Baker, Black Slavery Among the American Indians. (Clifton, NJ: AB Bookman’s Weekly, 1992); Laurence Foster, Negro-Indian Relationships in the Southeast. (New York: AMS Press, 1978); R. Halliburton, Red Over Black: Black Slavery Among the Cherokee Indians. (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977); Grant Foreman, The Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole (Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma, 1977); Smallwood, “Indian Woods.”
(19.) Voelz, Slave and Soldier; Harrison Bird, Battle for a Continent (New York: Oxford Univ., 1965); Francis Jennings, Empire of Fortune: Crowns, Colonies, and Tribes in the Seven Years War in America (New York: Norton, 1988); Jack M. Sosin, Whitehall and the Wilderness The Middle West in British Colonial Policy, 1760-1775 (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska, 1961).
(20.) Dramer, Native Americans and Black Americans; Barbra Graymont, The Iroquois in the American Revolution (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse Univ., 1972); Voelz, Slave and Soldier; Erkuries Beatty, Journal of Lietut. Erkuries Beatty in the Expedition Against the Six Nations Under Gen. Sullivan, 1779 (Harrisburg: Pennsylvania State Library, 1974); Hatley M. Thomas, The Dividing Paths: Cherokees and South Carolinians Through the Era of Revolution (New York: Oxford Univ., 1993); William Loren Katz, Black Indians: A Hidden Heritage (New York: Atheneum, 1986); Isabel Thompson Kelsay, Joseph Bryant 1743-1807, Man of Two Worlds (Syracuse, New York: Syracuse Univ., 1986); Ellen Gibson Wilson, The Loyal Blacks (New York: Capricorn Books, 1976); James W. Walker, The Black Loyalists: The Search for a Promised Land in Nova Scotia and Sierra Leone 1783-1870 (Toronto: Univ. of Toronto, 1992).
(21.) Graymont, The Iroquois; Voelz, Slave and Soldier; Beatty, Journal of Lieut. Erkuries Beatty; Thomas M. Hatley, The Dividing Paths; Katz, Black Indians; Marion G. McDougall, Fugitive Slaves (1619-1865) (Freeport, New York: Books For Libraries, 1971); Peter M. Bergman and Jean McCarroll, The Negro in the Continental Congress. Journals of the Continental Congress, 1774-1789 (New York: Bergman, 1969); Ira Berlin and Ronald Hoffman, eds. Slavery and Freedom in the Age of the American Revolution. (Urbana: Univ. of Illinois Press, 1986); Quarles, The Negro in the American Revolution.
(22.) Smallwood. “Indian Woods.”
(23.) Price, Maroon Societies; Aptheker, American Negro Slave Revolts; Joseph C. Carroll, Slave Insurrection in the United States, 1800-1865 (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1968); Douglas R. Egerton, Gabriel’s Rebellion: The Virginia Slave Conspiracies of 1800 and 1802 (Chapel Hill: Univ. of North Carolina, 1993); Gerald Mullin, Flight and Rebellion: Slave Resistance in Eighteenth-Century Virginia (New York: Oxford Univ., 1975); Thomas C. Parramore, “The Great Slave Conspiracy,” The State: A Weekly Survey of North Carolina. 39 (August 15, 1971): 7-10; Parramore, “Conspiracy and Revivalism”; Charles L. Blockson, The Underground Railroad. (New York: Berkley, 1994); Rosalie Schwartz, Across the Rio To Freedom U.S. Negroes in Mexico (El Paso: Univ. of Texas at El Paso, 1974); Hiram H. Hilty, North Carolina Quakers and Slavery (Durham: Duke Univ., 1969); Hiram H. Hilty, By Land and By Sea: Quakers Confront Slavery and Its Aftermath in North Carolina (Greensboro: North Carolina Friends Historical Society, 1993); William R. Riddel, “Additional Notes on Slavery: Reciprocity of Slaves Between Michigan and Canada,” Journal of Negro History 17 (July 1932): 368-377; Smallwood, “Indian Woods.”
(24.) Joseph N. Heard, The Black Frontiersmen: Adventures of Negroes Among American Indians, 15281918 (New York: John Day, 1969); Katz, Black Indians; McDougall, Fugitive Slaves; Price, Maroon Societies.
(25.) Heard, Black Frontiersmen; Roger D. Hardaway, A Narrative Bibliography of the African-American Frontier: Blacks in the Rocky Mountain West, 1535-1912 (Lewiston, NY: Edwin Mellen, 1995); William C. Nell, Colored Americans in the Wars of 1776 and 1812 (New York: AMS, 1976); Zachariah Frederick Smith, The Battle of New Orleans: Including the Previous Engagements between the Americans and the British, the Indians, and the Spanish Which led to the Final Conflict On the 8th of January 1815 (Bowie, MD: Heritage Books, 1988); Schwartz, Across the Rio.
(26.) Hardaway, African-American Frontier; Heard, Black Frontiersmen; William Loren Katz, The Black West: A Documentary and Pictorial History of the African American Role in the Westward Expansion of the United States (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996); William Loren Katz, Black People Who Made the Old West (Trenton, NJ: Africa World, 1992); Kenneth W. Porter, The Negro on the American Frontier (New York: Arno, 1971); Joan E. Cashin, A Family Venture: Men And Women On The Southern Frontier (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Univ., 1994).
(27.) Baker, Black Slavery; Leonard Dinnerstein, Natives and Strangers: Blacks, Indians, and Immigrants in America (New York: Oxford Univ., 1990); Grant Foreman, Indian Removal: The Emigration of The Five Civilized Tribes of Indians (Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma, 1986); Grant Foreman, The Five Civilized Tribes: Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Seminole (Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma Press, 1977); Laurence Foster, Negro-Indian Relationships in the Southeast (New York: AMS Press, 1978); Halliburton, Red Over Black; Daniel F. Littlefield, Africans and Seminoles: From Removal to Emancipation (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1977); Daniel F. Littlefield, Africans and Creeks: From the Colonial Period to the Civil War (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1979); Daniel F. Littlefield, The Chickasaw Freedmen: A People Without a Country (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1980); Daniel F. Littlefield, The Cherokee Freedmen: From Emancipation to Citizenship (Westport, CT: Greenwood, 1980); Kenneth Wiggins Porter, The Black Seminoles: History of a Freedom-Seeking People (Gainesville: Univ. of Florida, 1996); William E. Dodd, The Cotton Kingdom: A Chronicle of the Old South (New York: United States Publishers, 1978); John Hebron Moore, The Emergence of the Cotton Kingdom in the Old Southwest: Mississippi, 1770-1860 (Baton Rouge: LSU, 1988); Kenneth M. Stampp, The Peculiar Institution: Slavery In the Ante-Bellum South (New York: Vintage Books, 1989).
(28.) Stampp, The Peculiar Institution; William Edward Burghardt. Du Bois, Suppression of the African Slave Trade to the United States (New York: Schocken, 1969); Warren S. Howard, “The United States Government and the African Slave Trade, 1837-1862,” (Ph.D. Diss., UCLA, 1959); Frederic Bancroft, Slave Trading in The Old South (New York: Ungar, 1969); Paul Finkelman, Slave Trade and Migration: Domestic and Foreign (New York: Garland, 1989); Winfield H. Collins, The Domestic Slave Trade of the Southern States (Port Washington, NY: Kennikat, 1969).
(29.) Laurence M. Hauptman, The Iroquois in the Civil War: From Battlefield to Reservation (Syracuse: Syracuse Univ., 1993); Laurence M. Hauptman, “Into the Abyss,” Civil War Times 35 (February 1997): 46-59; P. K. Rose, “The Civil War: Black American Contributions to Union Intelligence,” Studies In Intelligence (Winter 1998-1999): 73-80; Daniel K. Hauptman Richter, “The Iroquois in the Civil War,” Western Historical Quarterly 24 (November 1993): 571; Benjamin Quarles, The Negro in the Civil War (New York: Da Capo, 1989); Herbert Aptheker, The Negro in the Civil War (New York: International Publishers, 1962); Alan Axelrod, The War Between the Spies: A History of Espionage During the American Civil War (New York: Atlantic Monthly, 1992); Ervin L. Jordan, Black Confederates and Afro-Yankees in Civil War Virginia (Charlottesville, VA: Univ. Press of Virginia, 1995); Donald E. Markle, Spies and Spymasters of the Civil War (New York: Hippocrene, 1995); Time Life Books, Spies, Scouts, and Raiders: Irregular Operations (Alexandria, VA: Time Life Books, 1993); U.S. War Department, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington: Government Printing, 1880-1901).
(30.) Philip Durham and Everett L. Jones, The Negro Cowboys (Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska, 1983); Hardaway, African-American Frontier; Schwartz, Across the Rio; Norman L. Crockett, The Black Towns (Lawrence: Regents Press of Kansas, 1979); Hamilton, Black Towns and Profit; Nell E. Painter, Exodusters: Black Migration to Kansas after Reconstruction (New York: Norton, 1992).
(31.) John M. Carroll, Buffalo Soldiers West (Fort Collins, Colorado: The Old Army Press, 1971); John M. Carroll, The Black Military Experience in the American West (New York: Liveright, 1973); Arlen L. Fowler, The Black Infantry in the West 1869-1891 (Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma, 1996); William H. Leckie, The Buffalo Soldiers: A Narrative of the Negro Cavalry in the West (Norman: Univ. of Oklahoma, 1967).
(32.) Leckie, The Buffalo Soldiers.
(33.) Robert L. Zangrando, The NAACP Crusade Against Lynching, 1909-1980 (Philadelphia: Temple Univ., 1980); Nancy J, Weiss, The National Urban League, 1910-1940 (New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1974); Alferdteen Harrison ed., Black Exodus: The Great Migration From the American South (Jackson: Univ. Press of Mississippi, 1991); C. Vann Woodward, The Strange Career of Jim Crow (New York: Oxford Univ., 1974); E. David Cronon, Black Moses: The Story of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Madison: Univ. of Wisconsin, 1981); Tony Martin, Race First: The Ideological and Organizational Struggles of Marcus Garvey and the Universal Negro Improvement Association (Dover: MA: Majority, 1986); Kerry Candaele, Bound for Glory: From the Great Migration to the Harlem Renaissance, 1910-1930 (New York: Chelsea, 1996); Laurence M. Hauptman, ed., The Lake Mohonk Conference on the Negro Question: Guide to the Annual Reports (New York: Clearwater, 1975); Laurence M. Hauptman ed., The Lake Mohonk Conference on International Arbitration, 1895-1910 (Lake Mohonk, NY: The Conference, 1916).
(34.) Bruce Perry, Malcolm: The Life of a Man Who Changed Black America (New York: Station Hills, 1991); Alphonso Pinkney, Red Black and Green: Black Nationalism in the United States (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ., 1978); Stokley Carmichael and Charles Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation in America (Harmondsworth, England: Penguin, 1969); Bobby Scale, Seize the Time: The Story of the Black Panther Party and Huey P. Newton (Baltimore: Black Classic, 1991).
Arwin D. Smallwood, Assistant Professor of History, Director of African American Studies, Bradley University
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