The Journal Of Nutrition – pregnancy and nutrition

The Journal Of Nutrition – pregnancy and nutrition – Brief Article

Vol 131, March 2001

* Folate status during pregnancy in women is improved by long-term high vegetable intake compared with the average Western die.. C. Koebnick, U.A. Hems, I. Hoffmann, P.C. Dagnelie, and C. Leitzmann. 733-739.

* Wheat bran and soy protein feeding do not alter urinary excretion of the isoflavan equol in premenopausal women. J.W. Lampe, HE. Skor, S. Li, K. Wahala. W.N. Howald, and C. Chen 740-744.

* Red wine is a poor source of bioavailable flavonols in men. J.H.M. de Vries, P.C.H. Hollman, I. van Amersfoort, M.R. Olthof, and M.B. Katan. 745-748.

* An assessment of various household food security measures in Hawaii has implications for national food security research and monitoring. J.P. Derrickson, A.G. Fisher, J.E.L. Anderson, and A.C. Brown. 749-757.

[] Understanding needs is important for assessing the impact of food assistance program participation on nutritional and health status in U.S. elderly persons. J.S. Lee and E.A. Frongillo Jr. 765-773.

[] Fatty acid composition of adipose tissue and serum lipids are valid biological markers of dairy fat intake in men. A. Wolk, M. Furuheim, and B. Vessby. 828-833.

Vol 131, March 2001, Supplement 3S

[] Recent advances on the nutritional effects associated with the use of garlic as a supplement. Proceedings of the conference held November 15-17, 1998 in Newport Beach, California. J.A. Milner and R.S. Rivlin, guest eds. 951S-1123S.

Long-term vegetable intake and folate status during pregnancy In the long term and provided vitamin B-12 intake is adequate, high intake of vegetables increases plasma folate and red blood cell (RBC) folate levels throughout pregnancy and reduces the risk of folate deficiency. Subjects were 109 pregnant women who had adhered to a predominantly vegetarian diet with high vegetable intake for a mean 8.0[+ or -]0.5 years (27 lacto-ovovegetarians and 43 low-meat eaters) and 39 pregnant women who ate a typical Western diet (control subjects). Four-day food records were obtained and plasma and RBC folate levels were measured between weeks 9 and 12, 20 and 22, and 36 and 38 of gestation. Plasma and RBC folate levels were highest in lacto-ovovegetarians, intermediate in low-meat eaters, and lowest in control subjects. Compared with control subjects, lacto-ovovegetarians and low- meat eaters had a lower risk of folate deficiency (RBC folate level [less than]320 nmol/L, odds ratio = 0.10 and 0.52, respectively). In lact o-ovovegetarians, RBC folate level was significantly positively related to intake of vitamin B-12 (correlation coefficient = 0.51).

Red wine vs other dietary sources of flavonols Flavonols (polyphenolic antioxidants) from red wine are absorbed, but because a glass of red wine provides fewer available flavonols than a portion of onions or a glass of tea, red wine appears to be a relatively poor source of flavonols. The bioavailability of flavonols, especially quercetin, from red wine was compared with that from the major dietary sources, yellow onions and black tea. Twelve healthy men consumed 750 mL red wine (six 125-mL glasses), 50 g fried onions, or 375 mL black tea daily in random order for 4 days each with a 3-day washout period between each supplement. These supplements provided similar amounts of quercetin (14 to 16 mg/day). Throughout the study subjects ate a diet low in other dietary flavonols. Plasma quercetin level was not significantly different after subjects drank wine vs tea but was significantly lower after subjects drank wine than after they ate onions. Urinary excretion of quercetin was not significantly different after s ubjects drank wine vs ate onions and was significantly higher after subjects drank wine vs tea.

Assessment of various household food security measures in Hawaii This study suggests that the Core Food Security Module (CFSM), the national food security monitoring tool, may not have adequate validity and should be reassessed. This study assessed the credibility of applying the CFSM in Hawaii and compared the concurrent validity of the CFSM with 3 alternative food security measures: an adapted Radimer/Cornell (RC) measure, an adapted Community Childhood Hunger Identification Project (CCHIP) measure, and the Face Valid Food Security Measure (FVFSM). Subjects were 1,469 respondents gathered through a statewide telephone sample and 144 food pantry recipients. Responses to the 18 CFSM questions were used to create all 4 measures. The credibility of the CFSM categorical measure was also assessed via comparisons with individual items and with the 1995 national modal CFSM response pattern. Although 85% of households were classified as food secure by the CFSM, only 78% were classified as food secure with each of th e other food security measures. Concurrent validity of all measures was confirmed.

COPYRIGHT 2001 American Dietetic Association

COPYRIGHT 2001 Gale Group