Academic experiences of African American males in an urban midwest foster care system, The

academic experiences of African American males in an urban midwest foster care system, The

Tate, Steven C

ABSTRACT

The social studies has a wealth of opportunity and the responsibility to create equitable learning environments for diverse populations. It is a discipline well suited for the introduction of versatile pedagogy by culturally competent social studies instructors who adapt to students’ cognitive abilities and behavioral aptitude. Perhaps no group is in greater need of specialized learning opportunities than the subjects of this study, African American males living in foster care.

Past studies have shown that African American males in general and African American males in foster care in particular are lagging behind other children in the classroom (Dubowitz & Sawyer, 1994; Mech, 1994; James-Brown, 1995). An aggregate of factors may be responsible for the academic struggles of African American males, including poor ecological conditions in the home and neighborhood, feelings of inferiority, lack of compatibility between preferred learning styles and teacher instructional methods, and ambiguous teacher posturing. African American males in foster care face similar impediments to academic success plus additional obstacles associated with living in foster care. Research has shown that this group is over represented and under serviced members of the child welfare system (Woodley-Brown & Bailey-Etta, 1997).

This study examined impediments to academic achievement for African American males in foster care. Data was collected from the Ohio Proficiency Test and from questionnaires distributed to foster parents and social workers. Test scores for African American males in foster care were compared with test scores for a number of other groups on the fourth, sixth, and ninth grade proficiency tests. Questionnaires asked foster parents and social workers to rate the impact of various aspects of foster care on academic achievement for African American males in foster care. The study found that African American males in foster care achieved consistently lower scores than the comparison groups on most portions of the proficiency test, and differences were significant in many cases.

Introduction

In this country, the academic experiences of African American males in foster care are unlike the experiences of any other group in or outside the foster care system. They are subject to the same barriers which seem to confound and encumber the academic progress of many African American males while also being subjected to a host of barriers unique to their status as foster children. These children are faced with the task of overcoming obstacles to academic achievement imposed by the education system, plus they must grapple with an assortment of obstacles as over-represented and under-serviced members of the child welfare system (Woodley-Brown and Bailey– Etta, 1997). African American males are absent from and dropping out of school at unparalleled rates and they are placed in the foster care system more frequently and stay longer than other populations (JamesBrown, 1995; Public Children Services Association of Ohio, 1996). Inherent in this volatile combination is the capacity for academic chaos among African American males in foster care.

To determine if foster care is contributing to irregular academic results for African American males in foster care, a study was conducted in a Midwestern, urban center. Studies examining the relationship between academic achievement and foster care have been conducted previously but none has specifically addressed the concerns of African American males, the group seemingly impacted the most by out-of-home placement. The present study focused on African American males as it empirically examined the relationship between academic achievement and foster care. Specifically, fourth, sixth, and ninth grade proficiency test results for African American males in foster care were compared with the proficiency results of four other groups of students: all African American male students, all African American students, all male students, and all students. Eligible study participants included all those attending a selected Midwestern, urban school system (student enrollment of approximately 60,000). Data were also collected through questionnaires distributed to social workers and foster parents employed by a children’s services agency located in the same county as the school system. The questionnaires asked both groups to rate the impact of various aspects of the foster care system on the academic achievement of African American males.

Proficiency Test Results

Effective social studies pedagogy, perhaps more so than any field of study, recognizes the influences of culture on the learning process. Social studies instructors must consider the impact of group and institutional ideologies on student cognition and behavior in creating comforting classrooms and equitable learning opportunities. Only those instructors who are culturally competent are able to achieve these objectives. Instructors who understand how to engage and communicate with students at the cultural level are able to create classrooms that are responsive to the needs of diverse groups. The nature of the social studies increases the likelihood that a moniker of cultural competence be genuinely applied to innovative instructors in this discipline.

In the present study, data indicate that the primary subjects of this study, African American males in foster care, are not being served by culturally competent instructors or child welfare workers. Proficiency test results seem to support the literature from similar studies which shows foster children lapsing academically. African American male foster children in this study scored below the comparison groups in 54 of 60 comparisons made of the Ohio Proficiency Test The primary exception was in writing (see table 1) where African American males in foster care achieved higher means than African American males on the fourth and sixth grade writing tests and a higher mean than males on the sixth grade writing test. On the fourth grade writing test, the mean score for African American males in foster care was 4.2, exceeding the mean score of 4.1 for African American males. On the sixth grade writing test, African American males in foster care achieved means equal to or higher than all four-comparison groups. The mean of 5.0 that African American males in foster care achieved equaled the means of all students and African Americans and exceeded the mean of 4.7 achieved by males and African American males. These differences were not significant.

In the remaining comparisons of the proficiency test for writing, the mean scores of African American males in foster care were lower than other groups. On the fourth grade writing test, the mean scores of males (4.3), African American students (4.4), and all students (4.5) were non-significantly higher than the mean of 4.2 achieved by African American males in foster care. On the ninth grade writing test, African American males in foster care achieved a mean score of 4.8, which was lower, although nonsignificantly, than the mean of African American males (5.1). It was, however, significantly lower than the means of African Americans (5.3) and all students (5.4) at the .01 level and significantly below the mean of males (5.2) at the .05 level.

(Table 1 goes about here).

On the reading proficiency test, African American males in foster care achieved lower scores than the comparison groups at each grade level (see table 2). On the fourth grade reading test, the mean of 198.8 achieved by African American males in foster care was not significantly less than the mean of 208.9 achieved by all students, the mean of 206.4 achieved by males, the mean of 205.5 achieved by African Americans, and the mean of 202.4 achieved by African American males. On the sixth grade reading test, African American males in foster care achieved a mean of 177.4. That was significantly below the means of three It was also less, but not significantly, than the mean of 187.2 achieved by African American males. A similar pattern was found for the ninth grade proficiency test for reading where African American males in foster care achieved a mean significantly lower than all four comparison groups. The means of males (204.7), African Americans (204.8), and all students (208.0) were all significantly higher C12

(Table 2 goes about here).

On the mathematics proficiency test, African American males in foster care achieved scores closer to the means of the comparison groups (see table 3). In fact, the mean of 195.2 achieved by African American males in foster care on the fourth grade math proficiency test equaled the mean achieved by African American males. It was still less than the means of African Americans (196.5), males (201.9), and all students (202.6). However, these differences were significant. Similar results were found for the sixth grade math proficiency test. Non-significant differences were found between the means of African American males in foster care (161.8) and African American males (166.7), African Americans (169.3), and males (174.1). A significant difference was found at the .05 level between the mean of African American males in foster care and the mean *111 students (176.3). On the ninth grade math proficiency test, African

American males in foster care achieved a significantly lower mean (175.9) at the .01 level than the means of African Americans (187.2), African American males (187.5), all students (191.7), and males (192.7).

(Table 3 goes about here).

On the fourth grade science proficiency test, all students achieved a significantly higher mean (196.6) than African American males in foster care (175.9) at the .05 level (see table 4). The means of African Americans (188.4), African American males (186.0), and males (195.2) were non-significantly higher than the mean of African American males in foster care. On the sixth grade science test, no significant differences were found among mean scores. African American males in foster care achieved a mean of 170.7, as compared to a mean of 173.0 for African American males, 175.4 for African Americans, 179.0 for males, and 180.5 for all students. On the ninth grade science test, African American males in foster care once again achieved the lowest mean (185.3). This score was significantly less at the .05 level than the means of African American males (193.2) and African Americans (193.3). It was significantly less at the .01 level than the means of all students (197.2) and males (197.9).

(Table 4 goes about here).

Similar to the reading and math proficiency tests, African American males in foster care achieved the lowest means among the five groups examined in the study in each grade level of the citizenship proficiency test (see table 5). In fourth grade, African American males in foster care achieved a mean of204.3. That score was lower, but not significantly, than the means of African American males (208.6), African Americans (210.8), males (214.8), and all students (216.0). Likewise, no significant differences were found on the sixth grade citizenship test. Means included 183.2 for African American males in foster care, 185.2 for African American males, 188.5 for African Americans, 190.5 for males, and 193.1 for all students. Finally, on the ninth grade citizenship test, African American males achieved a mean (185.3) that was significantly less than the mean of all four comparison groups (Q

(Table 5 goes about here). Foster Parent and Social Worker Questionnaire Results

Literature from similar studies has indicated that foster parents and social workers are critical to the academic success of foster children (Mech, 1994; Evans, 1996). Armed with this knowledge, the present study examined the perceptions of foster parents and social workers regarding impediments to academic achievement for African American males in foster care. Foster parents and social workers were as e to complete a questionnaire which, in-part, use a seven-point liekert Scale to rate the impact of assorted facets of foster care placement on academic achievement for African American males in foster care. The foster parent questionnaire included 16 subject areas while the social worker questionnaire included 17 subject areas (see table 6). Means from foster parent and social worker questionnaires less than 3.5 were considered to be benefits to academic achievement, means between 3.5 and 4.5 were considered to be neither benefits nor obstacles to academic achievement, while means greater than 4.5 were considered to be obstacles to academic achievement.

This study found that foster parents and social workers generally agreed on which subject areas were benefits to academic achievement, which were obstacles, and which were neither. In fact,the two groups agreed on the top two benefits, but reversed the order of importance, and on the greatest obstacle to academic achievement. Social workers indicated that keeping African American males in their original foster homes throughout placement is the top benefit to academic achievement (X = 1.98), followed by placement with siblings in the same foster home (X = 2.63). Foster parents rated placement with siblings in the same foster home as being the most beneficial to academic achievement (X = 2.53), followed by keeping African American males in their original foster home throughout placement (X = 2.58). Social workers and foster parents agreed that removing an African American male from his foster home to place him in another foster home represented the greatest obstacle to academic achievement (X = 5.31 and 5.27, respectively).

The similarities do not end there. Social Workers rated 8 of the 17 subject areas on their questionnaire as neither benefits nor obstacles to academic achievement for African American males in foster care. Foster parents gave neutral ratings to 8 of the 16 subject areas. Foster parents judged 5 subject areas to be benefits to achievement, while social workers gave beneficial ratings to 7 subject areas. Foster parents thought that 3 subject areas were obstacles to academic achievement; social workers indicated that only 2 areas were )( obstacles (see table 6). Both foster parents and social workers agreed that placing an African American male in a foster home that is located in a new neighborhood is more beneficial to academic achievement than placement in a foster home that is located in the same neighborhood as the child’s previous home. Foster parents and social workers rated the former area as a benefit to achievement (X =3.39 and 3.48, respectively). Foster parents rated the latter area as an obstacle, while foster parents said it was neither a benefit nor an obstacle (X = 4.89 and 4.29, respectively). In slight contrast to but not significantly different than those perspectives, foster parents and social workers agreed that keeping African American males in the same schools when they are placed in new foster homes is more beneficial to academic achievement (X = 3.81 and 3.46, respectively) than placement in the same neighborhood. There were additional areas of non significant disagreement in the ratings of foster parents and social workers. Those areas include: entrance into foster care; contact between African American males in foster care and their biological/custodial parents; the reunification of African American males in foster care with their biological/custodial parents; and the effects of placing African American males in new schools when they are placed in new foster homes.

(Table 6 goes about here).

This study found significant differences between the ratings of foster parents and social workers in three subject areas (see table 7). Foster parents rated placement in foster care while of high school age as an obstacle to achievement (X = 5.05), while social workers concluded that this subject area was neither a benefit nor an obstacle to achievement (X = 4.13). This difference was significant at the .01 level. For middle school African American males, foster parents viewed placement in foster care as neither a benefit nor an obstacle (X = 4.30). Although social workers also assigned a neutral rating to this area (X = 3.64), the difference between the ratings of the two groups was significant at the .05 level. There was one other area in which a significant difference was found. Social workers and foster parents had a significant difference of opinion regarding the impact of an increasing length of stay in foster care. Social workers saw it as a benefit to academic achievement for African American males in foster care (X = 3.21), while foster parents saw it as being neither a benefit nor an obstacle (X = 4.10). This difference was significant at the .05 level.

(Table 7 goes about here).

It appears that foster parents and social workers believed that placement in foster care poses significantly more obstacles to academic achievement for older African American mates than for younger African American males (see table 8). For African American males of elementary age, foster parents and social workers rated placement in foster care as a benefit to achievement (X = 3.07 and 3.09, respectively). As previously documented, social workers and foster parents rated the placement of middle school-aged African American males in foster care as a benefit to achievement. Social workers thought that placement of high school-aged African American males in foster care was neither a benefit nor an obstacle to academic achievement while foster parents rated this area as an obstacle. In combining the means of the two groups, placement of elementary school-aged children received a mean of 3.06, placement of middle school-aged children received a mean of 3.93, and placement of high school-aged children received a mean of 4.57. The combined mean for elementary-aged children was significantly less than the combined means for middle and high school– aged children (Q

(Table 8 goes about here).

There were subjects areas unique to each questionnaire. Foster parents were asked about the effect of participation in extracurricular activities on academic achievement while social workers were not. In asking this question exclusively of foster parents, it was expected that they would have insight in this subject area that social workers would not have. Social workers, on the other hand, were asked about the results of placing African American mates with foster parents whose levels of education exceed or are less than the education levels of the biological/custodial parents. Foster parents rated involvement in extracurricular activities as a benefit to academic achievement for African American males in foster care (X = 2.68). Social workers thought that placement of African American males with foster parents whose education levels exceed those of the youth’s biological vs. custodial parents is beneficial to academic achievement (X = 2.65). By comparison, social workers rated placement of African American youth in foster homes where the foster parents’ education level was less than the education levels of the biological parents as an obstacle to academic achievement CX = 5.20).

Literature which indicated a frequent disregard for the educational needs of foster children led to a third area of examination (Tennyson, 1994; Colton and Heath, 1994). In an effort to determine the extent of interaction among foster parents, social workers, and educators and such interaction might influence views of impediments to academic achievement for African American males in foster care, this study asked the following question: Do differences exist in how foster parents and social workers perceive impediments to academic achievement for African American males in foster care based on their experiences with the child welfare system and the education system?

This study found that, in only one instance, did significant differences exist in the perceptions of foster parents based on their experiences with the child welfare system (see table 9). Data show that respondents with more experience as foster parents indicated that contact between an African American male and his biological/custodial parents is beneficial to achievement, whereas foster parents with less experience thought that this subject area was neither a benefit nor an obstacle. The average mean in this subject area for foster parents with at least 15 years of experience but less than 20 years was 1.75; the mean for foster parents with more than 20 years of experience was 2.50. Means for foster parents with less experience included 4.85 for those with 5 years of experience or less, 4.29 for those with at least 5 years of experience but less than 10, and 4.14 for those with at least 10 years of experience but less than 15. The combined mean of foster parents with 15 or more years of experience was 2.0, compared to a combined mean of 4.46 for foster parents with less than 15 years of experience. These means were found to be significantly different (Q

(Table 9 goes about here).

No additional effects were found. In no other case could it be said that differences exist in how foster parents and social workers perceive impediments to academic achievement based on their experiences with the child welfare and education systems. Data show that the responses of social workers and foster parents were largely unaffected by other demographic factors, including the frequency with which the two groups discuss foster children’s academic progress with teachers or school administrators and the degree to which the respondents are familiar with school officials, school policies concerning foster children, and services available to foster children.

Qualitative Results

The lone qualitative component to this study came in the form of a single question on the foster parent and social worker questionnaires. The question was the same for both groups and asked that they provide additional information and comments that might further this study. Relatively few respondents chose to take advantage of this opportunity. This section includes some of the more salient comments that were received from social workers and foster parents.

Social Workers

“The child must have the thirst to learn, the ability to learn, and the support of biological and foster parents.”

“Many African American males in foster care don’t have educated role models.”

“It’s difficult to teach them the value of hard work and the results it can produce when a foster child is in middle or high school.”

“There are other variables that can affect academic achievement for African American males in foster care, such as: cultural placement, length of stay in good care v. bad care, medication, attendance and performance prior to placement, and the number of school changes in a given year.”

“The school district that the child is in influences success.”

“The key is for foster parents to look at and discuss the child’s school work daily, help and check his homework, and frequently talk with teachers.”

“Most children enter foster care with poor academics. Children generally continue or exceed their levels of academic performance after they enter foster care.”

“The age of the child when placed is an important factor.”

Foster Parents

“There is so much anger in African American males in foster care.”

“I believe that the success of a child in foster care has to do with how long the child has lived in a negative situation before he or she was removed. Without supervision, love, and direction the child will pick up bad habits that are much more difficult to change as they grow older. The earlier the child is removed from these kinds of situations the better chance you have to correct the behavior.”

“I had an African American male foster child in his senior year of high school. It was the best year of school he ever had.”

“My experiences as a foster parent tell me that the African American youth are the ones that need more help and attention because of the difficult problems and changes that they go through from being in foster care. I have found that the ones who need the most help are the 10 to 16 year-olds. I think they need to be around family members but agencies try to keep them apart. ”

“Sometimes contact with the biological family can cause inappropriate behaviors and stress for the children.”

“There are no programs in place to help these kids go to college. I have three foster children. We talk about college but I can’t afford to send them. Please help me!”

“We have to take into consideration what was going on with the child academically before he entered foster care. Were there any learning disabilities or behavior problems?”

“Sometimes placement in foster care can be the saving grace for these kids academically and otherwise.”

“African American males in foster care feel that no one cares about them, like they are alone. Consequently, they must grow up faster than some of their male counterparts who live at home.” “Of the five males that I had, all were good academically but only two that I know of have high school diplomas.”

“We have fostered approximately 120 foster children, 90 percent have been male. Children who weren’t tutored regularly quit trying. Tutors, in my opinion, would make a huge difference.”

“Many foster children could experience athletic success but poor grades keep them from participating.”

“Foster children are often labeled by school administrators as ‘one of those foster kids.’ Some sensitivity training is suggested.”

Implications

This study has provided data that can be used by educators and child welfare representatives to enhance learning opportunities for African American males in foster care. Previous studies have shown that African American males are under serviced members of the child welfare system (Woodley-Brown and Bailey– Etta, 1997; James-Brown, 1995). A consequence of that oversight can be seen in this study. Findings from this study clearly present a need for greater investments by educators and social service representatives in the academic concerns of African American males in foster care. Results from proficiency tests which show African American males in foster care underachieving academically in comparison to other students illustrate the importance of more individualized learning opportunities. Among suggested learning opportunities are on-going, highly personalized tutorials in core subjects areas, workshops, and additional preparations for proficiency exams. Other opportunities for improving the academic services available to these children include supportive services that are based in the African American community, such as after school programs. These additional opportunities should be formally instituted rather than casually applied. They should become staples in the case plans of social workers and in the lesson plans of teachers. Administrators from education and child welfare must endeavor to create policies that are attuned to the inordinate needs of African American males in foster care and which mandate implementation of supportive mechanisms. Support of this nature is essential if African American males in foster care are no longer to be “under serviced” and if they are to achieve greater academic success.

Data collected from questionnaires completed by foster parents and social workers suggest that placement in foster care is less detrimental to academic achievement for younger African American males than for older African American males. Findings from the questionnaires are supported in this study by results from the Ohio Proficiency Test, which show fewer significant differences among the means of African American males in foster care and the comparison groups on the fourth grade test than on the sixth and ninth grade tests. Data which indicate that the academic challenges of African American males in foster care are likely to increase with age demand more intensive, abiding support for the academic, social, and emotional needs of older children in this group.

Child welfare agencies must consider providing educational training for foster parents so that they are able to properly assist older children with their academic responsibilities. Foster parents should be provided with financial support and encouraged to further their own education, whether it’s to complete a GED or to earn an undergraduate or graduate degree. Older African American males in foster care must be provided the same type of support. It is recommended that they are supported emotionally and financially by child welfare agencies beyond the age of emancipation (typically 18-21). Many African American males in foster care lack training and have an insufficient academic background to succeed professionally at emancipation. Thus, support for progressing academic pursuits is strongly another implication for practice is found in the inference of foster parents and social workers that African American males in foster care would benefit academically from remaining in one foster home throughout their stay in child welfare. It is, therefore, decisively important that social services representatives strive to curb trends seen in previous studies which point to high levels of turmoil for African American males in foster care (Woodley– Brown and Bailey Etta, 1997). If the perceptions of foster parents and social workers are correct, fewer disruptions will lead to improved academic performance for African American males in foster care.

Similarly, this study found that African American males in foster care would benefit academically by remaining in the same school when a placement disruption occurs. As a result, foster care officials should endeavor to find foster homes within the same district, or at least within close proximity, whenever disruptions occur. If new placements within the same districts are not possible but placements within close proximity are, school officials and foster care officials should collaborate to remove barriers to children attending the same schools, such as those created by transportation issues or school district boundaries. The removal of an African American male from his foster home in and of itself creates enough emotional trauma; the added pressure of adapting to a new school environment should be eliminated when possible.

Data collected for this study attest to a need for increased interaction between educators and social workers. Eighty-five percent of social workers participating in this study report that they are only somewhat familiar, not very familiar, or unfamiliar with school officials, school policies concerning foster children, and services available to foster children. That compares to 30 percent of foster parents who reported likewise. Consequently, case plans for African American males in foster care should include regularly scheduled meetings between social workers and educators (teachers and administrators alike). This type of increased interaction has the potential to create winwin situations. Educators are likely to gain a greater understanding of the social challenges confronting African American males in foster care; social workers are likely to improve their awareness of academic challenges facing the children they serve; and African American males in foster care are likely to improve their levels of achievement from the increased attention to their academic needs.

Summary

The social studies discipline has incontrovertible opportunities and obligations to provide culturally sensitive learning opportunities for students of diverse backgrounds. Culturally competent pedagogy involves the use of instructional practices that are grounded in an awareness of the academic needs of students in and outside the mainstream. The social studies is readily suited to this outcome. It permits instructors to successfully adopt content and methods that meet students at their respective cultural levels, thus creating greater opportunities for academic achievement.

The present study found that culturally sensitive learning opportunities may not be available to African American males in foster care. This study found that African American males in foster care earned lower scores than the comparison groups on most sections of the fourth, sixth, and ninth grade proficiency tests. In many cases, the differences were significant. Results from this study appear to support research which shows younger foster children achieving greater academic success than older children (Folman, 1995). In this study, no significant differences were found between the mean of African American males in foster care and the means of the comparison groups in any area of the fourth grade proficiency test. However, on the sixth and ninth grade proficiency tests, significant differences were commonplace. These results also appear to support the findings of previous studies which indicate that the academic functioning of foster children is routinely below grade and/or age levels (Dubowitz and Sawyer, 1994; Mech, 1994; Jeffers, 1996). The means of African American males in foster care were below or significantly below the means of other students in 54 of the 60 comparisons made in this study. Based on these results, it can be said that differences do exist in academic achievement between African American males in foster care and the groups to whom they were compared in this study.

This study found that foster parents and social workers share remarkably similar perceptions of the influences of foster care on academic achievement for African American males. The two groups agreed on the top two benefits and the single greatest obstacle to academic achievement. Findings from this study indicate that foster parents and social workers believe that older foster children are more likely than younger foster children to struggle academically. That view is supported by proficiency test data collected for this study, which also show that older African American males in foster care are more likely than younger members of this population to struggle academically.

The results of the present study indicate that foster parents and social workers perceived many aspects of foster care placement to be neither beneficial nor a hindrance to academic achievement for African American males. A few aspects of foster care were perceived to be benefits while still fewer were perceived to be obstacles. Based on the results found here, it can be argued that there are few differences in the perceptions of foster parents and social workers regarding impediments to academic achievement for African American males.

Several recommendations were made based on the present study’s findings. It was recommended that educators and child welfare representatives collaborate to develop policies and programs designed to support the inordinate needs of African American males in foster care, including tutorials, workshops, additional preparation for proficiency tests, and inclusion in after school programs based in the African American community. It was argued that support of this nature is essential if African American males in foster care are to achieve greater academic success.

References

Colton, M., & Heath, A. (1994). Attainment and behavior of children in care and at home. Oxford Review of Education. 20_(3), 317-327.

Dubowitz, H., & Sawyer, R. (1994). School performance of children in kinship care. .Q!il.Q Abuse and Neglect. 18.587-597.

Evans, B.D. (1996). The impact of systematic shortcomings in the child protection services on youth in foster care (Doctoral dissertation, Walden University, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts International. 57 (03), A1089.

James-Brown, F .L. (1995). The Black male crisis in the classroom: A qualitative study of the educational experiences of Black male students as perceived by the students themselves, their teachers, and parents (Doctoral dissertation, The Ohio State University, 1995). Dissertation Abstracts International. 56 (06), A2109.

Jeffers, V.R. (1996). Tutoring foster care adolescents in reading, mathematics, and selfesteem skills, utilizing individualized and small group approaches (Doctoral dissertation, Howard University, 1996). Dissertation Abstracts International. 57 08), A3377.

Mech, E. V. (1994). Foster youths in transition: research perspectives on preparation for independent living. Child Welfare. 73 (5), 603-623.

Public Children Services Association of Ohio. (1996, October). The Child Protection Mission: Safe Children and Stable Families. Columbus, OR Author.

Tennyson, S.D. (1994). Youths of color in the San Francisco foster care system (predominantly African-American): vocational and career aspirations and interests (Doctoral dissertation, University of San Francisco, 1994). Dissertation Abstracts International. 57 (08), A5393.

Woodley-Brown, A., & Bailey-Etta, B. (1997). An out-of-home care system in crisis:

Implications for African American children in the child welfare system. Child Welfare 00094021.65-83

Steven C. Tate, University of Michigan-Dearborn

Copyright University of Northern Iowa Fall 2001

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