Volatile components of sapodilla fruit (Manilkara achras L.)

Volatile components of sapodilla fruit (Manilkara achras L.)

Pino, Jorge A

Abstract

The volatile components of sapodilla fruit, which were isolated by simultaneous steam distillation/solvent extraction with diethyl ether, were identified by a combination of retention indices and GC/MS. Sixty-nine constituents were identified in the aroma concentrate, from which methanethiol (32.0%), hexadecanoic acid (26.3%), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (6.8%), ethyl acetate (6.0%) and isoamyl alcohol (5.9%) were found to be the major constituents.

Key Word Index

Manilkara achras, Sapotaceae, sapodilla fruit, fruit volatiles, methanethiol, hexadecanoic acid.

Plant Name

Manilkara achras L. (Sapotaceae). Local name: nispero.

Source

The sapodilla fruits were collected at full maturity in La Habana in August.

Previous Work

Sapodilla fruit is a native of the tropical Americas and probably originated in southern Mexico or Central America. From there it spread to other tropical and subtropical regions of the world (1). Sapodilla is a highly delicious fruit, sweet in taste, with a slight astringency. Its pulp is soft and crumbling with a sandy, granular texture and its aroma is very delicate. In an aroma extract of sapodilla fruit, about 50 components have been identified (2).

Present Work

Fresh fruit mesocarp (250 g) from five ripe fruits was homogenized in a glass Waring blender with distilled water. The homogenate was continuously steam distilled-diethyl ether extracted in a Likens-Nickerson apparatus for 90 min. The extract (25 mL) was dried over anhydrous sodium sulphate, concentrated using a Kuderna-Danish concentrator and finally, reduced to a volume of about 0.2 mL under a gentle steam of nitrogen.

GC/MS analyses were performed on a Fissons Trio 1000 equipped with a Supelco 10 fused silica column (60 m x 0.25 mm, 0.25 µm film thickness). Initial oven temperature, 60°C for 3 min, then to 250°C at 4°C/min and held for 10 min; injector temperature 250°C, and carrier gas, 1 mL/min. Inlet and ion source temperature were 260°C and mass spectra were registered at 70 eV Constituents were identified by comparison of their mass spectra with those in NBS and our IDENT data base, and confirmed in many compounds, by their relative retention indices.

The yield of total volatiles, estimated by the addition of a measured amount of methyl undecanoate (internal standard) to the sample prior to extraction, was 21.7 mg/kg. A complete list of the compounds identified is given in Table I. Seventy constituents were identified in the aroma concentrate, from which methanethiol (32.0%), hexadecanoic acid (26.3%), 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (6.8%), ethyl acetate (6.0%) and isoamyl alcohol (5.9%) were found to be the major constituents.

References

1. S. Lakshminarayana, Sapodilla and prickly pear. In: Tropical and Subtropical Fruits. Edit. S. Nagy and P.E. Shaw, Ch. 12, AVI, Westport, USA (1980).

2. A.J. MacLeod and N. Gonzales de Troconis, Volatile flavor components of sapodilla fruit (Achras sapota L.). J. Agric. Food Chem., 30, 515-517 (1982).

Jorge A. Pino*

Instituto de Investigaciones para la Industria Alimenticia (IIIA), Carr. del Guatao km 3 1/2, La Habana 19200, Cuba

Rolande Marbot

Centro National de Investigaciones Cientificas, Cuba

Juan Aguero

Centro de Quimica-Farmaceutica, Cuba

* Address for correspondence

1041-2905/03/0006-0374$6.00/0-© 2003 Allured Publishing Corp.

Received: November 1998

Revised: April 1999

Accepted: May 1999

Copyright Allured Publishing Corporation Nov/Dec 2003

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