Leaf Oils of Psidium parvifolium Griseb. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine from Cuba

Leaf Oils of Psidium parvifolium Griseb. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine from Cuba

Pino, Jorge A

Abstract

The chemical composition of the leaf oils of Psidium parvifolium Griseb. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine were studied by GC and GC/MS. Twenty volatile compounds were identified in P. parvifolium, of which viridiflorol (31.9%) was the major one. Eighteen compounds were identified in P. cattleianum, of which epi-[alpha]-muurolol (21.9%), [alpha]-cadinol (20.0%), epi-[alpha]-cadinol (16.7%) and caryophyllene oxide (13.6%) were major.

Key Word Index

Psidium parvifolium, Psidium cattleianum, Myrtaceae, leaf oil composition, viridiflorol, epi-[alpha]-muurolol, [alpha]-cadinol, epi-[alpha]-cadinol, caryophyllene oxide.

Introduction

Psidium genus (Myrtaceae) is represented by 120-150 species, distributed mainly in the tropics and subtropics of America and Australia (1). The majority of these species are essential oil -bearing plants. Two species which grow wild in Cuba are P. parvifolium Griseb. and Psidium cattleianum Sabine (2).

Psidium parvifolium is a Cuban endemic bush, having hairy small stems with 3-5 cm orbicular to ovate-orbicular leaves with round to heart-shaped base. The plant is ornamental. Psidium cattleianum is a shrub or tree up to 8 m high. It is frequently planted to harvest fruits which are juicy and have a pleasant tart flavor.

No previous work on the chemical composition of the leaf oils of P. paroifolium has been reported, whereas only one paper about P. cattleianum leaf oil composition has been published (3). In this paper, we have examined the volatile compounds of the leaf oils of these species grown in Cuba.

Experimental

Plants were collected from Pinar del Rio in the western region of Cuba. Voucher specimens have been deposited in the Herbarium of the ISP Pinar del Rio.

Leaves were harvested and dried for 10 days at room temperature. The oil was obtained by hydrodistillation for 5 h in a Clevenger-type apparatus. Yields were 1.00% and 0.51% for P. parvifolium and P. cattleianum, respectively.

The oils were analyzed by GC using a Hewlett-Packard 6890 gas Chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector (FID). The separations were performed using a SPB-5 column (30 m × 0.25 mm, 0.25 µm film thickness) with an oven temperature program of 60°C (2 min), 4°C/min to 250°C (20 min). The carrier gas was helium with a flow-rate of 1 mL/min. The temperature of the injector and detector was 250°C. The injection was made in the split mode (1:10 ratio). The relative amounts of individual components were based on electronic integration of peak areas, without FID response factor correction.

GC/MS analyses were performed with a Hewlett-Packard series 6890 gas Chromatograph equipped with an HP-5973 mass-selective detector. The chromatographic conditions were the same as those described for GC-FID. The detector operated in impact electron mode (70 eV) at 230°C. Detection was performed in the scan mode between 30 and 400 amu. Component identification was carried out by comparing the relative retention indices and mass spectra of reference compounds in both columns. Mass spectra of published data were also compared (4,5).

Results and Discussion

The volatile compounds identified in the leaf oil of P. parvifolium and P. cattleianum from Cuba are tabulated in Table I. Twenty volatile compounds were identified in P. parvifolium, of which viridiflorol (31.9%) was the major one.

Eighteen volatile compounds were identified in P. cattleianum leaf oil, of which epi-[alpha]-muurolol (21.9%), [alpha]-cadinol (20.0%), epi-[alpha]-cadinol (16.7%) and caryophyllene oxide (13.6%) were major. The foliar oil of P. cattleianum has been previously analyzed: high concentration of [beta]-caryophyllene (59.9%) and 10 additional components in minor quantities (3).

References

1. A. Cronquist, An Integrated System of Classification of Flowering Plants. Columbia University Press, New York (1981).

2. A.H. Liogier, Flora de Cuba. Suplemento. The New York Botanical Garden, Institute Cubano del Libro, La Habana (1974).

3. A.O. Tucker, M.J. Maciarello and L.R. Landrum, Volatile leaf oils of American Myrtaceae. III. Psidium catleianum Sabine, P. friedrichsthalianum (Berg) Niedenzu, P. guajava L., P. guineense Sw., and P. sartorianum (Berg) Niedenzu. J. Essent. oil Res., 7, 187-190 (1995).

4. E. Stenhagen, S. Abrahamson and F. McLafferty, Registry of Mass Spectral Data. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York (1974).

5. R.P. Adams, Identification of Essential oil Components by Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectroscopy. Allured Publishing Corp., Carol Stream, IL (1995).

Jorge A. Pino*

Instituto de Investigations para la Industriel Alimenticia, Carr. del Guatao km 3 1/2, C. Habana 19200, Cuba; jperez@iiia.edu.eu

Avilio Bello and Armando Urquiola

Instituto Superior Pedagogico de Pinar del Rio, Cuba

Rolando Marbot

Centra National de Investigations Cientificas, C. Habana, Cuba

M. Pilar Marti

Universidad Ravira i Virgili, Tarragona, Espana

* Address for correspondence

1041-2905/04/0004-0370$6.00/0-© 2004 Allured Publishing Corp.

Received: April 2002

Revised: May 2002

Accepted: july 2002

Copyright Allured Publishing Corporation Jul/Aug 2004

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