JEOR: Essential oil of Cleome coluteoides Boiss. from Iran

Essential oil of Cleome coluteoides Boiss. from Iran

Mazloomifar, Hefzollah


The essential oil hydrodistilled from aerial parts of Cleome coluteoides Boiss. was analyzed by GC/MS. Twenty compounds representing 93.3% of the oil were identified, with piperitone (40.4%), decanal (18.7%) and elemol (9.2%) as main constituents.

Key Word Index

Cleome coluteoides, Capparidaceae, essential oil composition, piperitone, decanal.

Plant Name

Cleome coluteoides Boiss. [Cadaba trinervia DC., Bushea coluteoides (Boiss.) Bge., Bushea trinervia DC.], family Capparidaceae (1).


Aerial parts of C. coluteoides at flowering stage were collected from the Damavand province of Tehran, Iran, in July 1999. A voucher specimen was deposited in the Herbarium of the Department of Botany, Shaheed Beheshti University, Tehran, Iran.

Plant Part

Air-dried flowering aerial parts (130g) were distilled for 3 h using a Clevenger-type apparatus to produce an oil in 0.2% w/w yield.

Previous Work

Sixteen species of the genus Cleone are found in Iran (2). Chemical investigation of some Cleome species have shown triterpenes (3-5) and flavonoids (6,7).

We determined to examine the oil of C. coluteoides because it had not been investigated previously.

Present Work

The oil was analyzed by GC/MS using a Hewlett-Packard 5973 mass selective detector connected with an HP 6890 gas chromatograph. The separation was achieved by capillary column, HP-5 MS (5% phenylmethyl polysiloxane; 30 m x 0.5 mm, film thickness 0.25 (mu)m). The column temperature was kept at 60 deg C for 20 min and programmed to 220 deg C at a rate of 5 deg C/min, and kept constant at 220 deg C for 20 min. The flow rate of helium as carrier gas was 1 mL/min. MS were taken at 70 eV.

Identification of the compounds was made by comparing their mass spectra and retention indices with those given in the literature and authentic samples (8,9). Relative percentage amounts were calculated from TIC data by the computer. The identified constituents and relative percentage can be seen in Table I.

Twenty components were identified in the oil of C. coluteoides, making up 93.3% of the total composition. Piperitone (40.4%), decanal (18.7%) and elemol (9.2%) were the major components in this oil. Thus, the oil consisted of nine monoterpenes (44.3%), seven sesquiterpenes (20.6%) and four aliphatic compounds (28.4%).


We are grateful to V. Mozaffarian for help in indentifying plant material.


1. K.H. Rechinger, Chenopodium. In: Flora Iranica. Capparidaceae. No. 68. Edits., K.H. Rechinger and LC. Hedge, p. 27, P. Akademische Druck and Verlagsanstalt, Graz, Austria (1970).

2. V. Mozaffarian. A Dictionary of Iranian Plant Names. Pp 132-133, Farhang Moaser, Tehran, Iran (1996).

3. V.U. Ahmad and K.A. Alvi, Deacetoxybrachycarpone, a trinortriterpenoid from Cleome brachycarpa. Phytochemistry, 26, 315-316 (1986).

4. F. Tsichritzis, M. Abdel-Mogib and J. Jakupovic, Dammarane triterpenes from Cleome africana. Phytochemistry, 33, 423-425 (1993).

5. V.U. Ahmad, S. Qazi, N.B. Zia, C. Xu and J. Clardy, Cleocarpone, a triterpenoid from Cleome brachycarpa. Phytochemistry, 29, 670-672 (1990).

6. M. Sharaf, M.A. Mansour Ragaa and A.M. Saleh Nabiel, Exudate flavonoids from aerial parts of four Cleome species. Biochem. Syst.

Hefzollah Mazloomifar, Mohammad Saber-Tehrani and Abdolhossein Rustaiyan*

Department of Chemistry, Science & Research Campus, IA University, PO Box 14515-775, Tehran, Iran

Shiva Masoudi

Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Central Tehran Branch, Tehran, Iran

*Address for correspondence

Received: March 2001

Revised: July 2001

Accepted: August 2001

Copyright Allured Publishing Corporation Sep/Oct 2003

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