Chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the flower, leaf and stem of Salvia aethiopis L. and Salvia glutinosa L. originating from the southeast region of Serbia

Chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the flower, leaf and stem of Salvia aethiopis L. and Salvia glutinosa L. originating from the southeast region of Serbia

Velickovic, Dragan

Abstract

A comparison of yields and chemical composition of the essential oils obtained by water distillation from the flowers, leaves and stems of Salvia aethiopis L. and Salvia glutinosa L., originating from the southeast region of Serbia was carried out. The oil yields of S. aethiopis L. and S. glutinosa L. were 0.5% and 0.2% for the leaf; and 0.4% and 0.2% for the flower, respectively. The chemical composition of the oils was also different, although they belong to the same genus. The main components in the oil of S. aethiopis were: bicyclogermacrene (29.0% in flower), alphacopaene (22.4% in leaf), spathulenol (20.1% in stem) and germacrene D (13.5% in stem). The oil of S. glutinosa has the following principal components: caryophyllene oxide (28.9% in leaf), humulene epoxide 11 (13.8% in leaf), betacaryophyllene (9.0% in flower) and alpha-humulene (5.9% in flower).

Key Word Index

Salvia aethiopis, Salvia glutinosa, Lamiaceae, essential oil composition, bicyclogermacrene, a-copaene, spathulenol, germacrene D, caryophyllene oxide, humulene epoxide II.

Introduction

Salvia is large and polymorphus genus of the family Lamiaceae, comprising about 900 species with almost cosmopolitan dissemination (1). Flora of Serbia comprises 14 species of this genus (2); among them are S. aethiopis L. and S. glutinosa L.

Chemical composition of the oil of S. officinalis has been the subject of many publications (3-8). The oils of the other species of Serbia have not been investigated enough, except the species S. officinalis. There are some data about their physico-chemical parameters (9), and very little data about their chemical composition. In the oil of S. aethiopis obtained by steam distillation, whose yield is 0.3%, the sesquiterpenes prevailed (6). The main constituents were: beta-caryophyllene (27.5%), germacrene D (10.9%), caryophyllene oxide (6.4%), while alpha-thujone and camphor were not found. There were additional components such as: camphene (0.3%), alpha-pinene (0.9%), 1,8-cineole (0.5%), alpha-humulene (5.7%), beta-cubebene (4.2%). By the end of flowering, the whole herb gave a yield of 0.056% from another locality (Bulgaria) (10). In the oil from Iran (11), whose yield was 0.13%, were: beta-caryophyllene (24.6%), alpha-copaene (15.5%), germacrene D (13.5%), caryophyllene oxide (8.0%), beta-elemene (6.0%) and alpha-humulene (5.0%) as the major constituents. The oils from Spain were found (12) to contain the most: germacrene D (10.46%), alpha– copaene (10.43%), spathulenol (9.54%), delta-elemene (6.36%) and sabinene (5.24%).

The results of analysis showed that, in an oil of S. glutinosa with an oil content lower than 0.05%, neither thujone isomer was found (13). Another source indicated that the oil yield was 0.038%; the oil contained linalool, phenols and aldehydes (10). The main constituents were caryophyllene oxide (26.5 %) and 1,2-epoxyhumulene (9.6%) (14) in an oil of Serbian origin. In the oil from Italy (15) (yields 0.05% from leaves and 0.03% from flowers) the main constituents were: gamma-muurolene (18.7%), beta-bourbonene (5.9%), alpha-farnesene (4.9%), pgurjunene (4.0%) i gamma-curcumene (3.4%) (leaves); gamma-muurolene (15.1%), bornyl formate (6.3%), limonene (4.4%), beta– bourbonene (3.9%), beta-gurjunene and beta-bisabolene (3.3%) (flowers).

The aim of this paper is to compare the oil yields and chemical composition of the oils from the flower, leaf and stem of S. aethiopis and S. glutinosa, from the southeast region of Serbia, obtained by water distillation.

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Dragan Velickovic*

AD “Zdravlje” Pharmaceutical and Chemical Industry, Vlajkova St. 199, 16000 Leskovac, FR Yugoslavia

Mihailo Ristic

Institute for Medicinal Plants Research “Dr. Josif Pancic,” Tadeusa Koscuska St. 1, 11000 Belgrade, FR Yugoslavia

Ana Velickovic

Medical Center “Mosa Pijade,” Department of General Practice, Rade Koncara St. 2, 16000 Leskovac, FR Yugoslavia

*Address for correspondence

Received: December 2001

Revised: March 2002

Accepted: July 2002

Copyright Allured Publishing Corporation Sep/Oct 2003

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