The International Journal of Kurdish Studies: a cumulative index, 1986-2002

The International Journal of Kurdish Studies: a cumulative index, 1986-2002

Lokman I. Meho

Published by the Kurdish Library since 1986, initially under the title Kurdish Times (through Volume 4), The International Journal of Kurdish Studies (ISSN 1073-6697), publishes research, analysis, and commentary on Kurdish history, culture, and contemporary affairs. The journal, a semi-annual refereed periodical, changed its title in 1992 (vol. 5) into Kurdish Studies: An International Journal and then in 1993 into its current title (vol. 6 on). Subscriptions to students with valid ID is $30; to other individuals $40; and to Institutions $65 per year. Overseas add $10. To subscribe to the Journal or order back issues ($20 per issue), please contact: The Kurdish Library, 345 Park Place, Brooklyn, NY 11238; Tel 718-783-7930; E-mail: Kurdishlib@aol.com.

The International Journal of Kurdish Studies is considered by many Kurdologists and other researchers the premier scholarly journal specializing exclusively in Kurdish affairs. It is currently indexed by Index Islamicus (Cambridge University, England) and P.A.I.S. New York: Public Affairs Information Service). Knowing that the value of a journal to researchers is significantly enhanced in the presence of an index and summaries to the articles published in it, it was imperative that we provide a complete index and abstracts to all articles published in the first 16 volumes of the journal. The abstracts provided here aim at reducing the time required for research by summarizing the original papers in as much detail as possible to allow researchers easily identify relevant materials.

The items in the index are arranged in ascending order starting with the first article of volume one, issue number one through the last article of volume 16. This is followed by a list of all book reviews, arranged alphabetically by author name. Finally, to minimize the time and effort in finding information about a particular contributor, and to maximize the searching success of the user, an Author Index to the articles is provided at the end.

1986 — Vol. 1, No. 1

1. Beaudin-Saeedpour, Vera. “The Kurdish Way of Life in Turkey: A Tapestry of Tribulations.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 7-11.

Provides an overview of traditional Turkish policy designed to forcibly assimilate the Kurds. This paper was presented at the 1984 Bi-Annual Legislative Conference of the American Hellenic Institute Public Affairs Committee, July 25, 1984. It was also printed in the Congressional Record under Foreign Assistance Legislation for Fiscal Years 1986-87 (part 3) as submitted to the Subcommittee on Europe and the Middle East of the Committee on Foreign Affairs, House of Representatives, 99th Congress, 1st Session.

2. Baran, Aziz. “You Must Give a Kurdish Baby a Turkish Name.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 12-15.

Reminiscences of a Kurd growing up in Turkey, focusing on the plight of the Kurdish people and the dimensions of atrocities which they have endured.

3. Izady, Mehrdad. “The Question of an Ethnic Identity: Problems in the Historiography of Kurdish Migration and Settlement.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 16-18.

A paper presented for the Kurdish Panel at the Annual Meeting of the Middle East Studies Association of North America, San Francisco, November 1984. Focuses on the limitations inherent in defining a people according to linguistic differences.

4. Manuelian, Mathew der. “Resettlement of Central Asian Refugees in the Kurdish Region of Turkey.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 19-20.

Discusses a Turkish strategy aimed at eroding the Kurdish presence in their ancestral homeland, by resettling of Kirghiz and other Turkic-speaking Central Asian groups (feeling the war in Afghanistan) in “Eastern Anatolia.”

5. Kurdish Program, The. “Remembering Neco.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 21-22.

Memorial to Necmettin Buyukkaya (or Neco), a Kurdish nationalist who was killed in a Turkish prison. In November of 1983, he organized a mass hunger strike which lasted 40 days. On the last day of December, he organized yet another strike. But this time the Turkish authorities decided that they could no longer tolerate him and thus they killed him.

6. Akasheh, Anahid. “Woven Skies, Woven Lands: Kurdish Textiles as an Expression of Social Structure.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 23-26.

Shows how such disparate elements as history, geography, and politics are intertwined in the art of the Kurds. The author attempts to examine the weave, material, motifs, and color of Kurdish fabrics, their resiliency and longevity, their personification of the natural environment, and the social and individual psychology and ideals of approach to the external world through their fabric art; to determine whether there is a common definition of those motifs, colors, and weaves that could rightfully be called Kurdish.

7. Baker, Chahin. “The Kurdish Question and the Lack of Outside Support.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 27-32.

Describes the lack of support, or the political isolation, of the Kurds, particularly in the context of superpower competition.

8. Sullivan, Howard E, III. “International Human Rights Instruments: A Source of Protection for Indigenous Populations.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 33-49.

Draws parallels between the Kurdish situation and that of the Indians in Guatemala. Sullivan describes legal instruments available in international fora (e.g., the UN and the European Commission) and offers an optimistic view.

9. “Kurdistan: The People and the Poetry–From the Exhibit, The Kurds: An Endangered People.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 50-56.

An exhibit, largely based on contributions of photographs and costume from Kurds and journalists, that made possible this rare and poignant glimpse of the Kurdish people and their plight.

10. Beaudin-Saeedpour, Vera. “Of Kurdish Spring and Our Own Discontented Winter.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 57-59.

Thoughts prompted by the writings of an English engineer, Archibald Hamilton, who built a road through Kurdistan.

11. “Something Kurdish at Kerhonkson.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 1 (Spring 1986): 60.

Third graders get their first glimpse of Kurdish culture.

1986 — Vol. 1, No. 2

12. “The Trial of Ismail Besikci.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 2 (Fall 1986): 3-42.

Describes the plight and trial of Dra. Ismail Besikci, a Turkish sociologist, who spent years of imprisonment in Turkey for his writings on the existence of a Kurdish nation living in “East Turkey.”

13. Besikci, Ismail. “Passages from Transformation and Structural Problems of the East.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 2 (Fall 1986): 43-44.

A translation from the Turkish of passages from a book written by Dr. Ismail Besikci.

14. Kurdish Program, The. “The Dimensions of Division.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 2 (Fall 1986): 45-56.

Political histories of the Kurdish people record the division of their ancestral homeland among modern nation-states. Yet, to date, there has been no research on the impact of division and enforced separation from the Kurdish point of view. This paper deals with Kurdish individuals who have left their home and who look back to assess the consequences of the division of their lands.

15. Shakely, Ferhad. “A State of Mind That Defies Definition or Description.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 2 (Fall 1986): 57-59.

Includes the full-text of ten short poems.

16. Beaudin-Saeedpour, Vera. “The Resurrection of Zero Agha.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 2 (Fall 1986): 60-62.

Zero Agha, a Kurd who aged 150 years, was a celebrity in the United States more than 75 years ago. The director of the Kurdish Library, Vera Beaudi-Saeedpour, discovered Zero in an old archive, in a photograph dated November 17, 1924. This article is a description of Zero as written on the back of the photograph. Includes illustrations.

17. “Talking Freely: An Interview with Dr. A. Hadi Hakki.” Kurdish Times 1, no. 2 (Fall 1986): 63-64.

An interview with a cardio-vascular surgeon who immigrated from Iraqi Kurdistan to the United States in 1972.

1987 — Vol. 2, no. 1

18. Laber, Jeri, & Lois Whitman. “Helsinki Watch Report.” Kurdish Times 2, no. 1 (December 1987): 1-54.

This is a special issue of the journal devoted entirely to sections of a report entitled, State of Flux: Human Rights in Turkey, prepared by Helsinki Watch Committee. State of Flux is the sixth report by the Committee since 1982 on human rights in Turkey. It completes and updates the previous report, Freedom and Fear: Human Rights in Turkey (1986). Approximately one-third of the 136-page report details the Kurdish plight in Turkey. With permission from Helsinki Watch, the journal reproduced the introduction and those chapters dealing with the nature and extent of Turkey’s human rights abuses of the Kurdish population, the roles of the United States and the European Community, and the recommendations which, if operationalized, can bring about change.

1988 — Vol. 2, no. 2

19. Kurdish Program, The. “The Destruction of Iraqi Kurdistan.” Kurdish Times 2, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 1-6.

Furnishes some detailed information on mass deportations of Iraqi Kurds, deliberate destruction of Kurdish villages, and the use of chemical arms against the Kurds by the Iraqi authorities.

20. Siaband, Samande. “Mountains, My Home.” Times 2, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 7-12.

Describes the symbiosis between the Kurd and his habitat. A psychological analysis of a rustic scenery in Iranian Kurdistan.

21. Izady, Mehrdad. “A Kurdish Lingua Franca?” Kurdish Times 2, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 13-24.

The author argues that one of the problems that concern Kurdish intelligentsia is the unification of the Kurdish language. In this article, Izady proposes the formation of a synthetic language from a “northern Kurmanji” and a “central Kurmanji.” According to him, this language will be easily understood without difficulty by all Kurds.

22. Saeedpour, Vera Beaudin. “Kurdish Times and the New York Times.” Kurdish Times 2, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 25-41.

Examines the New York Times’ coverage of the Kurdish national movement and shows that since 1975 the American press has been giving a distorted image of the Kurdish question.

1989 — Vol. 3, no. 1

23. Amin, Abdul-Kader. “Kurdish Proverbs.” Translated from Kurdish by Abdul-Kader Amin and Charles Hoffman. Kurdish Times 3, no. 1 (Summer 1989): 1-76.

This special issue of the journal is a compilation of maxims and sayings of the Kurds collected by Abdul-Kader Amin and translated with the help of Dr. Charles Hoffman. The photographs were taken primarily in Iraqi Kurdistan by Ismet Cherif Vanly and are part of a collection which he donated to the Kurdish Library. The proverbs are divided into 24 sections for convenience and readability. Some of the proverbs can be found in more than one section because their subject matter encompasses more than one topic. A very important contribution to the knowledge of Kurdish folklore.

1990 — Vol. 3, no. 2

24. Gunter, Michael M. “The suppression of the Kurds in Turkey.” Kurdish Times 3, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 5-16.

Examines Turkey’s suppressive policies towards the Kurds since the 1920s, with particular emphasis on the 1980s. Also discusses the background of the human rights advocate, Ismail Besikci, and his encounters with the government of Turkey over the years.

25. Saeedpour, Vera Beaudin. “From the Lion to the Fox: Iraqi Kurdish Refugees in Turkey.” Kurdish Times 3, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 17-23.

Press analysis of events surrounding the Iraqi Kurdish refugees in Turkey. Examples of newspapers examined include: Christian Science Monitor, Financial Times, New York Times, Times, and Washington Post.

26. “Letter from a Kurdish Refugee.” Kurdish Times 3, no. 2 (December 1990): 24-25.

An Iraqi Kurd writes of life in a refugee camp in Turkey. Includes a plea to Western leaders to look upon the Kurdish refugees.

27. Laizer, Sheri. “And the Refugees Suffer.” Kurdish Times 3, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 26-29.

Discusses British policies towards, and harsh treatment of, Kurdish asylum seekers from Turkey. Highlights the inadequacies of Britain’s response to providing for Kurdish refugees.

28. Izady, Mehrdad. “Persian Carrot and Turkish Stick: Contrasting Policies Targeted at Gaining State Loyalty from Azeris and Kurds.” Kurdish Times 3, no. 2 (Fall 1990): 31-47.

Compares and contrasts state policies towards Azeris in Iran and Kurds in Turkey from the point of view of Tehran and Ankara. Demonstrates the reasons for the success of one policy and the failure of the other. Its utility may well be in implications for reversing what is an unsuccessful Turkish domestic ethnic policy that has come under increasing international criticism and contributed to many embarrassing economic and political rebuffs from her European allies.

29. Krulich-Ghassemlou, Helene. “The Ghassemlou Case.” Kurdish Times 3, no. 2 (December 1990): 48-59.

Widow of the late Kurdish leader, Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, details efforts to bring to justice perpetrators of the assassination of her husband and his Kurdish companions.

30. Khoshnaw, Salahedin. “Speaking Freely.” Kurdish Times 3, no. 2 (December 1990): 60-61.

A note from an Iraqi Kurd who went to England to continue his studies. After developing a real affinity for the game of scrabble, he became a world-class scrabble champion and was included in The Guinness Book of Records in 1982 for achieving the highest single turn score in the world in a competitive match.

1991 — Vol. 4, nos. 1-2

31. Bruinessen, Martin Van. “Religion in Kurdistan.” Kurdish Times 4, nos. 1-2 (Summer-Fall 1991): 5-27.

Analyzes the religious diversity among the Kurdish people. After describing each of the major Kurdish religions or sects (Sunnis, Shiites, Yezidis, Ahl-i Haqq, Alevis, Jews and Christians), the author discusses the role of the Sunni mystical order in the Kurdish national movement, the relation between the sheikhs and the modern state, radicalism, and religious modernism among the Kurds.

32. Fleming, Glenn M., Jr. “The ecology and economy of Kurdish villages.” Kurdish Times 4, nos. 1-2 (Summer-Fall 1991): 28-41.

Describes the economic interdependence between the nomadic herders (and their migration cycle) and the village agriculturists (and their subsistence, land tenure and social organization, economic classes, and household) and between the village agriculturists and urban mercantile centers. Paper primarily based on the classic works of Barth, Eagleton, Edmonds, Hamilton, Hansen, Kahn, Leach, Masters, Solecki, and Sykes.

33. Hassanpour, Amir. “State Policy on the Kurdish Language: The Politics of Status Planning.” Kurdish Times 4, nos. 1-2 (Summer-Fall 1991): 42-85.

Examines the changes in the use of the Kurdish language since 1918 in Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria and the Soviet Union. Surveys the suppressive policies of these states towards the use of the Kurdish language and its consequences on the Kurdish people.

34. Schwartz-Be’eri, Ora. “Jewish Weaving in Kurdistan.” Kurdish Times 4, nos. 1-2 (Summer-Fall 1991, pp. 86-96).

In 1975, the Department of Jewish Ethnography of the Israel Museum, with the aid of a grant from the Memorial Foundation for Jewish Culture, New York, and the Israel Ministry of Education and Culture initiated a survey of the material culture of Jewish immigrants from the Kurdish areas of Iraq, Iran, Turkey, and Syria. The survey was planned as an attempt to fill in the gaps in our knowledge of the occupations and objects characteristic of this Jewish group in its daily life.

35. White, Paul. “The March 1990 Uprising in Turkish Kurdistan & Its Effects on Turkish Politics.” Kurdish Times 4, nos. 1-2 (Summer-Fall 1991): 97-106.

Explains the uprising in the Turkish section of Kurdistan, which began in mid-March of 1990, which has had serious effects on many aspects of politics in Turkey as a whole. Examines some of the most important of those effects and discusses their ramifications for Kurdish nationalists.

36. Salar, A. “A Kurdish Boyhood.” Kurdish Times 4, nos. 1-2 (Summer-Fall 1991): 107-113.

A story of a boy driven out of his hometown of Koy Sanjaq in northern Iraq after it has been reoccupied by the Iraqi government forces in 1963. Describes the bombing of the town by Iraqi warplanes and the detainment, torture, and killings of Kurdish men.

37. Krulich-Ghassemlou, Helene. “The Circle Closed.” Kurdish Times 4, nos. 1-2 (Summer-Fall 1991): 114-116.

Widow of the late Kurdish leader, Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, details her experiences after she heard of the assassination of her husband and his companions. She also describes her first meeting with him and his rationale for meeting with the Iranian “negotiators.”

1992 — Vol. 5, nos. 1-2

38. Saeedpour, Vera Beaudin. “Kurdish Hopes, Kurdish Fears: A Survey of Kurdish Public Opinion.” Kurdish Studies: An International Journal 5, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Fall 1992): 5-28.

Historically, and even today, the Kurds are hardly in a position to influence the direction of events. Nonetheless their hopes and their fears will ultimately determine the efficacy of policies developed in their name. To date, there has been no systematic effort to solicit their opinions. This pilot study attempted to do just that. As such, it provides rare insights for Western policy-makers, for scholars, and for Kurds who may be learning for the first time what other Kurds are thinking.

39. Olson, Robert. “Battle for Kurdistan: The Churchill-Cox Correspondence Regarding the Creation of the State of Iraq, 1921-1923.” Kurdish Studies: An International Journal 5, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Fall 1992): 29-44.

This article discusses the policy implications of the correspondence of June 2 to December 7, 1921 between Winston Churchill, British colonial secretary, and Percy Cox, British high commissioner in Iraq, and the consequences of this correspondence for British policy towards the Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal Ataturk. The focus of the correspondence between Churchill and Cox was the question of what territories should be included within the soon-to-be-created state of Iraq. Churchill favored a Kurdish buffer state on the northern border of the new state (Iraq), but Sir Percy Cox, won the argument for incorporating the oil-bearing areas north of Mosul into the British-administered state of Iraq.

40. Frelick, Bill. “Kurdish Refugees and the New World Order.” Kurdish Studies: An International Journal 5, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Fall 1992): 45-53.

Analyzes the limitations of rights of asylum and whether or not this presents ethical problems. Argues that the international regime established for refugees has been created and maintained less for their protection than to preserve the prerogatives of powerful states.

41. Blaum, Paul. “A History of the Kurdish Marwanid Dynasty, A.D. 983-1085, Part I.” Kurdish Studies: An International Journal 5, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Fall 1992): 54-68.

Presents a chronological history of the rise and fall of one of the earliest and largest Kurdish principalities in the Middle East.

42. Runyon, Linda. “Common Edible Wild Plants of Kurdistan.” Kurdish Studies: An International Journal 5, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Fall 1992): 69-79.

Claims that many of what westerners eat today have originated from Kurdistan and have been domesticated by Kurds thousands of years ago. Provides drawings, aliases, habitat, geographical distribution, characteristics, and uses of several edible plants found in Kurdish mountains.

43. Uzun, Mehmed. “Welat-e Kheribiye.” Kurdish Studies: An International Journal 5, nos. 1-2 (Spring-Fall 1992): 80-88.

Based on a personal experience, the author explains that all Kurdish significant cultural and intellectual work has been created in welat-e kheribiye (i.e., exile). Like Jews and Armenians, Kurds have lived the welat-e kheribiye as an opportunity, a place where their language, literature, art, and culture could be protected and developed. The experience has given the author both grief and sanctuary.

1993 — Vol. 6, nos. 1-2

44. Kurdish Library–Center for Research. “Survey of Kurdish Organizations in the West, Part I.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, nos. 1-2 (Fall 1993): 1-11.

Reports results of a 1990 survey of Kurdish organizations in the West. Also presents factual and background information on these organizations.

45. Schwartz-Be’eri, Ora. “Kurdish Jewish Silversmiths and Their Craft.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, nos. 1-2 (Fall 1993): 12-24.

In the course of field research on the material culture of Jews who emigrated from Kurdistan to Israel, the author undertook a study of Kurdish Jewish silverwork. The research of the author was based on interviews with makers and owners of silver pieces, their families, and hakhamim (sages) who served as teachers, cantors, circumcisers, ritual slaughters, etc. Silver pieces from homes, synagogues, and museums were examined both in Israel and Iranian Kurdistan, as was Kurdish jewelry in the Museum of Ethnography, Berlin.

46. Bruinessen, Martin Van. “Matriarchy in Kurdistan? Women Rulers in Kurdish History.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, nos. 1-2 (Fall 1993): 25-39.

Kurdish society is known as a male-dominated society, and it has been for all of its known history. Throughout Kurdish history we find, however, instances of women reaching high position and becoming the political, in some cases even military, leaders of their communities. It is hard to find comparable cases among the Kurds’ most important neighbors, the Turks, Arabs, and Persians. These recurrent instances of rule by women are interesting enough in their own right, but they also raise a number of questions about the nature of Kurdish society and the position of women in it. Various conflicting interpretations of the phenomenon of rule by women are discussed briefly in this article. The main purpose of the article is to describe the best documented cases of women who became rulers or played other “manly” roles in Kurdistan.

47. Blaum, Paul. “A History of the Kurdish Marwanid Dynasty, A.D. 983-1085, Part II.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, nos. 1-2 (Fall 1993): 40-65.

Part II of a paper presenting a chronological history of the rise and fall of one of the earliest and largest Kurdish principalities in the Middle East.

48. Fuad, Tanya. “An Old Home Revisited, An Old Identity Retrieved.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, nos. 1-2 (Fall 1993): 66-78.

Describes the story of a young girl, born to a Minnesotan mother and a Kurdish father, who was forced to leave her native town of Sulaymania to the U.S. in the mid-1970s. She illustrates her four-month long recent visit to see her old home, friends, and relatives.

49. Izady, Mehrdad. “The Archaeology of Kurdish Tribal Names, Part I.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, nos. 1-2 (Fall 1993): 79-133.

Part I of a study dealing with the name of ethnic groups, nomadic tribes, ruling dynasties, important old families and place names of and in Kurdistan.

1994 — Vol. 7, nos. 1-2

50. Avebury, Eric. “Self-determination and international law: the Kurdish case.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, nos. 1-2 (1994): 7-16.

Presents a historical background of the Kurdish question and discusses the position of the United Nations, the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe, and Turkey with respect to the national and civil right of the Kurds.

51. Olson, Robert. “The Defeat of the Kurdish Revolt at Mt. Ararat (1930) and the Role of the Turkish Air Force.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, nos. 1-2 (1994): 17-20.

In Turkey, particularly in the 1920s and for most of the 1930s, the development of the Turkish Air Force (TAF) was one of the most important achievements of the Turkish military forces. The most important objective during this period was to restrain, control and destroy the Kurdish Nationalist movement, hence, the purpose and main topic of discussion of this paper.

52. Minorsky, Vladimir F. “The Mosul Question.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, nos. 1-2 (1994): 21-70.

Originally published in Reference Service on International Affairs of the American Library in Paris, nos. 9-10 (April 1926). Written by one of the founders of the field of Kurdish studies, this paper is a detailed account of the award of central Kurdistan to the emerging State of Iraq. The paper furnishes numerous documents of diverse origins, and rare statistics and maps seldom seen in subsequent sources and hardly known to most contemporary researchers.

53. Bozarslan, Emin. “Three Short Stories.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, nos. 1-2 (1994): 71-81.

Includes the full-text of three short stories: “How Tobacco Became Straw,” “Meyro,” and “The Lighter.”

54. Izady, Mehrdad. “Archaeology of Kurdish Clan Names, Part II.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, nos. 1-2 (1994): 83-109.

Part II of a study dealing with the name of ethnic groups, nomadic tribes, ruling dynasties, important old families and place names of and in Kurdistan.

1995 — Vol. 8, nos. 1-2

55. Khashan, Hilal. “The Labyrinth of Kurdish Self-Determination.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, nos. 1-2 (1995): 5-32.

Examines two variables that are directly related to Kurdish self-determination: (1) the level of development of Kurdish nationalism and (2) the geopolitical dimension of the Kurdish question. Four components of nationalism were contrived from the pertinent literature and applied to the Kurdish case in the following order: ethnic distinction and cultural heritage, technological (whence socioeconomic) development, ethnic solidarity, and policy demands. Concludes that although the Kurdish question has come to the open and is unlikely to subside, it is still premature to ascertain how far Kurdish self-determination can go.

56. Nestor, Carl E. “Dimensions of Turkey’s Kurdish Question and the Potential Impact of the Southeast Anatolian Project (GAP): Part I.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, nos. 1-2 (1995): 33-78.

In this two-part study, the author examines dimensions of the Kurdish question in Turkey and the Turkish Government’s attempts to address this problem through the introduction of the Southeast Anatolian Project (GAP). In this first part, the author presents the Kurdish question in Turkey and examines Kurdish perceptions of GAP and outlines the purpose, goals, and technical aspects of the Project.

57. Mahamedi, Hamid. “Notes on Some Phonological Developments in Kurdish.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, nos. 1-2 (1995): 79-93.

Despite its large number of dialects and a rather large body of borrowed words from other Iranic/Iranian and non-Iranic/non-Iranian languages, Kurdish as a unit preserves its separate character and features. In this article, some of the phonological characteristics of Kurdish and its development are examined in comparison to those of other ancient and modern Iranian languages. The South Kurmanji dialect of Kurdish, better known as Sorani, is here used almost exclusively for the Kurdish paradigms. The article also shows that Parthian (Pahlawani) and Kurdish being both Northwest Iranian languages, reveal the most similarity in their phonological development.

58. Gunter, Michael M. “The Kurdish Factor in Middle Eastern Politics.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, nos. 1-2 (1995): 94-109.

Analyzes the regional impact of Kurdish political and military activities within and between Turkey, Iran, Iraq, and Syria in the aftermath of the recent events (i.e., the Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988), the 1991 Gulf War, and the creation of ‘Operation Provide Comfort’ by the Western powers).

59. Emmanuelsson, A. C. “Chasing the Rainbow: Economic and Social Constrains Facing Kurdish National Aspirations in Iraq.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 110-125.

Shows how the Iraqi government exploits the natural resources in, and agricultural products of, Kurdistan with little benefit to the Kurdish people. Discusses the impact of forced migration and resettlements on the economic conditions of the Kurds in Iraq. Particular emphasis is put on the impact of the 1991 Gulf war and its consequences.

1996 — Vol. 9, nos. 1-2

60. Avebury, Lord. “Turkey’s Kurdish Policy in the Nineties.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 9, nos. 1-2 (1996): 3-34.

Provides a chronology of political events since 1990 affecting relations between the Turkish state and the Kurds, including an analysis of international responses. Discusses political parties, treatment of journalists, human rights, repression of political activists, abrogation of international treaties, and other issues.

61. Nestor, Carl E. The Southeast Anatolian Project (GAP) and Turkey’s Kurdish Question: Part II. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 9, nos. 1-2 (1996): 35-78.

In this two-part study, the author examines dimensions of the Kurdish question in Turkey and the Turkish Government’s attempts to address this problem through the introduction of the Southeast Anatolian Project (GAP). In this second part, the author provides an in-depth analysis of the project’s potential for socioeconomic integration of the Kurds into the mainstream of Turkey.

62. Hassan, Mohammed Khalis. “Notes on Urban and Domestic Architecture of Central Kurdistan, Iraq.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 9, nos. 1-2 (1996): 79-94.

Describes the architectures of citadels, bazaars, mosques, baths, inns, and residences built in the major cities in Iraqi Kurdistan: Arbil, Sulaymania, Dohuk, and Khanaqin.

63. Olson, Robert. “The Impact of the Southeast Anatolian Project (GAP) on Kurdish Nationalism in Turkey.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 9, nos. 1-2 (1996): 95-102.

In this paper, the author tries to demonstrate that GAP will not result in solving the Kurdish question in Turkey; it will however, negatively affect the Kurdish nationalist movement. The author argues that if Turkey’s “Kurdish problem” is presumed to be an artifact of the Kurdish nationalist movement and the activities of the PKK, implementation of the GAP should alleviate that pressure on the Turkish government.

64. Thompson, Peter L. “United States-Turkey Military Relations: Treaties and Implications.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 9, nos. 1-2 (1996): 103-113.

Reviews reasons for, provisions of, and outcomes, of the 1980 Defense and Economic Cooperation Treaty (DECA), which commits the US, as a NATO leader, to support the Turkish military. Describes efforts to upgrade Turkish military forces, the role of international financial institutions and economic assistance programs, including the multilateral Turkish Defense Fund, and implications for the Kurds.

1996 — Vol. 10, nos. 1-2

65. Muller, Mark. “Nationalism and the Rule of Law in Turkey: The Elimination of Kurdish Representation During the 1990s.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 10, nos. 1-2 (1996): 9-44.

The first part of the paper discusses the establishment and development of the western-style Rule of Law in Turkey and the impact of Turkish nationalism on such development. The second part discusses the effect of ethnic (primarily Kurdish) nationalism on the new legal structure in the country, including the militarization of the Turkish military structure, the establishment of the state security tribunals, the introduction of the 1991 anti-terror law provisions, and the state of emergency provisions. The third part discusses the elimination of Kurdish representation during the 1990s. Also discussed in this part are measures taken against the Kurdish press and media, Kurdish and Turkish defense lawyers, Kurdish politicians, and against the Turkish Human Rights Association and other civil rights activists. The last part discusses the implications of the policies of ethnic nationalism for the Rule of Law in Turkey.

66. Ismet, Imset. “The PKK: Terrorists or Freedom Fighters.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 10, nos. 1-2 (1996): 45-100.

Provides a historical background of the Kurdish question in Turkey from the 1920s through the 1990s and argues that the root of the conflict unquestionably lies in Turkey’s insistent refusal to give ear to Kurdish demands for equal political, social, and cultural representation, as well as an end to economic disparity between the Kurdish regions of Turkey and the more prosperous areas of western Turkey. Discusses the history and development of PKK and argues against depicting it as a terrorist organization.

67. Zaki, Muhammad Amin. “A Brief History of Kurds and Kurdistan–Part I: From the Advent of Islam to AD 1750.” Translated into English by Nemat Sharif. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 10, nos. 1-2 (1996): 105-155.

This is a translation, from Arabic, of three chapters of the much-acclaimed work of Muhammad Amin Zaki, A Brief History of Kurds and Kurdistan, from Antiquity to the Present. It covers the historical period between the advent of Islam and 1750.

1997 — Vol. 11, nos. 1-2

68. Ghazi, Ali Homam. “Ghazi Muhammad: Scholar, Patriot and Father.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 3-8.

A synopsis of the life of President Ghazi Muhammad, written by his only son.

69. Ahmed, Ibrahim. “The Republic of Kurdistan: A Personal Memoir.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 9-32.

The author was a participant and an eyewitness to the Republic of Kurdistan at Mahabad. Mr. Ahmad later became, along with General Mullah Mustafa Barzani, the co-founder of the Iraqi branch of the Democratic Party of Kurdistan. This memoir is the English translation of the Kurdish manuscript submitted to the Journal in the author’s own hand.

70. Barzani, Mullah Mustafa. “Speech Presented to the Congress of the Kurdish Exiles in the Soviet Union: Baku, January 19, 1948.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 33-48.

This speech was presented by the late General Mullah Mustafa Barzani to a congress of the Kurdish representatives and exiles in the Soviet Union, to mark the first anniversary of the fall of the Republic of Kurdistan. The text of this historic speech remained unknown until 1996 when an Arabic translation was published in (Iraqi) Kurdistan. The English translation here is from the original Kurdish manuscript in General Barzani’s own hand, supplied to the Journal by Mr. Massoud Barzani, son of the late General.

71. Barzani, Massoud. “An Ideal Time and Place to Be Born a Kurd.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 49-52.

Written originally in Arabic by a younger son of the late General Mullah Mustafa Barzani, and current president of the Kurdistan Democratic Party (of Iraq). Discusses the influence of the Republic of Kurdistan on his personality and the Kurdish people as a whole.

72. Ghassemlou, Helene. “Legacies of the Republic.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 53-59.

The author, a long-time colleague and wife of the late Dr. Abdul Rahman Ghassemlou, writes about her personal understanding of the impact and influence of the Republic of Kurdistan on the personality of the late Ghassemlou, and particularly his opinion of the Republic.

73. Hassanzadeh, Abdullah. “Let Us Learn from Ghazi Muhammad.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 59-62.

Hassanzadeh, Abdullah is the First Secretary of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran. His article, translated from a Persian original, presents lessons that current leaders should learn from the late Ghazi Muhammad’s personal and political life.

74. Osman, Mahmud. “The Mahabad Experience: Lessons Learned, Lessons Lost.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 63-68.

An article by one of the founders of the United Socialist Party of [Iraqi] Kurdistan and currently a member of the political leadership of the Iraqi Kurdistan Front.

75. Eagleton, William. “Mahabad: 1946, 1961, 1996.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 69-72.

Ambassador William Eagleton began his career as a member of the United States Foreign Service in the Middle East in 1951. This article is primarily a discussion of the activities and problems involved in interviewing and collecting data materials about the Republic of Kurdistan for a book on the Republic that he published in 1963.

76. Jigalina, Olga. “The Lessons of Mahabad.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 73-94. [In Russian]

Discusses the lessons to be learned from the fate of the Republic of Kurdistan, which revealed much about the strengths and weaknesses of the Kurds in accomplishing their national aspiration for independence.

77. Lazarev, Mikhail. “Geopolitical Aspects of Kurdistan.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 95-114. [In Russian]

Examines the rise and fall of the Kurdish Republic of Kurdistan in 1946 in the context of geostrategic and geoeconomic factors present in the region then.

78. Yassin, Borhanedin. “A History of the Republic of Kurdistan.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 11, nos. 1-2 (1997): 115-240.

This study places the history of the Kurds at and around the time of the formation of the Kurdish Republic in the context of the greater Middle East and Great Power politics, as well as links the Kurdish activities to major developments in the period 1941-1947. The study involves the local, national, and international levels, with particular emphasis on the policy of the Great Powers towards the Kurds. Relies heavily on American and British government documents as primary source materials.

1998 — Vol. 12, nos. 1-2

79. Solecki, Ralph S. “Archaeological Survey of Caves in Northern Iraq.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 1-70.

Provides a detailed account of the author’s rockshelters (or natural cave) explorations in the Kurdish region of Iraq. It is a study of the homes made by the Kurds as well as some of the domiciliary activities in the mountainous provinces of Arbil, and Mosul in the Zagros mountains. Includes figures and illustrations.

80. Blaum, Paul A. “Shah Tahmasp I: Making the Best of Bad Times.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 71-95.

A historical account of the early 18th century when Kurds were among the subject peoples caught up in power struggles between the Persian and Ottoman empires.

81. Shakely, Ferhad. “Reflections of a Kurdish Poet.” [An Interview.] The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 97-107.

Poet Ferhad Shakely reflects on his craft and the nature and status of Kurdish literature. Some of the questions asked in the interview include: How are your poems born? What are your criteria for originality? What makes a good poem? Which poet has been a model and inspiration for your writing? How do you see the present and future of Kurdish culture, and particularly of literature in Kurdistan? How has your life experience influenced your poetic experience and writing? What is the role of modern poetry in Kurdistan? What are the cardinal rules of modern Kurdish poetry? What is your opinion of the poetry of resistance? What is the essence of epic poetry? What do you see as the role of stories in Kurdistan today? What has been the development of children’s literature in Kurdistan? What is the role of woman in your life and your poetry? How do you view the activity of translation in Kurdish literature?

82. Kaya, Yasar. “A Political Solution to the Kurdish Question.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 109-111.

Looking ahead, the author explains why he proposes federation as a solution to the Kurdish question in Turkey.

83. Bawermend, Aziz. “The Poet and the Politician.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 112-116.

The Parliament of Kurdistan in Exile was formally inaugurated on April 13, 1995 at The Hague, Netherlands. The author here explains why the Parliament and why in exile. The author also explains why so much emphasis on Turkey. Finally the author presents the activities of the Parliament and discusses its achievements and obstacles.

84. Shakely, Ferhad. “Muhammad Ghazi: 1915-1998.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 117.

An obituary of Muhammad Ghazi, “the most outstanding and productive translator in Iran in the last sixty years.”

1999 — Vol. 13, no. 1

85. Hafez, Fahmy. “The Crusades and the Era of Saladin.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 1-14.

Part of a special issue on Saladin. An Egyptian scholar, Hafez sets the stage for the era of Saladin in his introduction to the Crusades.

86. Gabrielli, Francesco. “Saladin’s Character.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 15-32.

Part of a special issue on Saladin. Provides a portrait of Saladin’s character as drawn by chronicler Baha’ ad-Din ibn Shaddad. The article is reprinted from Francesco Gabrielli, Arab Historians of the Crusades (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1969).

87. Lyons, M. C. “Saladin: Life and Legend.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 33-42.

Cambridge University scholar, Lyons assesses Saladin’s life and legend based largely on early European source material.

88. Saeedpour, Vera Beaudin. “The Legacy of Saladin.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 43-61.

Deals with the debate surrounding Saladin’s legacy and the rather remarkable accolades he has received even from critics. Discusses the influence on Saladin of his Kurdish heritage. Also describes his image and chracater.

89. Humphreys, R. Stephen. “The Origins of the Ayyubid Confederacy.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 63-103.

Discusses the origins and history of the Ayyubid confederacy. Reprinted from the author’s book, Form Saladin to the Mongols: The Ayyubids of Damascus, 1193-1260 (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1977).

90. Blaum, Paul A. “Eagles in the Sun: The Ayyubids After Saladin.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 105-184.

Provides a detailed discussion on the successors of Saladin, their power struggle, and the demise of Ayyubid reign. Includes a chronology of events from 1138-1260 A.D.

1999 — Vol. 13, no. 2

91. Tofiq, Mohammed, & Wheeler McIntosh Thackston. “Kurdish Folktales.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 2 (1999): 1-110.

Includes a number of Kurdish folktales collected by Mohammed Tofiq (Iraqi Kurdistan) and translated and introduced by Wheeler M. Thackston (Harvard University). Most of the tales in this collection, one of the first to present to the English reader a range of Kurdish folktales, are concerned, in one way or another, with justice, and usually–perhaps reflecting common experience over the centuries in Kurdistan–justice needs the intervention of some external (and often supernatural) agency to be done, like the skull that engenders a child in “The King of the East.” The stories given here in translation were collected from a variety of people from Kifri and the Sulaimani area of Iraqi Kurdistan.

The collection from which the translations were made is entitled Chirok i bar Agirdan i Kurdawari (Stories from Kurdish Hearths), and it contains twenty-four stories of varying lengths, of which eighteen are given here. The handwritten texts were provided by the Kurdish Library in Brooklyn.

2000 — Vol. 14, nos. 1-2

92. Beard, Michael. “The Proverbial Brick Wall.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 14, nos. 1-2 (2000): 1-6.

Gives a skeptical picture to the efficacy of proverbs.

93. Klein, Janet. “Proverbial Nationalism: Proverbs in Kurdish National Discourse in the Late Ottoman Period.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 14, nos. 1-2 (2000): 7-26.

Examines how Kurdish proverbs and, by extension, Kurdish folklore and the Kurdish language, were modified, ritualized and institutionalized (or used) by Kurdish “nationalists” in the late Ottoman period.

94. Noel, Edward (Major). “The Character of the Kurds as Illustrated by Their Proverbs and Popular Sayings.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 14, nos. 1-2 (2000): 27-35.

The author, a British officer stationed among the Kurds early in the 20th century, views proverbs and saying as significant indicators of the Kurdish mind and uses them to explain Kurdish “character.” This article originally appeared in the Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies (vol. 1, 1917-1920, pp. 79-90) and included commentaries and proverbs in Kurdish as well as English. Here only the author’s commentaries and the proverbs in English are reproduced.

95. Uzun, Mehmed. “Words Washed by the Waters of the Euphrates.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 14, nos. 1-2 (2000): 36-40.

Explains how Kurdish proverbs are a “rare mirror” reflecting Kurdish history, Kurdish social life, and the Kurdish mentality, and how they are a “fortress” of Kurdish resistance.

96. Amin, Abdul-Kader, & Eziz Bawermend. “Proverbs of Kurdistan.” Translated from Kurdish by Abdul-Kader Amin, Eziz Bawermend, and Charles Hoffman. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 14, nos. 1-2 (2000): 41-119.

The proverbs and sayings published in this issue were contributed by many Kurds, but they were collected by two: (1) Some two decades ago Abdul-Kader Amin, a native of Iraqi Kurdistan, collaborated with Dr. Charles Hoffman to translate his collection of proverbs for English readers. The Kurdish Library in New York published a limited number of copies of this work in the Summer 1989 issue of the journal, when it was still titled Kurdish Times (see vol. 3, no. 1 above). Because of high demand of the Summer 1989 issue, the Kurdish Library decided to republish the proverbs here along with a new collection from northern Kurdistan in Turkey compiled and translated by Eziz Bawermend.

2001 — Vol. 15, nos. 1-2

97. Shiel, J. “Notes on a Journey from Tabriz through Kurdistan via Van, Bitlis, Se’rt and Erbil, to Suleimaniyah, in July and August, 1838.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 1-38.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in The Journal of the Royal Geographic Society of London, vol. 8 (1838).

98. Southgate, Horatio. “Bitlis.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 41-48.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in Narrative of a Tour Through Armenia, Kurdistan, Persia and Mesopotamia (New York: Appleton & Co., 1840), vol. 1, ch. 12.

99. “Travels in Kurdistan.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 51-53.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in The Boston Weekly Magazine, vol. 2, no. 37 (May 30, 1840).

100. Smith, Azariah. “Contribution to the Geography of Central Koordistan.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 55-58.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 2 (1851).

101. Perkins, Justin. “Journal of a Tour from Oroomiah to Mosul through the Koordish Mountains.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 59-86.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in Journal of the American Oriental Society, vol. 2 (1851).

102. “Kara Fatima at Constantinople.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 87-88.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in The Illustrated London News (April 22, 1854).

103. “Report Relating to the Respective Position of Christians and Mahommedans in Anatolia.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 91-94. Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in Reports by Her Majesty’s Diplomatic and Consular Agents in Turkey Respecting the Condition of the Christian Subjects of the Porte: 1868-70 (London: Harrison and Sons, 1877).

104. Maunsell, F. R. “Kurdistan.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 95-107.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in The Geographical Journal, vol. 3 (February 1894).

105. Dickson, Bertram. “Journeys in Kurdistan.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 109-129.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Originally published in The Geographical Journal, vol. 35 (April 1910).

106. Pasha, Sherif. “Memorandum on the Claims of the Kurdish People, Paris, March 22, 1919.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 131-136.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century. Presents the memorandum submitted by General Sherif Pasha, President of the Kurd Delegation to the Peace Conference (Paris, March 22nd 1919).

107. Blaum, Paul A. “Children of the Arrow: The Strange Saga of the Iraqi Turkmen.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 15, nos. 1-2 (2001): 137-164.

Part of a special issue featuring the writings of men whose travels and observations would leave their mark on Kurds in the 20th century.

2002 — Vol. 16, nos. 1-2

108. Saeedpour, Vera Beaudin. “A Tangled Web They Weave: The Mystery of Kurdish Roots.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16, nos. 1-2 (2002): 1-27.

Part of a special issue on Kurdish roots.

109. Medvedskaya, Inna N. “The Rise and Fall of the Medes.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16, nos. 1-2 (2002): 29-44.

Part of a special issue on Kurdish roots. Originally published in Russian, this article discusses the history of the Medes empire from its creation in 612 B.C. to its end in 550 B.C.

110. Medvedskaya, Inna N. “Were the Assyrians at Ectabana?” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16, nos. 1-2 (2002): 45-57.

Part of a special issue on Kurdish roots. Originally published in Russian, this article discusses the historical geography of Media of the 9th-7th century B.C.

111. Meho, Lokman l. “The Kurds in Lebanon; A Social and Historical Overview.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16, nos. 1-2 (2002): 59-82.

Part of a special issue on Kurdish roots. This paper is divided into six parts. The first part provides a general background of the Kurdish community in Lebanon, including their history, population, language, and geography. The second part discusses the issue of citizenship (or lack of it) and its impact on the people. The third part describes the socioeconomic status of the Kurds. Part four explains the political status of the Kurds within the larger Lebanese clientalist system. Part five discusses the impact of the 1975-1991 civil war on the Kurds. Part six discusses the social and political organization of the Kurds. This part also includes a detailed survey of the Kurdish voluntary associations and political parties and their roles in the Lebanese Kurdish society.

112. Mojab, Shahrzad, & Amir Hassanpour. “Thoughts on the Struggle Against ‘Honor Killing.'” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16, nos. 1-2 (2002): 83-97.

Part of a special issue on Kurdish roots. Examines some of the systematic elements that produce and reproduce male violence, in particula honor killing among the Kurds. Argues that honor killing cannot be reduced to the psychological problems of individual killers. According to the authors, honor-based violence is a social, patriarchal institution that expresses the supremacy of the male gender. Today, a host of factors, ranging from religion, public policy, and media to academic theories, play a role in its perpetuation.

113. Shakely, Farhad. “Aesthetic Aspects in the Poetry of Mala-ye Jaziri.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16, nos. 1-2 (2002): 99-113.

Part of a special issue on Kurdish roots. Discusses the life, name, pen name, and poetry of the Kurdish poet Mala-ye Jaziri.

114. Saeedpour, Vera Beaudin. “The Darkness in Light Impressions: Kurdish Character Sketches.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 16, nos. 1-2 (2002): 115-161.

Part of a special issue on Kurdish roots.

Books Reviewed

1. Ali, Tariq. The Book of Saladin. New York and London: Verso, 1998. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 185-186. (Reviewed by Jane Davenport).

2. Al-Quraan al-Karim, ba Tarjama-ye Kurdi (The Holy Koran with Kurdish Translation). Translated by Muhammad Salih Ibrahimi. Calligraphy by Uthman Taha. Ramadan Ghom, Iran: Second Division of the Islamic Guidance Organization, 1417 A.H. (Winter 1997). The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 120-121. (Reviewed by Ferhad Shakely).

3. Andrews, Peter A., ed. Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey. Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert, 1989. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 5, nos. 1-2 (1992): 89-94. (Reviewed by the Editorial Board).

4. Andrews, Peter A. “Communications.” The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, nos. 1-2 (1994): 123-127. Peter Andrews responds to the review of his edited work, Ethnic Groups in the Republic of Turkey (Wiesbaden: Ludwig Reichert, 1989), published in vol. 5 of this journal. He entitled his response as “Hamlet and the Genie.”

5. Bartlett, W. B. God Wills It! An Illustrated History of the Crusades. Phoenix Mill, Great Britain: Sutton Publishing Limited, 1999. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 2 (1999): 111-112. (Reviewed by Paul A. Blaum).

6. Bickerton, Derek. Language and Human Behavior. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1996. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 186-188. (Reviewed by Editor).

7. Bournoutian, George A. A History of Qarabagh: An Annotated Translation of Mirza Jamal Javanshir Qarabaghi’s Tarikh-e Qarahagh. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda, 1994. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 130-133. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

8. Bournoutian, George A. A History of the Armenian People: Volume I, Pre-History to 1500 A.D. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda, 1993. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, no. 1-2 (1994): 118-121. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

9. Bruinessen, Martin van. Agha, Shaikh and State: The Social and Political Structures of Kurdistan. London: Zed Books, 1992. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, no. 1-2 (1993): 135-136. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

10. Bulloch, John and Harvey Morris. No Friends But the Mountains: The Tragic History of the Kurds. London: Viking, 1992. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 133-145. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

11. Chaliand, Gerard.. The Kurdish Tragedy. Translated by Philip Black. London: Zed Books, 1994. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 133-145. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

12. Cockburn, Andrew, and Patrick Cockburn. Out of the Ashes: The Resurrection of Saddam Hussein. New York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1999. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 2 (1999): 113-115. (Reviewed by the Editor).

13. Criel, Jean-Marie and Pervine Jamil. Costumes et Tapis Kurdes. Brussels: Institut Kurde de Bruxelles, 1995. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 10, no. 1-2 (1996): 157-159. (Reviewed by Anahid Akasheh).

14. Diakonoff, I. M. and S. A. Starostin. “Hurro-Urartian as an Eastern Caucasian Language.” Munchener Studien zur Sprachwissenschaft. New Series 12. Munich: 1986. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, no. 1-2 (1994): 112-117. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

15. Dodgeon, Michael and Samuel Lieu. The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars: AD 226-363. London: Routledge, 1994. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 145-153. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

16. Eagleton, William. An Introduction to Kurdish Rugs and Other Weavings. New York: Interlink Books, 1988. Kurdish Times, 2, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 43-44. (Reviewed by the Editorial Board).

17. Entessar, Nader. Kurdish Ethnonationalism. Boulder: Lynne Rienner, 1992. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, no. 1-2 (1994): 121-122. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

18. Fernandez-Armesto, Felipe. Truth. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1999. The International Journal for Kurdish Studies, 14, nos. 1-2 (2000): 121-125. (Reviewed by the Editor).

19. Fish, Stanley. The Trouble with Principle. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1999. The International Journal for Kurdish Studies, 14, nos. 1-2 (2000): 125-130. (Reviewed by the Editor).

20. Grosz, Katarzyna. The Archive of the Wullu Family. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press, University of Copenhagen, 1988. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, no. 1-2 (1994): 112-117. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

21. Gunter, Michael. The Kurds of Iraq: Tragedy and Hope. New York: St. Martin, 1992. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 5, no. 1-2 (1992): 94-96. (Reviewed by the Editorial Board).

22. Hassanpour, Amir. Nationalism and Language in Kurdistan: 1918-1985. San Francisco: Mellon Research University Press, 1992. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, no. 1-2 (1993): 136-138. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

23. Imset, Ismet G. The PKK: A Report on Separatist Violence in Turkey, 1973-1992. Ankara: Turkish Daily News Publications, 1992. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 133-145. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

24. Kreyenbroek, Philip G. and Stefan Sperl, eds. The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. London: Routledge, 1992. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 133-145. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

25. Laizer, Sheri. Martyrs, Traitors aned Patriots: Kurdistan after the Gulf War. London: Zed Books, 1996. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 10, no. 1-2 (1996): 166-171. (Reviewed by Vera Saeedpour).

26. Magocsi, Paul Robert. Historical Atlas of East Central Europe. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1993. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 127-130. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

27. Murad, Emil. The Quagmire. Tel Aviv-London: Freund Publishing House Ltd., 1998. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 188-190. (Reviewed by the Editor).

28. Nisan, Mordechai. Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-Expression. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, 1991. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 9, no. 1-2 (1996): 118-120. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

29. O’Ballance, Edgar. The Kurdish Struggle: 1920:94. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 10, no. 1-2 (1996): 159-161. (Reviewed by Michael Gunter).

30. Olson, Robert. The Kurdish Question and Turkish-Iranian Relations: From World War I to 1998. Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers, 1998. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 190-193. (Reviewed by the Editor).

31. Patton, Douglas. Badr al-D*n Lu’lu’: Atabeg of Mosul, 1211-1259. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1991. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, no. 1-2 (1994): 111-112. (Reviewed by Lawrence Potter).

32. Rabbat, Nasser O. The Citadel of Cairo. A New Interpretation of Royal Mamluk Architecture. Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1995. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 13, no. 1 (1999): 193-195. (Reviewed by the Editor).

33. Riley-Smith, Jonathan, ed. The Atlas of the Crusades. New York: Facts On File, 1991. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 9, no. 1-2 (1996): 121-122. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

34. Roosevelt, Archibald, Jr. For Lust of Knowing: Memoirs of an Intelligence Officer. Boston: Little, Brown, 1988. Kurdish Times, 2, no. 2 (Summer 1988): 45-46. (Reviewed by the Editorial Board).

35. Schreiber, Jon. Touching the Mountain: A Self-Breema Handbook; Ancient Exercises for the Modern World. Oakland: California Health Publications, 1989. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 124-125. (Reviewed by Rebecca Beaudin).

36. Sheriff, Abdul, ed. The History and Conservation of Zanzibar Stone Town. Athens, Ohio: Ohio University Press, 1995. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 10, no. 1-2 (1996): 161-166. (Reviewed by Anahid Akasheh and Mehrdad Izrady).

37. Sherwin-White, Susan and Amelie Kuhrt. From Samarkhand to Sardis: A New Approach to the Seleucid Empire. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 8, no. 1-2 (1995): 145-153. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

38. Stanzer, Wilfried. Kordi: Lives, Rugs and Flat Weaves of the Kurds in Khorassan. Vienna: Adil Besim, 1988. Expanded edition, 1993. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 9, no. 1-2 (1996): 115-118. (Reviewed by Anahid Akasheh).

39. Tirman, John. Spoils of War: The Human Cost of America’s Arms Trade. New York: Free Press, 1997. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 12, nos. 1-2 (1998): 122-123. (Reviewed by Peter L. Thompson).

40. Wilhelm, Gernot.. The Hurrians. Translated by Diana Stein. Warminster, UK: Aris & Philips Ltd., 1989. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 7, no. 1-2 (1994): 112-117. (Reviewed by Mehrdad Izady).

41. Wollheim, Richard. On the Emotions. New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1999. The International Journal for Kurdish Studies, 14, nos. 1-2 (2000): 130-131. (Reviewed by the Editor).

42. Yalcin-Heckman, Lale. Tribe and Kinship among the Kurds. Frankfurt: Peter Lang, 1991. The International Journal of Kurdish Studies 6, no. 1-2 (1993): 138-139. (Reviewed by the Editorial Board).

Lokman I. Meho

School of Library Science & Policy, University at Albany, State University of New York

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