Skills level of Jordanian teachers’ basic education in the area of instructional media, The

skills level of Jordanian teachers’ basic education in the area of instructional media, The

El-Hmaisat, Hamad

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to investigate the skill level of the Jordanian teachers at the basic education level in the area of instructional media, (IM). The areas of concern were the production of instructional media and the operation of media equipment. The result showed that:

A high percentage of teachers did not take courses in the area of IM during their inservice preparation.

A high percentage of teachers noted they did not participate in the inservice training and workshops conducted by the Ministry of Education.

The gender had no effect on the skill level in the production area of IM.

The gender had no effect on the skill level in the operation of instructional media equipment.

The degree did not have any effect on either the production area of IM, or the operation of media equipment.

INTRODUCTION

Jordan is a section of the Arab world which is considered one of the most advanced developed countries in the Arab world. The ministry of education has committed a major investment of dollars in the area of Instructional Technology. It has established various learning resource centers in each governate in the country and conducted workshops to train teachers in order to enhance their learning and improve the teaching and learning in the government schools.

The public Community College has offered a two year training program in the area of instructional media and library science. In addition, the college of educational science within the public universities, are offering several courses in the area of instructional media. This is an important source “Media technology enhance instruction by displaying events and things that took place in the past, that are small to see, too large too transport, to complex to understand, or even things that cannot be seen at all.”( More, Wilson, and Armisted, 1986).

RELATED STUDIES

Many studies conducted in the area of instructional technology investigated the impact of training on teachers skills in the area of instructional media. El Hmaisat. (1989, P. 196) found that one of the barriers facing the teachers in the elementary schools was the lack of training in instructional media. Bowies (1985) indicated that the use of instructional media technology have certainly proven to be a powerful educational tool due to its capacity to involve students in their own learning; to capture students attention and to extend their minds and to broaden the overall school experience of young people. Many studies found that preservice teachers who have taken formal training in the area of instructional media were positively influenced toward their selection and use . It was reported that formal training produced the necessary intellectual and motor skills to create a positive attitude toward the selection and utilization of instructional media Kelley (1959), Cole, (1964), Wheller, (1969), Jenkins (1972) and Long (1974) Also, Fulton and White (1959), Rome (1973) Lare (1974), Jones (1982) have identified media skills and competencies in use or recommended by inservice educational personnel including classroom teachers, administration and college instruction. The same relates to methods courses as well as instructional media faculty. Engstorm (1981) stated that, as teacher become more skilled with technology and using it to enrich and challenge traditional pedagogy, they discover new ways of the thinking about teaching and learning. Also, he identified competencies which teacher and school staff should attain. The teacher must attain skills in designing and developing materials that are specific to learning needs for students. Although, the preparation of the teachers in the use of media, may take place informally, most teachers will have to rely upon other sources for training.

Koontz (1992) in his study noted that the majority of teachers who used media had little or no training in the use of technology. Cropp (1990) indicated that media is an important component for teacher effectiveness and that teacher preparation programs should require an understanding of the instructional media prior to certification.

The above studies illustrate the importance of instructional media in the learning teaching processes as well as it’s importance to pre and inservice training for teachers in the schools.

PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The study aimed at investigating the skill level of teachers in basic education in the area of producing instructional media and operating different types of instructional media equipment.

THE IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY

The study will define the skill level of the teacher, at the basic level, in the area of production and the operation of instructional media equipment. It will also provide information for the decision makers to design the necessary training and workshop programs for inservice teachers in the area of instructional media.

METHODS OF THE STUDY

The population of this study consisted of all teachers at the basic level (grade 1 to grade lOth ) in all departments of education at the governate of Karak (AlQsaba, Al -Mazar, AL-qaser). According to the department of education of the governate of Karak, there are 58 female schools with a total of (637) female teachers, and 24 male schools with a total of (290) male teachers.

THE SAMPLE

One department of education (Al-qasba) was randomly selected with 25% of school male and females chosen. Thus male schools consisted of 105 teachers and 15 female schools consisted of 202 female teachers. This selection represented the sample of study. The questionnaire was distributed to all the teachers by the end of the first semester of 1995.

THE INSTRUMENT

A questionnaire was designed to gather information about Jordanian teachers at the basic education level; their skills level in the area of production of instructional media (materials); and the operation of different types of instructional media equipment. The questionnaire consisted of four parts:

Part one

This section was designed to obtain demographic data such as sex, age, teaching experience, qualifications, and specialty.

Part two

This sections was designed to obtain specific information about the preservice preparation and inservice participation of the respondents in the area of instructional media

Part Three

This section was designed to measure teacher skill levels in the area of production of instructional materials. It consisted of 19 items rated on a six point scale. consistency of excellent, good, moderate, less than moderate, poor and I don’t know. Each response to the scale was coded numerically to yield an average score. The weight was 6,5,4,3,2,1.

Part Four

This section was designed to measure teacher skill levels in the area of the operation of ten different types of instructional media equipment. A four point scale was used ( very good, moderate, poor and I don’t know). Each response to the scale was coded numerically with the weight being 4,3,2,1.

RESEARCH QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESIS

The study aimed at answering the following questions and hypothesis.

What are the teachers background, sex, age, teaching experience, qualification, and speciality.

What courses and training workshops were taken by teachers during their pre and inservice profession?

What skills do teachers have in the area of production of instructional media?

What skills do teacher have in the area of operation of instructional media?

What courses and training workshops were taken by teachers during their pre and inservice training?

There will be no significant difference between male, and female teachers skill levels in the area of production of instructional materials.

There will be no significant difference between male and female teachers skill levels in the area of operation of instructional media equipment.

There will be no significant difference in teachers skill levels in the production of instructional media which contribute to gender.

There will be no significant difference in teachers skill levels in the production of instructional media which contribute to gender and degree.

There will be no significant difference in the teacher skill in the operation of instructional equipment which contribute to gender and degree.

DATA ANALYSIS

In order to answer the research questions the SPSS was used to analyze the data. Descriptive statistics and analysis of variance (anova) were used. The number of returned questionnaire was 89 (84.7) from the male schools and 153 (75.7) from the female schools.

Findings

Demographic data

The basic education teacher level was predominantly female, (63.2%). Average male teacher age was (33.2) whereas the average age of female teachers was (31.8). The average number of years of experience was (10.2) for male and (9.2) for female teachers. Forty six percent of the teachers had only two years of training or a community college degree. Thirty one (31.4) teachers had a bachelor degree, whereas (3.3%) had a diploma after the bachelors degree, and (1.2%) noted they had a master degree.

Table (1) shows that the majority of the respondents were majoring in Arabic Language Fifty one (21.1%) in the Arabic Language, whereas one was majoring in computer science (.4).

The Pre service training

Table (2), on the following page, shows that (45%) of the respondents. have taken courses in the area of learning theories during their preservice training . Only twenty seven (11.2 %) respondents had taken courses in instructional computing.

Table (3) shows teachers responses to different types of training and workshops in the area of instructional media that were conducted by the Ministry of Education. The majority of the respondents attended the operation of instructional media equipment (sixty eight teachers – 28.1%), whereas nine teachers (3.7%), attended instructional computing.

Teachers skills in the area of production of instructional media.

Table (4), on the following page, displays the responses of teacher skills in the area of production of instructional media.The table shows that eleven teachers (4.5%) and one hundred forty seven teachers (63.8%) had the skills between excellent and good . Fifty three teachers (21.9%) and one hundred eighty six teachers (76.9%) noted that they did not have skills in the area of production.

Teacher skills level in the area of operation of Instructional Media Equipment

Table (5) displays the responses of teachers skill levels in the area of the operation of instructional media equipment. The data shows that forty teachers (16.5%) and one hundred twenty six (52.1%) had the skill level between very good and moderate and between (36%), and eighty seven and one hundred sixty one teachers (66.5%) noted they did not have the skills in the operation of instructional media.

Table (6) indicates that the mean and the standard deviation of the male teachers was higher than the female teachers . The male mean was (3.2) with the female (2.6).

As shown in table (7), the results show that there is a significant difference between the male and female teachers skill level in the area of instructional media production at the level of alpha = .05.

Table (8) indicates that the mean and standard deviation of the male teachers skill level in the area of production of instructional media, is greater than the female teachers. The male mean was (2.0) and the female was (1.7).

As shown in table (9) the result shows that there is a significant difference between male and female teachers skill levels in the area of operation of instructional media equipment. The null hypothesis therefore is rejected at the level of alpha = .05.

Table (10) indicates that there is an effect on the gender of the teachers skill levels on the production of instructional media. The null hypothesis therefore is rejected at the alpha level = .05.

Table (11), on the following page indicates that there is an effect of gender on teacher skill levels on the operation of instructional media equipment, therefore, the null hypotheses is rejected at the alpha level = .05.

DISCUSSION

The reasons why the majority of teachers do not have the necessary skills in the area of instructional media were due to the following:

1. Workshops and training was conducted by the Ministry of Education on Thursdays. This may be restructuring the teachers participation in the workshop since Thursdays are their days off and no incentives were provided for them to participate in the workshops.

2. The staff conducting the workshops were usually technicians who were not qualified in the area of instructional media

3. Teachers are still considering instructional media as teaching aids,thus they do not understand the concept of instructional technology.

CONCLUSION

This study attempted to investigate teacher skill levels in the area of production of instructional media, and the operation of instructional media equipment. It was found that many teachers did not take courses in the area of instructional media during their preservice training, and many teachers did not participate in inservice workshops and training in the area of instructional media. It is recommended, therefore, that all teachers must take the basic courses in the area of instructional media before they start their teaching in profession schools. Further, it is recommended that all teachers participate in the necessary workshops, and training sessions conducted by the Ministry of Education. The Ministry of Education must also cooperate with the College of Educational Science in the process of conducting the workshops and in the implementation process of these important training sessions.

REFERENCES

1. Bowie, M. M., (1985). Media utilization in the classroom. Drexel Library Quarterly, 21, (2), pp. 105-125.

2. Brennan, E. L. (1991). Improving elementary teachers comfort and skill with instructional technology through school-based training. Doctoral Dissertation, Nova Universities. (ERIC) Document Reproduction Service, No ED. 339 – 348.

3. Cole, J. H., (1964). Effects of an audiovisual course on prospective teachers attitude toward the use of audiovisual materials and toward teaching. Dissertation Abstract International 25, 5762- 5763A.

4. Cropp, D, (1990). Are media needs being met for the beginning teachers? Journal of Educational Technology System, 18,(3). 215- 234 .

5. EL – Hmaisat, H., (1989). The status of instructional media at the governate of Karak (Jordan In Arabic) Muta’h Journal for research and studies, Vol 4, Number 1., pp. 151-211

6. Engstrom, K, (1981). A guide to the use of technology in basic skills education, Washington, DC. Office of Educational Research and Improvement.

7. Fulton,W. R. and White, Frederick, A., (1959). What constitutes teacher competence in audio visual communications, Phi Delta Kappan. January 40, pp.158 – 160 .

8. Jenkins, D. M. (1972). An investigation of teacher attitude toward educational media when related to a basic course in educational media. Dissertation Abstract International 33, 156 4 A.

9. Jones, G. N, (1983). The relationship of media Training and media use by student teacher and first year teacher. Dissertation Abstract International, 43, 3490 A.

10. Kelly, G. B, (1959). Analysis of teacher attitudes toward the use of audiovisual materials. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Boston University.

ll. Koontz, F. (1992). An Assessment of teacher trainees attitude toward selected instructional media, paper Presented at the annual Convention of the Association of Educational Communication and Technology, Washington. D.C. Feb.

12. Lare, George A. (1974). Media education in elementary teacher programs at selected teacher education institution Doctoral Dissertation. Aug. Kent State University.

13. Long, H. L. (1976). An analysis of selected first year teacher attitude toward the use of Audiovisual Materials, Doctoral dissertation, University of Alabama.

14. Metcalf, K. K. (1989). Professional skill development in teacher training, toward amount effective model, Educational Technology 29:9. p. 12

15. Moore, D. M., Wilson, L. Armistead, P, (1986). Media research: a graduate student’s primer. British Journal of Educational Technology, 17 (3), pp. 185-193 .

16. Rome, S. F. (1973). The relationship between suggested media competencies and those recommended by audiovisual instructional methods and high school principals. Doctoral Dissertation Indiana University.

17. Wheller, M. F, (1969). A study of relationship among professional attitude personal traits and attitudinal change during instruction in perceptual media. Dissertation Abstract International 30, 2391 A .

18. Wilkinson, G. L, (1980). Media in Instruction: 60 years of research, Association of Educational Communications. and Technology, Washington, DC.

DR. HAMAD EL-HMAISAT College of Educational Science, Karak-Jordan

Direct Reprint Requests to: Dr. Hamad El-Hmaisat Associate Professor

Dean of the College of Educational Science PO Box 7

Karak Jordan

Copyright Dr. Phillip J. Sleeman 1998

Provided by ProQuest Information and Learning Company. All rights Reserved