Issues and challenges in teacher education
John M. Engelhardt
Introduction and Background
From its origin, ACME has been about maximizing mathematics learning, focusing both on student learning and what teachers do to help or hinder student’s mathematics learning. Thus, the preparation of teachers has been a significant theme for RCML–how to help students experiencing math problems and how to prevent such problems.
This presentation focuses on teacher education as a general enterprise, especially issues and challenges that university-based teacher education is facing. While my comments are couched generally, they have specific application and implications for mathematics teacher education/educators.
Sometimes it feels like America’s favorite pastime is criticizing teacher education. Actually, America’s favorite pastime seems to be criticizing public education, and teacher education gets dragged into the discussion. The logic seems to go something like this:
If kids aren’t learning, it is the fault of teachers and if teachers
aren’t helping kids learn, it must result from poor preparation.
Actually, it is not the case that teacher education is poor. Indeed, for one thing children are learning more than ever. Others, like David Berliner, have made the case that IQs and achievement are higher than ever. So, thanks to all of my colleague math educators who have done a great job and have made a difference in the lives of students.
Yet, the rhetoric of criticism and blame continues for teacher education. Why?
One can argue that it’s all just politics and teacher education is an easy target for politicians. After all, what governor today is not an education governor and self proclaimed expert on teacher education-teachers just need more content. And teacher educators from a rather small voter constituency and pose a rather impotent group. Clearly, teacher educators (including math educators) must form alliances with natural allies–K-12 community, NEA/AFT, state boards of education and some legislators.
Issues and Challenges
But what are the factors that contribute to this state of affairs? What are the big issues and challenges that contribute to the poor credibility of (mathematics) teacher education? I will identify four categories of issues/challenges:
Category 1: Perceived low teacher quality
* Students low scores on standards-based tests (teacher quality tied to kids’ performance)
* Teacher “drop out” rate in the profession
* Quality of teacher education candidates from the general talent pool (SATs), GPAs) and non-subject majors. There is data to refute these claims, but somehow it’s not gathered or shared.
Category 2: Perceived ineffective preparation programs
* lack of common agreement on a vision and outcomes for beginning (mathematics) teachers
* reluctance to change teacher education programs by insiders that is perceived/presented as radical/innovative
* lack of research on program effectiveness, especially in terms of student learning, teacher retention and performance
* reluctance by teacher educators to be strong on accreditation (we argue about the ten percent we don’t agree on)
* lack of acknowledgement of shifting paradigms in education:
a) from time-constant and outcome-variable to time-variable and outcome-constant
b) from educational opportunity for all to learning for all (of essential knowledge and skills)
c) from teacher performance to student performance
It should be noted that some of these result from barriers/impediments within higher education-like SCH funding, semester hour definitions, institutional date management systems and the curricular approval process.
Category 3: Perceived poor connection to K-12 schools
* little systematic education school involvement in the professional development of teachers, especially in on-going and relevant ways
* lack of perceived involvement in the lives of schools in fundamental ways
* lack of perceived public advocacy for teachers, schools, kids–and the teaching profession
Category 4: Public policy
* teacher education is not a player in policy on education-policy can/is created without consultation
* teacher education has not established an acknowledge knowledge base–policy-maker view is that a warm heart for kids and strong content is sufficient. Point is not that these are true, but that teacher education is not sufficiently proactive on these fronts.
What Can Be Done?
* Be proactive, not reactive
* Produce data and share it
–on candidates, impact of program completers on kids, PR/success stories, program outcomes
* Be proud and advocate for the teaching career
* Revise teacher ed programs-and do research on it
* Take back professional development for inservice
* Build strong connections to K-12 schools
* Get liberal arts and sciences meaning fully involved, with responsibility, authority and equivalent voice/vote
It should be recognized that addressing some of these issues well may be difficult under a very traditional university reward structure. It is a truism that an institution will only go where its reward structure permits.
While the intention of my comments is to be provocative, they also are intended to provoke great thought and action by all (mathematics) teacher education faculty to address issues and challenges facing the preparation of today’s mathematics teachers at all levels.
John M. Engelhardt
Wichita State University
COPYRIGHT 2003 Center for Teaching – Learning of Mathematics
COPYRIGHT 2004 Gale Group