bubble, bubble – soap bubbles
Gas trapped in liquid can lessen toil and trouble
“Scientific truth and natural phenomena are as good subjects for art as are man and his emotions,” wrote Berenice Abbott, an acclaimed american photographer who turned her documentary skills to the illustration of mathematical principles governing the physical world. Her photographs of soap bubbles were shot in 1940, when she was the picture editor of Science Illustrated. The bubbles shimmer with intensity as they huddle, minimizing the total area of their exposure to the nonbubble world.
The bubble is the Clark Kent of the natural world: mild-mannered and a bit of a wimp–until it strips for action. A preview of the awesome power of the seemingly innocent orb came in 1917 when English physicist Lord Rayleigh revealed how bubbles in ocean water cause the mysterious erosion of the metal in ship propellers. Today the bubble is being harnessed in a dazzling array of industrial and medical uses. Someday it may even help save your life.
Oil refiners employ bubbles in the removal of sulfur from crude. Bubbles force inks through the microscopic nozzles of ink-jet printers. Plastic surgeons use ultrasound to create bubbles that liquefy fat they wish to remove through liposuction. In the future, bubbles may sterilize surgical instruments and break up kidney stones. And some physicists speculate that the heat of bubbles targeted by sound waves is theoretically sufficient to trigger fusion, a Holy Grail of renewable energy.
None of this detracts from the bubble’s charm–so natural that its essential message is easily missed. A bubble wafted by a summer breeze, its spherical shape enclosing a maximum volume of gas for a given area, is a perfect demonstration of the law of conservation of energy. In two dimensions, bubble walls trace the shortest possible distance between a series of points. Bubbles minimize their own area by settling into a mosaic of hexagons–a pattern accepted for the past century as using the least energy, but definitively proven only this spring. Mathematician Thomas Hales of the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor cracked the hexagonal problem but remains mystified by another enduring bubble puzzle: Which bubble shapes most efficiently fill a room? “I’m working on it, but the solution won’t be found in my lifetime,” Hales says. Transparent and ephemeral, bubbles still guard their secrets.
Cavitation–bubble implosion–can make pieces of steel look as they’ve been pummeled by artillery. An increase in internal pressure or a drop in the pressure of the surrounding fluid bloats a bubble to a hundred times its original size and creates an almost perfect vacuum inside. When normal pressure returns, the bubble collapses violently; if it’s on a surface, this launches a minuscule dagger of water through its center (like the bubble, center left, magnified 45 times). A cavitating bubble on a ship propeller, for instance, sends its water jet smashing into the metal at up to 560 miles per hour. Although the bubbles involved are at most 100 microns high and the entire cycle lasts only 50-millionths of a second, the continuous pounding can ruin a new propeller in a matter of days. But the fury of cavitation may be put to positive use someday soon. Ultrasound directed at specific sites in the body, such as kidney stones or tumors, can form tiny bubbles that become micron-size jackhammers capable of destroying their targets.
Shock waves, like the yellow are created by a .22-caliber bullet passing through a helium-filled soap bubble, can produce mysterious effects. In a process called sonoluminescence, sound waves cause an air bubble in water to pulsate 20,000 times a second. Each collapse can create a miniature pressure front inside the bubble, which emits a tiny white glow believed to be much hotter than the surface of the sun. Such temperatures could theoretically be harnessed to produce fusion.
Two soap films separated by a thin layer of water create a psychedelic bubble wall. Because some rays of light bounce off the inner layer of film and some off the outer, waves in the color spectrum fall out of sync and cancel one another. With thick walls, red disappears, leaving only blue. Magenta swirls occur when walls thin and green vanishes. When black appears, the wall is so delicate it’s about to pop.
A queue of rising air bubbles in water soon becomes disorderly. A series of time-lapse photographs, just 35-thousandths of a second from start to finish, shows the slipstream of the flatter leading bubble accelerating the progress of its follower. A few instants later, the two merge.
When studying vortices–the turbanlike swirls that shear away at the edges of a moving fluid–physicists can rely on bubbles to help them visualize the eddies. An electrically charged wire (bottom center, three times actual size) produces tiny hydrogen bubbles that act like bread crumbs marking the spiraling pathways of a jet of water. Eddies behave the same way in air currents, so such bubble-generated models are used in the design of airplane wings. Overly massive vortices impede ascension, causing a plane to plummet.
Air bubbles follow unpredictable twisting paths as they rise in moving water. Using long exposures, Australian physicist Richard Manasseh hopes one day to foretell the patterns bubbles follow and the amount of time they need to reach the surface. This could help climatologists anticipate the pace of global warming. Whitecaps, waves, and rain drive air bubbles containing greenhouse gases nearly 30 feet into the ocean. Then as the bubbles ascend, the gases dissolve into the water. How much greenhouse gas is removed from the atmosphere depends on how long the bubbles remain submerged.
Bubbles would prefer to be droplets–much less area to keep intact and therefore much more energy efficient. One pinhole in its surface is all the excuse a bubble needs to collapse. But a pencil coated with soapy water (you can try this at home) will fool a bubble into thinking that the intruder belongs. Makes a good handle for bubble transport.
Bubble shows were once staples of traveling carnivals. Science museums, notably the Exploratorium in San Francisco, continue to spin bubble enchantments. But none of Earth’s creatures seem more fascinated with bubbles than dolphins, which have been observed creating ring-shaped bubbles and occasionally swimming through them. Once a researcher at a Hawaii aquarium playfully blew bubbles at the window of a dolphin tank–and was answered with a perfect bubble ring inside the tank.
Hidden beneath the gaudy exterior of a bubble hive is an entire Principia of cluster geometry, lessons extending far from the bathtub or the kitchen sink. For example, a city planner wanting to determine the roadway connections between three towns would do well to check out the merger of three bubbles, which invariably meet one another at angles of 120 degrees, demonstrating the shortest possible distance between three points. Bubbles may be able to entertain with wonder and wow, but they are also loaded with wisdom.
COPYRIGHT 1999 Discover
COPYRIGHT 2000 Gale Group