Physical activity behavior and attitudes toward involvement among physical education, health, and leisure services pre-professionals
The present study investigated leisure time physical activity behavior and attitudes/reasons for involvement among physical education (n=41), health (n=44), and leisure services (n=46) pre-professionals. Physical education majors reported significantly higher exercise intensity than did health and leisure services majors. Males reported higher exercise intensity than females. Physical education majors’ scores for the fun/enjoyment involvement reason were higher than health and leisure services majors. Health and leisure services majors’ competition reason scores were higher than physical education majors. Females’ competition reason scores were higher than males while scores for males on fun/enjoyment and challenge/achievement were higher than females. Overall, participants reported lower scores for competition than for other reasons for participating in leisure time physical activity.
The importance of being physically active cannot be overstated. Years of research evidence supporting the relationship between good health and participation in physical activity was recently summarized and published in the United States Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], 1996). The Surgeon General recommends daily participation in physical activity for maximum health benefits because inactivity has been found to be significantly related to coronary artery disease (Paffenbarger, Wing, & Hyde, 1982), obesity (Bjorntorp, 1993), hypertension (Paffenbarger, Wing, & Hyde, 1983), and diabetes mellitus (Kriska et al., 1990).
The Surgeon General’s Report on Physical Activity and Health (CDC, 1996) indicates that only 40% of adults are physically active and only 15% participate in leisure time physical activity at the minimum frequency and duration (three times a week for at least 20 minutes) recommended by the American College of Sports Medicine (1991) for maximum health benefits. Also, only 50% of people 12-21 years of age engage in regular leisure time physical activity for the recommended frequency and duration. Some researchers report even lower participation levels (Heath & Smith, 1994; Page, 1987; Schultz, Harper, Smith, Kriska, & Ravussin, 1994;) and exercise intensities (Dinger & Waigandt, 1997; Schultz et al., 1994). Activity choices most frequently reported by the physically active, regardless of exercise intensity, are: running, jogging, or walking; weight lifting; aerobic exercise; bicycling; and, swimming or other water activities (Bian, 1999; Blank, DePauw, Peavy, & Meadows, 1993; CDC, 1996; Heath & Smith, 1994; Pinto & Marcus., 1995).
One way to better understand participation behavior is to identify individuals’ attitudes about or reasons for involvement in physic, al activities (Ebbeck, Gibbons, & Loken-Dahle, 2000). According to research, one of the main reasons for college students’ and young adults’ leisure time physical activity involvement is health and fitness (Blair, 1984; Bungum & Morrow, 2000; Ebbeck et al., 2000; Koslow, 1988; Mathes & Battista, 1985; Quarterman, Harris, & Chew, 1996; Soudan & Everett, 1981). Other reasons include social, competition, or relaxation. Regardless of the reason for involvement, it is important to remember that participation levels nation-wide are low (CDC, 1996).
Some researchers contend that college programs designed to promote participation in leisure time physical activity and positive attitudes toward activity can be effective in helping young adults adopt a physically active lifestyle (Adams & Brynteson, 1992; Brynteson & Adams, 1993; Slava, Laurie, & Corbin, 1984). Post-secondary programs specifically designed to educate pre-professionals in fields that either directly or indirectly promote the benefits of involvement in leisure time physical activity also constitute a main avenue for reaching the public with the participation message. More specifically, the way in which college educators in the three disciplines of physical education, health, and leisure services communicate their participation message to pre-professionals may determine how effectively their students are able to later influence the public to become physically active.
Professionals in the field of physical education, for example, attempt to contribute to the continuous educational process of individuals (emotional, social, and physical development) through the medium of human movement (Jewett & Bain, 1985). Post-secondary physical education programs, therefore, are designed to educate young professionals in the knowledges, skills, and attitudes needed for teaching and promoting movement activities (American Association for Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 1989).
Health professionals primarily focus on change processes that affect general well being. More specifically, health specialists are involved in teaching, advocating, and administering health change programs at the individual, organizational, or community level (Simons-Morton, Greene, & Gottlieb, 1995). As such, health professionals prepare post-secondary students to utilize a variety of settings, such as community physical activity programs, to encourage individual behavior change.
Professionals in the discipline of leisure services are dedicated to providing and managing programs, assisting people in making informed decisions regarding their use of leisure time, and preservation of natural resources (Edginton, Jordan, DeGraaf, & Edginton, 1998). Curricula designed to educate leisure services undergraduate students incorporates knowledges related to human behavior as well as organizational and management techniques for a variety of programs and leisure activities, including physical activities.
A relatively consistent finding in the education literature is that curriculum decisions, instruction, and student learning is affected by the beliefs, attitudes, and values of educators (Kulinna & Silverman, 2000; Pajares, 1992). Even though professionals in the physical education, health, and leisure services disciplines advocate the benefits of regular participation in leisure time physical activity, they differ in beliefs, goals, and process. Therefore, it is important to understand to what extent these three related, yet different, programs influence the attitudes and behaviors of pre-professional students. And, at present, no such research exists. It is, of course, the pre-professional student who will educate, motivate, and guide others toward a physically active life-style.
Therefore, the purpose of the present descriptive study was to determine how three related curricula impact the behaviors and attitudes of students. More specifically, the following was investigated: (1) leisure time physical activity participation among physical education, health, and leisure services pre-professionals; (2) exercise intensity (total MET hrs/week of participation in physical activity) and a general feeling (balance of feeling) toward participation in leisure time physical activity by major and gender; and, (3) reasons for participation in leisure time physical activity by major and gender.
Questionnaires were distributed to physical education (n = 193), health (n = 165), and leisure services (n = 154) volunteer major students at a mid-western university. Of the 512 questionnaires distributed, 173 (33.78%) were returned. Due to either incomplete responses or failure to follow directions, 42 questionnaires were eliminated from further analysis. Therefore, complete questionnaires (N = 131) were received from 81 females and 51 males who were physical education (n = 41), health (n = 44), and leisure services (n = 46) majors.
Overall, participants were 21.53 years (SD = 2.73) of age. The average age for physical education, health, and leisure services majors was 21.70 (SD = 1.69), 21.55 (SD = 3.40), and 21.32 (SD = 2.80) years, respectively. Table 1 presents additional demographic information by major and gender.
Physical Activity Assessment. The Modifiable Activity Questionnaire (MAQ), a self-report instrument developed by Kriska et al. (1990), was used to assess participation behavior in leisure time physical activity for each individual. Instructions directed respondents to report involvement in any leisure time physical activity which they had performed at least 10 times over the past year. The MAQ is a reliable and valid tool (Aaron et al., 1995; Kriska et al., 1990; Schultz et al., 1994) that was designed to allow modifications that would enable its use with a variety of populations. The MAQ was adapted for the present study by assigning each of 47 physical activities to one of following six categories: aerobic activities, water activities, winter activities, sports, golf, and miscellaneous.
Exercise Intensity. Information requested on the MAQ allows for the computation of an estimate of each subject’s average exercise intensity or energy expenditure. In order to calculate the weekly energy, expenditure, an approximate metabolic cost value (MET) was determined for each of the 47 activities by selecting the midpoint value of the intensities recommended by Ainsworth et al. (1993). Recent work by Kriska (2000) supports use of the midpoint of the range for intensity estimates. One MET can be interpreted as the oxygen consumption or energy expenditure for an individual at rest (Schulz et al., 1994). The average number of MET hours per week for each subject was determined by multiplying the number of hours in physical activity a week by the activity’s MET value (Kriska et al., 1990; Schultz et al., 1994). The resultant number represents an estimation of the exercise intensity for each subject.
Reasons Assessment. The Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ; Corbin & Lindsey, 1997) was used to investigate attitudes about or reasons for participation in physical activities. Because psychometric data was not available, a separate sample of volunteers (N = 67) was used to investigate the test-retest reliability of the PAQ. Volunteers were requested from two separate classes of students and a total of 79 individuals consented to participate. The period of time between the first and second administration of the questionnaire was one week. The order of questions was changed for the second administration of the questionnaire to prevent order effects. Twelve volunteers did not complete the questionnaire the second time and, therefore, were eliminated from the analysis. A moderate Pearson correlation coefficient of r = .58 (p < .01) was found for the test-retest of the PAQ.
The PAQ contains 14 items that are assessed on a five-point Likert-type scale (strongly agree, agree, undecided, disagree, and strongly disagree) to produce seven subscale reasons (health and fitness, relaxation and tension, social, competition, fun and enjoyment, challenge and achievement, and, appearance) scores for each subject. Scores for each subscale range from a low of 2 (negative feelings) to a high of 10 (positive feelings).
In addition, an overall balance of feeling (BF) score was computed for each subject by scoring one point for each subscale score of 4 or above and subtracting 1 point for each subscale score of 1 or 2. Zero points were given for each score of 3. Interpretation of the BF scores for the PAQ is as follows: excellent, 9-10 points; good, 7-8 points; fair, 6 points; poor, 4-5 points; and very poor, 3 or less points (Corbin & Lindsey, 1997). According to Corbin and Lindsey, the BF score is an indication of positive or negative attitudes toward physical activity.
Faculty who taught professional theory courses taken primarily by physical education, health, and leisure services major students were contacted for permission to allow researchers to enter class and request volunteers for the study. Permission was granted by all faculty contacted. A prepared script was utilized to inform students of the general purpose of the study and to guarantee students that their involvement would be confidential due to the fact that no identifying information would be requested. Students were cautioned to read directions carefully and were allowed time to ask questions. Volunteers then received a copy of the questionnaire in an envelope that was addressed to one of the researchers. Two weeks after the distribution of the questionnaires a second contact was made to remind students to complete and return the survey as soon as possible.
Physical Activity Participation Behavior
The number of participants, by major (physical education, health, and leisure services) and gender, that reported having participated in each of the 47 physical activities during the past year are presented in Table 2. Overall (N = 131), weight training was the most popular activity, with 86 (65.6%) individuals reporting participation. Four additional activities that ranked in the top 5 for the entire sample were jog/walk (f = 78, 59.5%), aerobic machines (f = 75, 57.3%), walk for pleasure (f = 75, 57.3%), and running (f = 73, 55.7%).
For physical education majors (n = 41), the highest reported participation levels were for weight training (f = 30, 73.2%), running (f= 26, 63.4%), basketball-game play (f = 26, 63.4%), walk for pleasure (f = 24, 58.5%), and racquetball (f = 23, 56.1%). The top five activities for the health majors (n = 44) were weight training (f = 32, 72.7%), aerobic machines (f = 31, 70.5%), running (f = 26, 59.1%), jog/walk (f = 25, 56.8%), and walk for pleasure (f = 22, 50%). Leisure services majors (n = 46), reported their highest participation levels for jog/walk (f = 31, 67.4%), walk for pleasure (f = 29, 63%), bicycle for pleasure (f = 28, 60.9%), aerobic machines (f = 26, 56.5%), and weight training (f = 24, 52.2%). A visual inspection of the reported participation frequencies indicates that two of the five activities popular with physical education majors were game activities (basketball-gameplay and racquetball) while all activities reported by leisure services and health participants were exercise related. Walking for pleasure and weight training were in the top five activities for participants in all three majors.
Females (n = 80) reported their highest participation levels for aerobic machines (f = 59, 73.8%), walk for pleasure (f = 56, 70%), jog/walk (f = 52, 65%), walk for exercise (f = 51, 63.8%), and running (f = 47, 58.8%). For males (n = 51), the highest reported participation levels were in weight training (f = 40, 78.4%), basketball-game play (f = 35, 68.6%), jog/walk (f = 26, 51%), running (f = 26, 51%), and racquetball (f = 26, 51%). The top five activities for females were all exercise activities while many males reported participation in two game activities (basketball-gameplay and racquetball). The only activity that was in the top five for both females and males was jog/walk.
Exercise Intensity and Balance of Feeling
A 3 x 2 (Major x Gender) multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA), with age as the covariate, was utilized to test for significant differences in exercise intensity scores (total MET hrs/week) and balance of feeling (BF) toward physical activity. The Wilks’ lambda statistic for the interaction of Major x Gender was not significant, ?? = .95, F(4,246) = 1.29, p > .05, nor was the main effect for the covariate of Age, ?? = .99, F(2,123)= .61, p > .05.
The multivariate tests for the main effect of major, however, was significant, ?? = .84, F(4,246)= 5.43, p < .001. Tests of between subject effects indicated that the main effects for major were due to significant differences in the exercise intensity scores (total MET hr/week) with F(2,124)
= 8.82, p < .001. Subsequent Tukey post hoc tests showed that physical education majors' exercise intensity (M = 105.95, SD = 93.67) was higher (p .05) between the means of leisure services and health majors. Finally, there were no significant differences, by major, in the BF toward physical activity scores, F(2,124) = 2.17, p > .05. The BF means for the physical education (M = 8.49, SD = 1.78), health (M = 9.09, SD = 1.79), and leisure services (M = 8.15, SD = 2.75) students indicate a good to excellent attitude toward participation in physical activities (Corbin & Lindsey, 1997).
The Wilks’ lambda was significant for the main effect of Gender, ?? = .92, F(2,123) = 5.12, p < .01. The between subject results for main effects of Gender were also due to significant differences in the exercise intensity scores (total MET hr/week) with F(1,124) = 9.55, p .05. The BF means, however, for females (M = 8.68, SD = 2.37) and males (M = 8.41, SD = 1.89) both indicated a good to excellent attitude toward physical activities (Corbin & Lindsey, 1997).
Attitudes/Reasons for Involvement
A 3 x 2 (Major x Gender) MANCOVA, with age as the covariate, was performed to test for possible group differences in the seven reasons for involvement in leisure time physical activity. The Wilks’ lambda statistic for the interaction of Major x Gender was not significant, ?? = .91, F(14, 236) = .72, p > .05, nor was the main effect for the covariate of Age, ?? = .89, F(7, 118) = .89, p > .05.
The multivariate tests for the main effect of Major, however, was significant, ?? = .76, F(14, 236) = 2.47, p < .01. Tests of between-subjects effects indicated that group differences were found within 2 of the 7 reasons for participation. Groups differed on competition, F(2,124) = 4.96, p < .01 and fun/enjoyment, F(2,124) = 4.01, p < .05. Subsequent Tukey post hoc tests indicated that physical education majors' fun/enjoyment scores (M = 9.17, SD = .95) were higher than those of leisure services (M = 8.35, SD = 1.32, p < .01) and health majors (M = 8.48, SD = 1.27, p < .05). And, the competition scores from the leisure services (M = 4.67, SD = 1.79) and health (M = 4.41, SD = 1.54) majors were higher (p < .05 and p .05).
The multivariate tests for the main effect of Gender was also significant, ?? = .76, F(7, 118) = 5.1, p < .001. Tests of between-subjects effects revealed significant differences in gender for competition, fun/enjoyment, and challenge/achievement, Fs(1,124) = 14.26, 5.48, and 8.99, respectively, ps < .001, .05, and .01. A visual inspection of the means showed that females (M = 4.68, SD = 1.65) were higher on competition than were the males (M = 3.45, SD = 1.42). And, the means for males were higher on fun/enjoyment (M = 9.04, SD = 1.04) and challenge/achievement (M = 8.73, SD = 1.17) than for the females (M = 8.40, SD = 1.30 and M = 7.96, SD = 1.39, respectively).
Overall pairwise comparisons, adjusted with the Bonferroni test, yielded significant differences between reasons for participating in leisure time physical activity. Overall, participants scores for the health/fitness (M = 9.08, SD = 1.00) reason were higher (p < .05) than for the reasons of fun/enjoyment (M = 8.65, SD = 1.24), relaxation/tension (M = 8.62, SD = 1.22), social (M = 8.35, SD = 1.34), challenge/achievement (M = 8.26, SD = 1.36), appearance (M = 8.24, SD = 1.45), and, competition (M = 4.20, SD = 1.67). In addition, participants scores for competition were lower (p < .001) than for the other 6 reasons. Finally, scores for fun/enjoyment were higher (p .05).
Three purposes were established for the present study. First, to investigate leisure time physical activity participation among physical education, health, and leisure services pre-professionals. Second, to determine if differences exist in exercise intensity (total MET hrs/week of participation in physical activity) and a balance of feeling (BF) toward participation in leisure time physical activity by major and gender. And, finally, to determine if differences exist in reasons for participation in leisure time physical activity by major and gender.
Physical Activity Participation Behavior
Overall, descriptive statistics indicated that the highest participation levels were reported for weight training followed by jog/walk, aerobic machines, walk for pleasure, and running. Although these results support previous literature (Bian, 1999; Blank et al., 1993; CDC, 1996; Heath & Smith, 1994; Pinto & Marcus, 1995), the finding of weight training as the most popular activity was unexpected. This departure from previous research might be due to situational variables. Students in the present study have easy access to a large number of resistance training machines and aerobic machines in the exercise area of a new wellness building.
Some differences in activities were evident by major. Leisure services students reported their highest participation levels for jog/walk while physical education and health major students reported their highest participation levels for weight training. Again, the finding that weight training was the most popular activity for physical education majors was unexpected and may have been due to the sample size. Using a larger sample of physical education majors from the same university, Bian (1999) found jogging to be the most popular activity and weight training to be the third most popular. Interestingly, the physical education majors were the only group to report a high level of involvement in game activities (basketball-game play and racquetball). Bian found basketball to be the second most frequently reported activity for physical education majors. Also, leisure services majors were the only group to report a high level of involvement in bicycling for pleasure.
A visual inspection of the participation means for gender indicates that the overall popularity of weight training was due primarily to the high level of involvement of males. As with previous literature (CDC, 1996; Heath & Smith, 1994; Pinto & Marcus, 1995), weight training was the most popular activity for males. The highest level of participation for females, however, was aerobic machines. This result supports previous the work of Heath and Smith (1994) and Pinto and Marcus (1995) yet contradicts that of the CDC (1996) report. The high level of involvement with aerobic machines, for females in the present study, may be due to the availability of equipment and facilities.
Exercise Intensity and Balance of Feeling
Significant differences were found for exercise intensity (total MET hrs/week) by major. Physical education majors’ average exercise intensity was significantly higher than that of the leisure services and health majors. Since physical education majors have chosen to study physical activity and their main reason for involvement was fun/enjoyment, it is reasonable to conclude that their involvement would be more intense. On the other hand, Sallis and Saelens (2000) have indicated that young adults overestimate their intensity when performing leisure time physical activity. It may also have been important to physical education majors that they be perceived as highly physically active. The fact that there were no significant differences by major in the BF scores is noteworthy. The BF means for each group are interpreted as a good to excellent attitude toward leisure time physical activity participation (Corbin & Lindsey, 1997). Since the physical education, health, and leisure services majors sampled for this study were all within the same academic department, the effect of certain teacher and program variables on the attitudes of the students cannot be discounted.
Results also indicated that males’ exercise intensity was significantly higher than that reported by females. Few researchers have measured the exercise intensity of college students and none have measured it in MET hrs/wk. Page (1987) found that males exercised more frequently for longer periods of time than did females. But Heath and Smith (1994) failed to find gender differences in frequency and duration of involvement. Finally, no gender differences were found in the present study for the BF scores. This finding is contrary to previous research that found females to express more positive values and/or attitudes toward leisure time physical activity (Blair, 1984; Mowatt, DePauw, & Hulac, 1988). In light of the fact that the BF scores for each major in this study were high and not significantly different, these results may be attributed to numerous teacher and/or program variables.
Reasons for Involvement
Overall, the students’ main reason for participation in physical activities was health/fitness. This finding supports the results of previous studies (Blair, 1984; Bungum & Morrow, 2000; Ebbeck et al., 2000; Koslow, 1988; Mathes & Battista, 1985; Quarterman et al., 1996; Soudan & Everett, 1981). The means for fun/enjoyment were also significantly higher than those for appearance and challenge/achievement. This finding parallels the work of Ebbeck et al. (2000) who found that enjoyment was the second highest reason reported by their sample. It is important to note that the only other significant difference in the present study was that competition was lower than all other reasons. This finding is encouraging in that health/fitness and fun/enjoyment reasons are more in line with the goal of lifetime participation in leisure time physical activity for improved health status.
Some of the results for self-reported reasons by major, however, are not as easily explained. Leisure services and health majors self-reported reason of competition was significantly higher than for physical education majors. It may be that physical education majors view participation in leisure time physical activity as a goal where as health and leisure services majors view leisure time physical activity as a means to accomplish a goal (fitness, relaxation, competition, etc.). Also, in the present study, physical education majors’ means for fun/enjoyment were significantly higher than those of health and leisure services majors. Bian (1999) found that the reason of fun was within the top three masons given by physical education majors, however, she did not test for significant differences. Certainly, further inquiry is indicated.
The significant gender differences for participation reasons are also puzzling. Females were higher on the competition reason than males and males were higher on fun/enjoyment and challenge/achievement than were females. These results contradict previous findings (Blank et al., 1993; Mathes & Battista, 1985) and may be attributed to the sample size or to certain teacher and program variables. For example, it is possible that the gender, personality, and values of faculty delivering the academic programs had an effect on the attitudes of students (Kulinna & Silverman, 2000; Pajares, 1992). Future research should be designed to investigate the relationship between the attitudes (beliefs, values, reasons, etc.) of faculty and the students with whom they interact.
The present descriptive study was an initial attempt to determine how three closely related curricula had possibly impacted the behaviors and attitudes of students. Even though the physical education, health, and leisure services pre-professionals in this sample advocate the benefits of regular participation in leisure time physical activity, the different curriculum approaches seemed to have had an impact on their behaviors and attitudes. Although differences were found in exercise behaviors and intensity, the overall reasons for participation indicated that students were focused mainly on health and fitness. Also, the students’ attitudes toward participation in physical activity were extremely positive. Hopefully when these students enter their chosen professions their positive participation behaviors and attitudes will motivate others to be physically active.
It is important to note that this study was a first attempt to examine differences in behavior and attitudes of students from related academic programs. In that the study utilized pre-professionals from one university/college, generalizing the results is not possible at this time. It is recommended, however, that future researchers replicate the present study on a broader scale.
Author Note We wish to thank Lin Wang and San Fan Ng for their assistance with data reduction and data entry.
Table 1 Demographic information by major and gender
Health Physical Education
Females Males Females Males
f (%) f (%) f (%) f (%)
Freshman 0 (0) 2 (13.3) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Sophomore 2 (6.9) 1 (6.7) 8 (42.1) 2 (9.1)
Junior 17 (58.6) 8 (53.3) 4 (21.1) 11 (50)
Senior 10 (34.5) 4 (26.7) 6 (31.6) 9 (40.9)
Missing data 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Totals 29 (100) 15 (100) 19 (100) 22 (100)
African American 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 1 (4.5)
Islander 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Caucasian 28 (96.6) 14 (93.3) 19 (100) 20 (90.9)
Native American 1 (3.4) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
Other 0 (0) 1 (6.7) 0 (0) 1 (4.5)
Totals 29 (100) 0 (0) 19 (100) 22 (100)
f (%) f (%)
Freshman 1 (3.1) 1 (7.1)
Sophomore 5 (15.6) 0 (0)
Junior 12 (37.5) 4 (28.6)
Senior 13 (40.6) 9 (64.3)
Missing data 1 (3.1) 0 (0)
Totals 32 (100) 14 (100)
African American 0 (0) 1 (7.1)
Islander 1 (3.1) 0 (0)
Caucasian 31 (96.9) 13 (92.9)
Native American 0 (0) 0 (0)
Other 0 (0) 0 (0)
Totals 32 (100) 14 (100)
Table 2 Activity participants by major and gender
Activity Females Males
Aerobic Machines 75 24 7
Badminton 15 0 0
Basketball–Game Play 50 4 7
Bicycling for Pleasure 64 11 5
Bicycling for Exercise 60 15 5
Bowling 33 5 0
Canoeing, Rowing for Pleasure 12 3 1
Canoeing on Camping Trip 5 1 0
Competitive Sailing 0 0 0
Cross Country Hiking 17 2 1
Dancing 55 13 2
Fishing 15 2 1
Frisbee, Hacky Sack 14 3 0
Golf, Walking-Carrying Clubs 25 2 5
Golf, Riding a Power Cart 21 4 2
Golf, Walking-Pulling Clubs 13 1 3
Handball, Squash 1 0 0
Horseback Riding 6 0 0
Hunting 8 0 2
Ice Skating 4 0 0
Jog/Walk Combination 78 18 7
Martial Arts 8 1 1
Racquetball 48 5 9
Roller Blading, Skating 31 9 3
Rope Jumping 11 2 1
Rugby 5 2 0
Running 73 17 9
Scuba Diving 1 0 0
Sledding or Tobogganing 10 1 1
Snorkeling 3 0 1
Snow Skiing, Downhill 10 3 0
Snow Skiing, Cross Country 5 0 0
Snow Shoeing 1 1 0
Soccer 14 1 1
Softball, Baseball 33 6 3
Step Aerobics 18 10 1
Swimming Laps 36 7 1
Swimming at the Beach 40 13 3
Table Tennis 25 2 4
Tennis 24 2 2
Touch/Flag Football 25 1 3
Volleyball 39 6 1
Walking for Pleasure 75 18 4
Walking for Exercise 60 16 0
Water Aerobics 13 4 0
Weight Training 86 18 14
Wrestling 7 1 0
Others 5 0 1
Activity Females Males
Aerobic Machines 13 5
Badminton 5 9
Basketball–Game Play 7 19
Bicycling for Pleasure 11 9
Bicycling for Exercise 13 7
Bowling 5 9
Canoeing, Rowing for Pleasure 0 3
Canoeing on Camping Trip 1 1
Competitive Sailing 0 0
Cross Country Hiking 1 4
Dancing 12 8
Fishing 2 9
Frisbee, Hacky Sack 1 2
Golf, Walking-Carrying Clubs 1 9
Golf, Riding a Power Cart 2 7
Golf, Walking-Pulling Clubs 0 5
Handball, Squash 0 1
Horseback Riding 1 1
Hunting 1 5
Ice Skating 2 1
Jog/Walk Combination 10 12
Martial Arts 1 2
Racquetball 11 12
Roller Blading, Skating 9 2
Rope Jumping 1 3
Rugby 1 2
Running 13 13
Scuba Diving 0 1
Sledding or Tobogganing 2 1
Snorkeling 0 2
Snow Skiing, Downhill 1 4
Snow Skiing, Cross Country 3 2
Snow Shoeing 0 0
Soccer 5 3
Softball, Baseball 4 8
Step Aerobics 4 0
Swimming Laps 8 9
Swimming at the Beach 6 6
Table Tennis 5 8
Tennis 7 11
Touch/Flag Football 3 11
Volleyball 13 8
Walking for Pleasure 15 9
Walking for Exercise 15 6
Water Aerobics 2 1
Weight Training 12 18
Wrestling 1 5
Others 1 2
Activity Females Males
Aerobic Machines 22 4
Badminton 1 0
Basketball–Game Play 4 9
Bicycling for Pleasure 21 7
Bicycling for Exercise 14 6
Bowling 10 4
Canoeing, Rowing for Pleasure 4 1
Canoeing on Camping Trip 1 1
Competitive Sailing 0 0
Cross Country Hiking 8 1
Dancing 17 3
Fishing 1 0
Frisbee, Hacky Sack 5 3
Golf, Walking-Carrying Clubs 2 6
Golf, Riding a Power Cart 2 4
Golf, Walking-Pulling Clubs 1 3
Handball, Squash 0 0
Horseback Riding 3 1
Hunting 0 0
Ice Skating 1 0
Jog/Walk Combination 24 7
Martial Arts 2 1
Racquetball 6 5
Roller Blading, Skating 12 1
Rope Jumping 3 1
Rugby 0 0
Running 17 4
Scuba Diving 0 0
Sledding or Tobogganing 5 0
Snorkeling 0 0
Snow Skiing, Downhill 1 1
Snow Skiing, Cross Country 0 0
Snow Shoeing 0 0
Soccer 3 1
Softball, Baseball 8 4
Step Aerobics 3 0
Swimming Laps 10 1
Swimming at the Beach 9 2
Table Tennis 2 4
Tennis 1 1
Touch/Flag Football 3 4
Volleyball 9 2
Walking for Pleasure 23 6
Walking for Exercise 20 3
Water Aerobics 5 1
Weight Training 16 8
Wrestling 0 0
Others 1 0
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