Inborn errors of metabolism in infancy and early childhood: an update

Inborn errors of metabolism in infancy and early childhood: an update

Talkad S. Raghuveer

Recent innovations in medical technology have changed newborn screening programs in the United States. The widespread use of tandem mass spectrometry is helping to identify more inborn errors of metabolism. Primary care physicians often are the first to be contacted by state and reference laboratories when neonatal screening detects the possibility of an inborn error of metabolism. Physicians must take immediate steps to evaluate the infant and should be able to access a regional metabolic disorder subspecialty center. Detailed knowledge of biochemical pathways is not necessary to treat patients during the initial evaluation. Nonspecific metabolic abnormalities (e.g., hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperammonemia) must be treated urgently even if the specific underlying metabolic disorder is not yet known. Similarly, physicians still must recognize inborn errors of metabolism that are not detected reliably by tandem mass spectrometry and know when to pursue additional diagnostic testing. The early and specific diagnosis of inborn errors of metabolism and prompt initiation of appropriate therapy are still the best determinants of outcome for these patients.

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The topic of inborn errors of metabolism is challenging for most physicians. The number of known metabolic disorders is probably as large as the number of presenting symptoms that may indicate metabolic disturbances (Table 1 (1-3)). Furthermore, physicians know they may not encounter certain rare inborn errors of metabolism during a lifetime of practice. Nonetheless, with a collective incidence of one in 1,500 persons, at least one of these disorders will be encountered by almost all practicing physicians. (1-3)

Improvements in medical technology and greater knowledge of the human genome are resulting in significant changes in the diagnosis, classification, and treatment of inherited metabolic disorders. Many known inborn errors of metabolism will be recognized earlier or treated differently because of these changes. It is important for primary care physicians to recognize the clinical signs of inborn errors of metabolism and to know when to pursue advanced laboratory testing or referral to a children’s subspecialty center.

Early Diagnosis and Screening in Asymptomatic Infants

The principles of population screening to identify persons with biologic markers of disease and to apply interventions to prevent disease progression are well established. Screening tests must be timely and effective with a high predictive value. Current approaches to detecting inborn errors of metabolism revolve around laboratory screening for certain disorders in asymptomatic newborns, follow-up and verification of abnormal laboratory results, prompt physician recognition of unscreened disorders in symptomatic persons, and rapid implementation of appropriate therapies.

The increasing application of new technologies such as electrospray ionization–tandem mass spectrometry to newborn screening (4) in asymptomatic persons allows earlier identification of clearly defined inborn errors of metabolism. It also detects some conditions of uncertain clinical significance. (5) The inborn errors of metabolism detected by tandem mass spectrometry generally include aminoacidemias, urea cycle disorders, organic acidurias, and fatty acid oxidation disorders. Earlier recognition of these inborn errors of metabolism has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality rates in these infants. (6)

Tandem mass spectrometry has been introduced or mandated in many states, with some states testing for up to seven conditions and others screening for up to 40 conditions. Therefore, physicians must be aware of variability in newborn screening among individual hospitals and states. Current state-by-state information on newborn screening programs can be obtained through the Internet resource GeNeS-R-US (Genetic and Newborn Screening Resource Center of the United States; http://genes-r-us.uthscsa. edu/). (7) Primary care physicians are most likely to be the first to inform parents of an abnormal result from a newborn screening program. In many instances, primary care physicians may need to clarify preliminary laboratory results or explain the possibility of a false-positive result. (6)

Early Diagnosis in Symptomatic Infants

Within a few days or weeks after birth, a previously healthy neonate may begin to show signs of an underlying metabolic disorder. Although the clinical picture may vary, infants with metabolic disorders typically present with lethargy, decreased feeding, vomiting, tachypnea (from acidosis), decreased perfusion, and seizures. As the metabolic illness progresses, there may be increasing stupor or coma associated with progressive abnormalities of tone (hypotonia, hypertonia), posture (fisting, opisthotonos), and movements (tongue-thrusting, lip-smacking, myoclonic jerks), and with sleep apnea. (8) Metabolic screening tests should be initiated. Elevated plasma ammonia levels, hypoglycemia, and metabolic acidosis, if present, are suggestive of inborn errors of metabolism (Table 2 (1-3)). In addition, the parent or physician may notice an unusual odor in an infant with certain inborn errors of metabolism (e.g., maple syrup urine disease, phenylketonuria [PKU], hepatorenal tyrosinemia type 1, isovaleric acidemia). A disorder similar to Reye’s syndrome (i.e., nonspecific hepatic encephalopathy, possibly with hypoglycemia) may be present secondary to abnormalities of gluconeogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, the electron transport chain, or organic acids.

Table 3 (1-3) shows a partial list of metabolic disorders associated with organ system manifestations. Most of these disorders are not detected by tandem mass spectrometry screening. These highly diverse presentations of inborn errors of metabolism may be associated with dysfunction of the central nervous system (CNS), liver, kidney, eye, bone, blood, muscle, gastrointestinal tract, and integument. Infants with symptoms of acute or chronic encephalopathy usually require a focused but systematic evaluation by a children’s neurologist and appropriate testing (e.g., magnetic resonance imaging, additional genetic or metabolic analysis). Subspecialty referral is likewise necessary for infants or children presenting with hepatic, renal, or cardiac syndromes; dysmorphic syndromes; ocular findings; or significant orthopedic abnormalities.

A “pattern recognition” approach helps guide the physician toward a differential diagnosis and targeted biochemical and molecular testing. (9) However, this approach is not to be confused with the identification of congenital malformations, particularly those related to chromosomal disorders. Patients generally have a normal appearance in the early stages of most inborn metabolic disorders. Because most inborn errors of metabolism are single-gene disorders, chromosomal testing usually is not indicated.

Considerations in Older Infants and Children

Older infants with inborn errors of metabolism may demonstrate paroxysmal stupor, lethargy, emesis, failure to thrive, or organomegaly. Neurologic findings of neurometabolic disorders are acquired macrocephaly or microcephaly (CNS storage, dysmyelination, atrophy), hypotonia, hypertonia/spasticity, seizures, or other movement disorders. General nonneurologic manifestations of neurometabolic disorders include skeletal abnormalities and coarse facial features (e.g., with mucopolysaccharidoses), macular or retinal changes (e.g., with leukodystrophies, poliodystrophies, mitochondrial disorders), corneal clouding (e.g., with Hurler’s syndrome, galactosemia), skin changes (e.g., angiokeratomas in Fabry’s disease), or hepatosplenomegaly (with various storage diseases; Table 2 (1-3)).

Consistent features of metabolic disorders in toddlers and preschool-age children include stagnation or loss of cognitive milestones; loss of expressive language skills; progressive deficits in attention, focus, and concentration; and other behavioral changes. The physician should attempt to make fundamental distinctions between primary-genetic and secondary-acquired causes of conditions that present as developmental delay or failure to thrive. Clues can be extracted through careful family, social, environmental, and nutritional history-taking. Syndromes with metabolic disturbances may lead to the identification of clinically recognizable genetic disorders. Referral to a geneticist often is indicated to further evaluate physical findings of primary genetic determinants.

Initial laboratory investigations for older children are the same as for infants. Infants and children presenting with acute metabolic decompensation precipitated by periods of prolonged fasting should be evaluated further for those organic acid, fatty acid oxidation, or peroxisomal disorders that are not detected by tandem mass spectrometry or certain regional neonatal screening programs.

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be helpful in the evaluation of certain metabolic disorders after neuroimaging studies and basic blood and urine analyses have been completed. Common CSF studies include cells (to rule out inflammatory disorders), glucose (plus plasma glucose to evaluate for blood-brain barrier or glucose transporter disorders), lactate (as a marker of energy metabolism or mitochondrial disorders), total protein, and quantitative amino acids. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy can provide a noninvasive, in vivo evaluation of proton-containing metabolites and can lead to the diagnosis of certain rare, but potentially treatable, neurometabolic disorders. (10) Electron microscopic evaluation of a skin biopsy is a highly sensitive screening tool that provides valuable clues to stored membrane material or ultrastructural organelle changes. (11)

Table 4 lists some of the more common inborn errors of metabolism, classified by type of metabolic disorder. Such prototypical inborn errors of metabolism include PKU, ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency, methylmalonicaciduria, medium-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (MCAD) deficiency, galactosemia, and Gaucher’s disease.

PKU

PKU is an autosomal-recessive disorder most commonly caused by a mutation in the gene coding for phenylalanine hydroxylase, an enzyme responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine to tyrosine. Sustained phenylalanine concentrations higher than 20 mg per dL (1,211 [micro]mol per L) usually correlate with classic symptoms of PKU, such as impaired head circumference growth, poor cognitive function, irritability, and lighter skin pigmentation. Infants diagnosed with PKU are treated with a special low-phenylalanine formula. Tyrosine is given at approximately 25 mg per kg of weight per day; amino acids are given at about 3 g per kg per day in infancy and 2 g per kg per day in childhood. Infants and children must be monitored regularly during the developmental period, and it is recommended that strict dietary therapy be continued for life. Special considerations for pregnant women with PKU include constant monitoring of phenylalanine concentrations to prevent intrauterine fetal malformation. (12)

ORNITHINE TRANSCARBAMYLASE DEFICIENCY

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency is the most common urea cycle disorder. Signs of ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency in infant boys include severe emesis, hyperammonemia, and progressive encephalopathy. Heterozygous girls, who demonstrate partial expression of the X-linked ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency disorder, may present with symptoms such as mild hyperammonemia and notable avoidance of dietary protein. Acute treatment options include sodium benzoate, sodium phenylacetate, and arginine. Certain persons may benefit from liver transplantation.

METHYLMALONICACIDURIA DISORDERS

The most common genetic causes of methylmalonicaciduria are deficiencies in methylmalonyl-CoA mutase activity and in enzymatic synthesis of cobalamin. Pernicious anemia and dietary cobalamin deficiency also can result in abnormal methylmalonicacid metabolism. Metabolic ketoacidosis is the clinical hallmark of methylmalonicaciduria in infants. Therapy consists of protein restriction, restriction of methylmalonate precursors, and pharmacologic doses of vitamin [B.sub.12].

MCAD DEFICIENCY

The most common fatty acid oxidation disorder is MCAD deficiency. The majority of infants diagnosed with MCAD deficiency are homozygous for the A985G missense mutation and have northwestern European ancestry. Infants with MCAD deficiency appear to develop normally but present with rapidly progressive hypoglycemia, lethargy, and seizures, typically secondary to acute vomiting or fasting. Treatment of MCAD deficiency includes frequent cornstarch feeds and avoidance of fasting. Parents must have a basic understanding of the metabolic deficit in their child and should carry a letter from their treating physicians to alert emergency caregivers about the need for urgent attention in a crisis situation.

GALACTOSEMIA

There are three known enzymatic errors in galactose metabolism. The most common defect is confirmed by measuring decreased activity of erythrocyte galactose 1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT). Clinical manifestations of galactosemia include lethargy, hypotonia, jaundice, hypoglycemia, elevated liver enzymes, and coagulopathy. It is important to distinguish the galactosemia disease genotype (G/G) from asymptomatic variant genotypes (e.g., G/D, G/N, D/D), which can be picked up as “positive” in newborn screening.

The main treatment for infants with the G/G mutation or very low GALT activity is lactose-free formula followed by dietary restriction of all lactose-containing foods later in life. Untreated infants who survive the neonatal period may have severe growth failure, mental retardation, cataracts, ovarian failure, and liver cirrhosis. Despite early and adequate intervention, some children still may develop milder signs of these clinical manifestations.

GAUCHER’S DISEASE

Type 1 Gaucher’s disease, the most common lysosomal storage disorder, typically presents with hepatosplenomegaly, pancytopenia, and destructive bone disease. Types 2 and 3 Gaucher’s disease present with strabismus, bulbar signs, progressive cognitive deterioration, and myoclonic seizures. Treatment options for type 1 Gaucher’s disease include regular infusions with recombinant human acid [beta]-glucosidase.

Importance of Early Treatment

Often, empiric therapeutic measures are needed before a definitive diagnosis is available. In a critically ill infant, aggressive treatment before the definitive confirmation of diagnosis is lifesaving and may reduce neurologic sequelae. Infants with a treatable organic acidemia (e.g., methylmalonicacidemia) may respond to 1 mg of intramuscular vitamin [B.sub.12]. Metabolic acidosis should be treated aggressively with sodium bicarbonate. Seizures in infancy should be treated initially with traditional antiepileptic drugs, but patients with rare inborn errors of metabolism may respond to other treatments (e.g., oral pyridoxine in a dosage of 5 mg per kg per day) if rare disorders such as pyridoxine-dependent epilepsy are clinically suspected by the consulting neurologist.

Long-term Treatment

Traditional therapies for metabolic diseases include dietary therapy such as protein restriction, avoidance of fasting, or cofactor supplements (Table 4). Evolving therapies include organ transplantation and enzyme replacement. Efforts to provide treatment through somatic gene therapy are in early stages, but there is hope that this approach will provide additional therapeutic possibilities. Even when no effective therapy exists or when an infant dies from a metabolic disorder, the family still needs an accurate diagnosis for clarification, reassurance, genetic counseling, and potential prenatal screening. Additional resources, including information about regional biochemical genetic consultation services, are available online. (13-15)

The authors thank Amy E. Wolf for her assistance in manuscript preparation.

REFERENCES

(1.) Beaudet AL, Scriver CR, Sly WS, Valle D. Molecular bases of variant human phenotypes. In: Scriver CR, ed. The Metabolic and Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. 8th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 2001:3-51.

(2.) Applegarth DA, Toone JR, Lowry RB. Incidence of inborn errors of metabolism in British Columbia, 1969-1996. Pediatrics 2000;105:e10.

(3.) Meikle PJ, Hopwood JJ, Clague AE, Carey WF. Prevalence of lysosomal storage disorders. JAMA 1999;281:249-54.

(4.) Wilcken B, Wiley V, Hammond J, Carpenter K. Screening newborns for inborn errors of metabolism by tandem mass spectrometry. N Engl J Med 2003;348:2304-12.

(5.) Holtzman NA. Expanding newborn screening: how good is the evidence? JAMA 2003;290:2606-8.

(6.) Waisbren SE, Albers S, Amato S, Ampola M, Brewster TG, Demmer L, et al. Effect of expanded newborn screening for biochemical genetic disorders on child outcomes and parental stress. JAMA 2003;290: 2564-72.

(7.) University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio. National newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center. Accessed online January 10, 2006, at: http://genes-r-us.uthscsa.edu.

(8.) Clarke JT. A Clinical Guide to Inherited Metabolic Diseases. 2nd ed. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

(9.) Blau N, Duran M, Blaskovics ME, Gibson KM. Physician’s Guide to the Laboratory Diagnosis of Metabolic Diseases. 2nd ed. New York: Springer, 2003.

(10.) Novotny E, Ashwal S, Shevell M. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy: an emerging technology in pediatric neurology research. Pediatr Res 1998;44:1-10.

(11.) Prasad A, Kaye EM, Alroy J. Electron microscopic examination of skin biopsy as a cost-effective tool in the diagnosis of lysosomal storage diseases. J Child Neurol 1996;11:301-8.

(12.) Levy HL, Ghavami M. Maternal phenylketonuria: a metabolic teratogen. Teratology 1996;53:176-84.

(13.) GeneTests. National Institutes of Health. Accessed online January 10, 2006, at: http://www.genetests. org.

(14.) National Human Genome Research Institute. National Institutes of Health. Accessed online January 10, 2006, at: http://www.genome.gov/.

(15.) American Society of Human Genetics. Accessed online January 10, 2006, at: http://www.ashg.org.

TALKAD S. RAGHUVEER, M.D., is assistant professor of pediatrics in the division of neonatology at the University of Kansas Medical Center, Kansas City. Dr. Raghuveer received his medical degree from Karnatak Medical College, Hubli, India, and completed a pediatric residency at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, N.Y., and a fellowship in neonatal-perinatal medicine at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City.

UTTAM GARG, PH.D., is director of biochemical genetics, clinical chemistry, and toxicology laboratories at Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics, Kansas City, Mo., and professor of pediatrics and pathology at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine. Dr. Garg received his doctorate degree from the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh, India, and completed his postdoctoral training at New York Medical College, Valhalla, and the University of Minnesota Medical School, Minneapolis.

WILLIAM D. GRAF, M.D., is chief of the section of neurology at Children’s Mercy Hospitals and Clinics and professor of pediatrics at the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Medicine. Dr. Graf completed a residency in pediatrics at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, a fellowship in neurodevelopmental disabilities at New York Medical College, and a residency in neurology at the University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle.

Address correspondence to Talkad S. Raghuveer, M.D., Division of Neonatology, 3043 Wescoe Bldg., University of Kansas Medical Center, 3901 Rainbow Blvd., Kansas City, KS 66160. Reprints are not available from the authors.

Author disclosure: Nothing to disclose.

TABLE 1

Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Associated Symptoms *

Diarrhea

Lactase deficiency (common)

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000; e.g., Pearson’s syndrome [rare])

Abetalipoproteinemia (rare)

Enteropeptidase deficiency (rare)

Lysinuric protein intolerance (rare)

Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (rare)

Exercise intolerance

Fatty acid oxidation disorders (1:10,000)

Glycogenolysis disorders (1:20,000)

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000; e.g., lipoamide dehydrogenase

deficiency [rare])

Myoadenylate deaminase deficiency (1:100,000)

Familial myocardial infarct/stroke

5,10-methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase deficiency (common)

Familial hypercholesterolemia (1:500)

Fabry’s disease (1:80,000 to 1:117,000)

Homocystinuria (1:200,000)

Muscle cramps/spasticity

Multiple carboxylase deficiency (e.g., holocarboxylase synthetase

[rare]) and biotinidase deficiencies (1:60,000)

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (1:100,000)

HHH syndrome (rare)

Peripheral neuropathy

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000)

Peroxisomal disorders (1:50,000; e.g., Zellweger syndrome,

neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, Refsum’s disease)

Metachromatic leukodystrophy (1:100,000)

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (rare)

Recurrent emesis

Galactosemia (1:40,000)

3-oxothiolase deficiency (1:100,000)

D-2-hydroxyglutaricaciduria (rare)

Symptoms of pancreatitis

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000; e.g., cytochrome-c oxidase

deficiency; MELAS syndrome; Pearson’s syndrome [all rare])

Glycogenosis, type I (1:70,000)

Hyperlipoproteinemia, types I and IV (rare)

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency (rare)

Lysinuric protein intolerance (rare)

Upward gaze paralysis

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000; e.g., Leigh disease,

Kearns-Sayre syndrome [rare])

Niemann-Pick disease, type C (rare)

NOTE: Disorders are listed as possible diagnostic considerations

in order of descending incidence. Incidence in the general U.S.

population is comparable to international estimates; however,

disorders may occur more often in select ethnic populations. Rare

is defined as an estimated incidence of fewer than 1:250,000 persons.

HHH = hyperornithinemia-hyperammonemia-homocitrullinuria; MELAS =

mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like

episodes.

*–Inborn errors of metabolism can induce disease manifestations

in any organ at various stages of life, from newborn to adulthood.

Whereas advanced newborn screening programs using tandem mass

spectrometry will detect some inherited metabolic disorders before

clinical signs appear, most of these disorders will be detected by

the primary care physician before the diagnosis is made. Reliable

determination of certain metabolic disorders varies between

laboratories. Changes in screening reflect a growing field.

Information from references 1 through 3.

TABLE 2

Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Associated Laboratory Findings *

Abnormal liver function tests (e.g., elevated

transaminase or hyperbilirubinemia levels)

Hemochromatosis (1:300)

[[alpha].sub.1]-antitrypsin deficiency (1:8,000)

Hereditary fructose intolerance (1:20,000 to 1:50,000)

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000; e.g., mitochondrial DNA

depletion syndromes)

Galactosemia (1:40,000)

Wilson’s disease (1:50,000)

Gaucher’s disease (1:60,000; type 1-1:900 in Ashkenazi Jews)

Hypermethioninemia (1:160,000)

Cholesteryl ester storage disease (rare)

Glycogen storage disease, type IV (rare)

Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B (both rare)

Type 1 tyrosinemia (rare)

Wolman’s disease

Hypoglycemia

Carbohydrate metabolism disorders (> 1:10,000)

Fatty acid oxidation disorders (1:10,000)

Hereditary fructose intolerance (1:20,000 to 1:50,000)

Glycogen storage diseases (1:25,000)

Galactosemia (1:40,000)

Organic acidemias (1:50,000)

Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency (rare)

Primary lactic acidosis (rare)

Hypophosphatemia

Fanconi syndrome (1:7,000; e.g., cystinosis)

X-linked hypophosphatemic rickets (1:20,000)

Hypouricemia

Fanconi syndrome (1:7,000; e.g., cystinosis)

Xanthine oxidase deficiency (1:45,000)

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency (rare)

Purine-nucleoside phosphorylase deficiency (rare)

Increased CSF protein

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000; e.g., MELAS syndrome [rare],

MERRF syndrome, Kearns-Sayre syndrome [rare])

Peroxisomal disorders (1:50,000; e.g., Zellweger syndrome,

neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy, Refsum’s disease)

Leukodystrophies (e.g., Krabbe’s disease; metachromatic

leukodystrophy [1:100,000]; multiple sulfatase deficiency [rare])

L-2-hydroxyglutaricaciduria (rare)

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (rare)

Ketosis

Aminoacidopathies (1:40,000)

Organic acidurias (1:50,000)

Metabolic acidosis

Aminoacidopathies (1:40,000)

Organic acidurias (1:50,000)

Primary lactic acidosis (rare)

Renal tubular acidosis (rare)

NOTE: Disorders are listed as possible diagnostic considerations

in order of decreasing incidence. Incidence in the general U.S.

population is comparable to international estimates; however,

disorders may occur more often in select ethnic populations. Rare

is defined as an estimated incidence of fewer than 1:250,000 persons.

CSF = cerebrospinal fluid; MELAS = mitochondrial encephalopathy,

lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes; MERRF = myoclonus with

epilepsy and with ragged red fibers.

*–Inborn errors of metabolism can induce disease manifestations

in any organ at various stages of life, from newborn to adulthood.

Whereas advanced newborn screening programs using tandem mass

spectrometry will detect some inherited metabolic disorders before

clinical signs appear, most of these disorders will be detected by

the primary care physician before diagnosis is made. Reliable

determination of certain metabolic disorders varies among

laboratories. Changes in screening reflect a growing field.

Information from references 1 through 3.

TABLE 3

Inborn Errors of Metabolism and Associated Organ System

Manifestations *

Central nervous system

Acute encephalopathy

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000)

CPS deficiency (1:70,000 to 1:100,000)

Acute stroke

5,10-methylene tetrahydrofolate

reductase deficiency (common)

Fabry’s disease (1:80,000 to 1:117,000)

Ethylmalonic-adipicaciduria (rare)

Agenesis of the corpus callosum

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000;

e.g., PDH deficiency [1:200,000])

Peroxisomal disorders (1:50,000; e.g., Zellweger

syndrome, neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy,

Refsum’s disease)

Maternal PKU (1:35,000 pregnancies)

Nonketotic hyperglycinemia

(1:250,000 in United States)

Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency (rare)

Cerebral calcifications

Adrenoleukodystrophy (1:15,000)

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000)

[GM.sub.2] gangliosidosis (rare)

Encephalopathy (rapidly progressive)

Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency (rare)

Atypical PKU (e.g., biopterin defects [rare])

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency or

sulfite oxidase deficiency (both rare)

Macrocephaly

Hurler’s syndrome (MPS I; 1:100,000)

Neonatal adrenoleukodystrophy (1:100,000)

Tay-Sachs disease (1:222,000)

4-hydroxybutyricaciduria (rare)

Glutaricaciduria, type II (rare)

L-2-hydroxyglutaricaciduria (rare)

3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaricaciduriayl (rare)

Canavan disease (rare)

Krabbe’s disease (rare)

Mannosidosis (rare)

Multiple sulfatase deficiency (rare)

Stroke-like episodes

Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

(1:70,000)

Chediak-Higashi syndrome (rare)

MELAS syndrome (rare)

Subacute necrotizing encephalomyelopathy

(Leigh disease)

ETC disorders (e.g., complex I deficiency)

Multiple carboxylase deficiency (e.g.,

holocarboxylase synthetase [rare])

and biotinidase deficiencies (1:60,000)

PDH deficiency (1:200,000)

3-methylglutaconicaciduria (rare)

Fumarase deficiency (rare)

Pyruvate carboxylase deficiency (rare)

Skin/eye

Angiokeratomas

Fabry’s disease (1:117,000)

Fucosidosis (rare)

[GM.sub.1] gangliosidosis (rare)

Sialidosis (rare)

Cataracts–lenticular

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000)

Galactosemia (1:40,000)

Fabry’s disease (1:80,000 to 1:117,000)

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis

(rare)

Galactokinase deficiency (rare)

Hyperornithinemia (ornithine

aminotransferase deficiency; rare)

Lowe syndrome (rare)

Lysinuric protein intolerance (rare)

Mannosidosis (rare)

Mevalonicaciduria (rare)

Cherry red macula

Tay-Sachs disease (1:222,000)

Galactosialidosis (rare)

[GM.sub.1] gangliosidosis (rare)

Mucolipidosis I (rare)

Multiple sulfatase deficiency

(rare)

Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B

(rare)

Sialidosis (rare)

Corneal opacity

Fabry’s disease (1:80,000 to

1:117,000)

Hurler’s syndrome (MPS I;

1:100,000)

Cystinosis (1:100,000 to 1:200,000)

I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II or

mucolipidosis III [rare])

Galactosialidosis (rare)

[GM.sub.1] gangliosidosis (rare)

Mannosidosis (rare)

Multiple sulfatase deficiency (rare)

Dermatosis

Acrodermatitis enteropathica (rare)

Multiple carboxylase deficiency (e.g.,

holocarboxylase synthetase [rare]) and

biotinidase deficiencies (1:60,000)

Hair abnormalities

Menkes syndrome (rare; e.g., pili torti,

trichorrhexis nodosa, monilethrix)

Ichthyosis

Sjogren-Larsson syndrome (fatty aldehyde

dehydrogenase deficiency, < 1:100,000)

X-linked ichthyosis (1:6,000 boys and men;

e.g., steryl-sulfatase deficiency)

Inverted nipples

Congenital disorders of glycosylation (rare)

Tetrahydrobiopterin synthesis disorders

(rare)

Lens dislocation (ectopia lentis)

Marfan syndrome (1:10,000)

Homocystinuria (1:200,000)

Molybdenum cofactor deficiency or

sulfite oxidase deficiency (both rare)

Optic atrophy

Peroxisomal disorders (1:50,000;

Zellweger syndrome, neonatal

adrenoleukodystrophy, Refsum’s

disease)

Xanthomas

Familial hypercholesterolemia (1:500)

Lipoprotein lipase deficiency (rare)

Niemann-Pick disease, types A and B

(both rare)

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (rare)

Muscle/bone/kidney

Arthrosis

Farber’s disease (acid ceramidase

deficiency; < 1:40,000)

Gaucher’s disease (1:60,000;

type 1-1:900 in Ashkenazi Jews)

HPRT deficiency (Lesch-Nyhan syndrome;

1:100,000)

Homocystinuria (1:200,000)

Alkaptonuria (rare)

Cardiomyopathy

Hemochromatosis (1:300)

Fatty acid oxidation disorders (1:10,000)

Mitochondrial disorders (1:30,000)

Pompe’s disease (1:40,000)

MPS (1:50,000)

Glycogenosis, type III (1:125,000)

D-2-hydroxyglutaricaciduria (rare)

3-methylglutaconicaciduria

(Barth syndrome; rare)

Dysostosis multiplex

MPS (e.g., Hurler’s syndrome [MPS I;

1:100,000], Hunter’s syndrome

[MPS II; 1:70,000], Sanfilippo’s syndrome

[MPS III; 1:24,000 in Netherlands,

1:66,000 in United States]; Maroteaux-

Lamy syndrome [MPS VI; rare]; Sly’s

syndrome [MPS VII; rare])

I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II or

mucolipidosis III [rare])

Multiple sulfatase deficiency (rare)

Galactosialidosis (rare)

[GM.sub.1] gangliosidosis (rare)

Osteoporosis

Xanthine oxidase deficiency (1:45,000)

Gaucher’s disease, (1:60,000; type

1-1:900 in Ashkenazi Jews)

Glycogenosis (1:70,000)

Adenosine deaminase

deficiency (1:100,000)

I-cell disease (mucolipidosis II or

mucolipidosis III [rare])

Refsum’s disease

Lysinuric protein intolerance (rare)

Menkes syndrome (rare)

Renal calculi

Cystinuria (1:7,000)

HPRT deficiency (Lesch-Nyhan syndrome;

1:100,000)

Adenine phosphoribosyltransferase

deficiency (rare)

Oxaluria (rare)

Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase

deficiency (rare)

Renal Fanconi syndrome

Hereditary fructose intolerance

(1:20,000 to 1:50,000)

Mitochondrial disorders

(1:30,000; e.g., ETC disorders)

Galactosemia (1:40,000)

Wilson’s disease (1:50,000)

Cystinosis (1:100,000 to 1:200,000)

Type 1 tyrosinemia (rare)

Lowe syndrome (rare)

NOTE: Disorders are listed as possible diagnostic considerations

in order of decreasing incidence. Incidence in the general U.S.

population is comparable to international estimates; however,

disorders may occur more often in select ethnic populations. Rare

is defined as an estimated incidence of fewer than 1:250,000 persons.

CPS = carbamoyl phosphate synthetase; ETC = electron transport chain;

HPRT = hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase; MELAS = mitochondrial

encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes;

MPS = mucopolysaccharidosis; PDH = pyruvate dehydrogenase;

PKU = phenylketonuria.

*–Inborn errors of metabolism can induce disease manifestations

in any organ at various stages of life from newborn to adulthood.

Whereas advanced newborn screening programs using tandem mass

spectrometry will detect some inherited metabolic disorders before

clinical signs appear, most of these disorders will be detected by

the primary care physician before the diagnosis is made. Reliable

determination of certain metabolic disorders varies between

laboratories. Changes in screening reflect a growing field.

Information from references 1 through 3.

TABLE 4

Examples of Inborn Errors of Metabolism by Disorder

Disorder ~Incidence Inheritance

Amino acid metabolism

Phenylketonuria 1:15,000 Autosomal

recessive

Maple syrup urine disease 1:150,000 Autosomal

(1:1,000 in recessive

Mennonites)

Carbohydrate metabolism

Galactosemia 1:40,000 Autosomal

recessive

Glycogen storage disease, 1:100,000 Autosomal

type Ia (von Gierke’s recessive

disease)

Fatty acid oxidation

Medium-chain acyl-CoA 1:15,000 Autosomal

dehydrogenase deficiency recessive

Lactic acidemia

Pyruvate dehydrogenase 1:200,000 X-linked

deficiency

Lysosomal storage

Gaucher’s disease 1:60,000; Autosomal

type 1-1:900 recessive

in Ashkenazi

Jews

Fabry’s disease 1:80,000 to X-linked

1:117,000

Hurler’s syndrome 1:100,000 Autosomal

recessive

Organic aciduria

Methylmalonicaciduria 1:20,000 Autosomal

recessive

Propionic aciduria 1:50,000 Autosomal

recessive

Peroxisomes

Zellweger syndrome 1:50,000 Autosomal

recessive

Urea cycle

Ornithine transcarbamylase 1:70,000 X-linked

deficiency

Disorder Metabolic error

Amino acid metabolism

Phenylketonuria Phenylalanine hydroxylase

(> 98 percent)

Biopterin metabolic defects

(< 2 percent)

Maple syrup urine disease Branched-chain [alpha]-keto

acid dehydrogenase

Carbohydrate metabolism

Galactosemia Galactose 1-phosphate

uridyltransferase (most

common); galactokinase;

epimerase

Glycogen storage disease, Glucose-6-phosphatase

type Ia (von Gierke’s

disease)

Fatty acid oxidation

Medium-chain acyl-CoA Medium-chain acyl-CoA

dehydrogenase deficiency dehydrogenase

Lactic acidemia

Pyruvate dehydrogenase [E.sub.1] subunit defect

deficiency most common

Lysosomal storage

Gaucher’s disease [beta]-glucocerebrosidase

Fabry’s disease [alpha]-galactosidase A

Hurler’s syndrome [alpha]-L-iduronidase

Organic aciduria

Methylmalonicaciduria Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase,

cobalamin metabolism

Propionic aciduria Propionyl-CoA carboxylase

Peroxisomes

Zellweger syndrome Peroxisome membrane protein

Urea cycle

Ornithine transcarbamylase Ornithine transcarbamylase

deficiency

Disorder Key manifestation

Amino acid metabolism

Phenylketonuria Mental retardation, acquired

microcephaly

Maple syrup urine disease Acute encephalopathy, metabolic

acidosis, mental retardation

Carbohydrate metabolism

Galactosemia Hepatocellular dysfunction,

cataracts

Glycogen storage disease, Hypoglycemia, lactic acidosis,

type Ia (von Gierke’s ketosis

disease)

Fatty acid oxidation

Medium-chain acyl-CoA Nonketotic hypoglycemia, acute

dehydrogenase deficiency encephalopathy, coma, sudden

infant death

Lactic acidemia

Pyruvate dehydrogenase Hypotonia, psychomotor

deficiency retardation, failure to thrive,

seizures, lactic acidosis

Lysosomal storage

Gaucher’s disease Coarse facial features,

hepatosplenomegaly

Fabry’s disease Acroparesthesias, angiokeratomas

hypohidrosis, corneal opacities,

renal insufficiency

Hurler’s syndrome Coarse facial features,

hepatosplenomegaly

Organic aciduria

Methylmalonicaciduria Acute encephalopathy, metabolic

acidosis, hyperammonemia

Propionic aciduria Metabolic acidosis,

hyperammonemia

Peroxisomes

Zellweger syndrome Hypotonia, seizures, liver

dysfunction

Urea cycle

Ornithine transcarbamylase Acute encephalopathy

deficiency

Disorder Key laboratory test

Amino acid metabolism

Phenylketonuria Plasma phenylalanine concentration

Maple syrup urine disease Plasma amino acids and urine

organic acids

Dinitrophenylhydrazine for ketones

Carbohydrate metabolism

Galactosemia Enzyme assays, galactose and

galactose 1-phosphate assay,

molecular assay

Glycogen storage disease, Liver biopsy enzyme assay

type Ia (von Gierke’s

disease)

Fatty acid oxidation

Medium-chain acyl-CoA Urine organic acids, acylcarnitines,

dehydrogenase deficiency gene test

Lactic acidemia

Pyruvate dehydrogenase Plasma lactate

deficiency Skin fibroblast culture for enzyme

assay

Lysosomal storage

Gaucher’s disease Leukocyte [beta]-glucocere-brosidase

assay

Fabry’s disease Leukocyte [alpha]-galactosidase A assay

Hurler’s syndrome Urine mucopolysaccharides

Leukocyte [alpha]-L-iduronidase assay

Organic aciduria

Methylmalonicaciduria Urine organic acids

Skin fibroblasts for enzyme assay

Propionic aciduria Urine organic acids

Peroxisomes

Zellweger syndrome Plasma very-long-chain

fatty acids

Urea cycle

Ornithine transcarbamylase Plasma ammonia, plasma amino

deficiency acids

Urine orotic acid

Liver (biopsy) enzyme concentration

Disorder Therapy approach

Amino acid metabolism

Phenylketonuria Diet low in phenylalanine

hydroxylase

Maple syrup urine disease Restriction of dietary branched-chain

amino acids

Carbohydrate metabolism

Galactosemia Lactose-free diet

Glycogen storage disease, Corn starch and continuous

type Ia (von Gierke’s overnight feeds

disease)

Fatty acid oxidation

Medium-chain acyl-CoA Avoid hypoglycemia,

dehydrogenase deficiency avoid fasting

Lactic acidemia

Pyruvate dehydrogenase Correct acidosis; high-fat,

deficiency low-carbohydrate diet

Lysosomal storage

Gaucher’s disease Enzyme therapy, bone

marrow transplant

Fabry’s disease Enzyme replacement therapy

Hurler’s syndrome Bone marrow transplant

Organic aciduria

Methylmalonicaciduria Sodium bicarbonate, carnitine,

vitamin [B.sub.12], low-protein diet,

liver transplant

Propionic aciduria Dialysis, bicarbonate, sodium

benzoate, carnitine, low-

protein diet, liver transplant

Peroxisomes

Zellweger syndrome No specific treatment available

Urea cycle

Ornithine transcarbamylase Sodium benzoate, arginine, low-protein

deficiency diet, essential amino acids; dialysis

in acute stage

SORT: KEY RECOMMENDATIONS FOR PRACTICE

Evidence

Clinical recommendation rating References

Tandem mass spectrometry in newborn screening A 4

allows earlier identification of inborn

errors of metabolism in asymptomatic

persons.

Earlier recognition of inborn errors of A 6

metabolism has the potential to reduce

morbidity and mortality rates in affected

infants.

Special consideration for pregnant women with A 12

phenylketonuria includes constant monitoring

of phenylalanine concentrations to prevent

intrauterine fetal malformation.

A = consistent, good-quality patient-oriented evidence;

B = inconsistent or limited-quality patient-oriented evidence;

C = consensus, disease-oriented evidence, usual practice, expert

opinion, or case series. For information about the SORT evidence

rating system, see page 1874 or http://www.aafp.org/afpsort.xml.

COPYRIGHT 2006 American Academy of Family Physicians

COPYRIGHT 2008 Gale, Cengage Learning