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Nursing Journal of India

A study to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of an informational booklet on cancer risk factors

A study to develop and evaluate the effectiveness of an informational booklet on cancer risk factors

Bairwa, K S

Cancer, a dreadful disease, has a relentless, very painful and debilitating course and if not treated properly in time, results in death. Cancer is one of the second largest killer disease next to the heart disease. With great exposure to pollution and changing life style, the incidence of cancer has increased alarmingly. Its impact is likely to increase substantially, causing a lot of pain and suffering, if appropriate remedial steps are not taken. Therefore, the investigator felt the need to develop an information booklet on cancer risk factors for college students, thus educating them about cancer risk factors and modification of life style that can go a long way in reducing the risk of exposure to carcinogens and hence reduces changes of development of cancer in later life.

Objectives of the Study:

The objectives of the study were (1) to prepare an informational booklet on cancer risk factors (2) to assess the knowledge before and after the administration of informational booklet on cancer risk factors and (3) to deten-nine the acceptability and utility of an informational booklet by college students, nurses and doctors.

Methodology

The conceptual framework adopted for the study was based on stufflebeam CIPP Model. The one group pre-test post-test preexperimental research design was adopted for the study. The information booklet was developed on the basis of review of research and non- research literature related to concept of cancer, cancer risk factors and prevention and control of cancer, teaching strategies and development and evaluation of the informational booklet. The booklet was prepared in English. It was validated by nine experts from the field of Oncology Nursing.

Convenient sampling method was used to select two colleges of South Delhi and University of Delhi. A sample of 30 first year undergraduate students i.e. 15 from each of the two sections of selected colleges. The data collection instruments used were (I) a structured knowledge questionnaire to assess the knowledge of students and (2) two structured opinionnaires were used to gather opinion regarding acceptability and utility of the booklet from college students, doctors and nurses. The reliability of knowledge questionnaire and opinionnaire were computed using Kudar Richardson 20 formula and test retest method and was found to be .98 and .65 respectively.

Pretest was administered and informational booklet was given on day one and post test was administered on 7th day after collecting back the informational booklet. The opinion regarding information booklet was collected from the college students, doctors and nurses through two structured opinionnaires. The data collected were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics, in terms of frequency, percentages, mean median, standard deviation and ‘t’ value.

Findings:

1. All the subjects (100%) were in the age group of 17-20 years. There were more number of female students. i.e. 53.33 percent than male students 46.67 percent. There were equal number of students both in science and non science stream of study regarding the information about cancer, 93.67 percent students had the information.

2. The information booklet was effective in increasing the knowledge of the college students as evident from ‘t’ (29) = 52.44 P

3. The mean acceptability and utility scores of students. Doctors and nurses were higher and close to the maximum possible acceptability and utility scores. Indicating that the informational booklet was . acceptable and useful.

Implications Nursing Practice

Health education is an important nursing responsibility, nurses can provide health counselling, promote good health habits, and assist the patient to stop or reduce habits hazardous to health, such as, smoking or unhealthy eating. Specially, health education focuses ‘on risk’ factors suspected to be casually linked with cancer and an avoiding/minim izing exposure to those factors.

Nursing Education:

With changing health care trend, nursing education must emphasize primary health care approach focusing on prevention than cure. The nursing students should be taught the importance of educating clients about cancer risk factors and prevention and control of cancer.

Nursing Administration:

With Technological advances and ever-growing challenges of cancer nursing, the administrators have a responsibility to provide nurses with substantive continuing education opportunities. This will enable the nurses to update their knowledge, acquire special skills and demonstrate high-quality care.

Nursing Research:

There is a need for extensive and intensive research in this area so that strategies for educating people on the prevention of the disease can be developed. The nurse researcher should be able to conduct the research on various aspects of cancer, cancer awareness and prevention of cancer. So as to generate more scientific data.

Public Education:

A nationwide network for an organized health education programmes has,become necessary in view of the magnitude of the cancer problem. Emphasis on cancer education should aim not only at increasing awareness but also dispelling the myths and misconceptions about the disease. People should be made aware about the cancer risk factors and the ways to minimize exposure to these factors.

Recommendations:

On the basis of the finding of the study following recommendations were made. A similar study may be replicated on a large sample; thereby findings can be generalized for a large population. A similar study may be conducted including the dimensions of students ‘ attitude towards cancer and cancer risk factors. Similar kind of studies can be undertaken in different settings and different target population such as teachers, officer goers, industrial workers, community at a large. A comparative study can be carried out to ascertain the knowledge regarding cancer risk factors among the students of general and professional colleges.

References:

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2. Baron, Roberta, H. Facts Everybody should know about Breast Cancer, American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 95 No. 7 July 1995, PP. 29-33.

3. Buston, M.M. et al., oral contraceptive use and cancer in Indonesia contraception, 1993 47(3), 241-249.

4. David, H. Seven Steps to Cancer Prevention, Herald of Health, 1993, 84(10) 18-19.

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6. Elkind, A.K. The Nurse as Health Educator the Prevention and Early Detection of Cancer, Journal of Advance Nursing, 1980, 5(19), 417426.

7. Hill, D.G. et al Factors Predisposing Women to take Precautions against Breast and Cervix Cancer. Journal of Applied Psychology, 15(l); 59-70.

8. Mahul,-R.K. “A Study to ascertain Knowledge of Cancer Prevention and Control. In a non- patient population of a selected Mission Hospital in Punjab with view to identify Cancer Health Education content in the training programme of Nurses”. Thesis University of Delhi, 1989.

9. Nutter, L.R. What Causes Cancer, Herald of Health 1994 85(6) PP. 455-460.

10. Tiffany, Robert, Oncology for Nurses and Health Professionals, Champman and Hall London 1992, Vol. I, PP 29-69.

K.S. BAIRWA

Author : Nursing Tutor, College of Nursing, AIIMS, New Delhi. [at the time of writing this article]

Copyright Trained Nurses’ Association of India Oct 2002

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