Competitive positions: relative unit labour costs

Competitive positions: relative unit labour costs

Annex Table 43

Competitive positions: relative unit labour costs

Indices, 1995 = 100

1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992

Australia 224.0 180.8 164.6 161.5 163.9 149.9 133.2 115.8

Austria 94.2 109.2 115.6 109.8 103.9 104.2 102.1 103.6

Belgium 88.5 92.5 95.9 93.4 91.5 97.4 97.3 97.4

Canada 107.3 102.3 109.3 117.8 121.8 125.0 128.5 117.6

Czech Republic — — — — — — — —

Denmark 78.4 82.4 90.2 95.4 89.6 97.8 93.9 96.3

Finland 133.5 128.8 127.6 131.7 138.3 145.5 139.2 108.2

France 106.6 108.0 107.1 102.9 99.4 105.6 100.9 99.0

Germany 69.7 77.4 83.5 83.0 80.4 82.9 83.6 89.8

Greece 102.7 88.0 85.0 93.8 99.7 106.3 97.9 94.3

Hungary — — — — — — — —

Iceland 99.0 96.2 117.9 128.2 113.6 109.6 113.3 111.0

Ireland 152.8 163.6 151.0 138.6 127.6 133.0 126.8 123.0

Italy 135.4 133.9 133.5 130.9 130.7 130.0 133.2 131.3

Japan 49.4 65.6 69.5 71.8 65.2 60.9 66.6 73.5

Korea 82.6 65.2 68.4 84.0 99.4 96.7 98.4 90.7

Luxembourg 110.3 119.1 120.6 109.5 103.5 104.4 102.1 102.0

Mexico 134.5 103.5 105.0 109.1 120.9 123.0 137.4 153.0

Netherlands 98.9 106.7 112.5 108.9 101.2 102.6 99.6 102.6

New Zealand 77.6 79.9 89.8 99.9 92.8 93.0 92.0 82.4

Norway 93.4 94.1 95.4 100.6 98.9 97.7 95.7 93.6

Poland — — — — — — — —

Portugal 89.3 87.3 83.6 86.9 94.6 89.8 91.8 100.7

Slovak Republic — — — — — — — —

Spain 79.3 82.9 84.2 89.5 96.6 108.7 109.8 112.6

Sweden 127.7 128.8 129.8 134.7 141.3 145.7 148.3 145.5

Switzerland 69.4 76.6 81.9 83.4 78.9 84.9 85.3 83.6

Turkey 122.0 97.1 88.5 80.8 122.2 173.4 190.7 172.1

United Kingdom 111.9 105.7 109.0 116.3 112.5 116.5 120.1 111.2

United States 168.8 148.8 125.7 116.4 117.6 114.4 112.1 108.0

Euro area 83.7 94.5 101.8 97.3 92.3 101.1 98.8 103.1

1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000

Australia 101.4 102.9 100.0 103.5 104.5 93.1 91.4 86.8

Austria 105.8 98.9 100.0 102.0 91.9 82.0 79.1 72.1

Belgium 96.4 96.9 100.0 94.7 87.9 89.1 89.3 85.6

Canada 105.1 97.8 100.0 105.8 106.2 101.6 102.8 102.0

Czech Republic 90.2 98.1 100.0 107.1 104.9 115.2 116.6 115.8

Denmark 101.2 96.9 100.0 104.0 98.4 101.9 104.0 103.5

Finland 82.3 87.2 100.0 93.8 88.0 89.0 87.5 77.9

France 101.5 100.3 100.0 99.6 90.8 87.2 84.6 78.1

Germany 91.4 92.6 100.0 97.4 92.8 94.8 96.3 93.4

Greece 88.2 92.1 100.0 102.7 105.9 101.2 102.9 98.3

Hungary 122.7 122.2 100.0 92.5 92.6 85.5 85.5 78.2

Iceland 101.2 99.4 100.0 98.7 104.0 113.1 124.3 134.4

Ireland 113.0 109.0 100.0 99.1 91.7 85.3 81.5 74.3

Italy 120.0 114.1 100.0 111.8 114.1 120.3 121.1 113.6

Japan 89.1 98.5 100.0 84.7 80.1 87.7 98.6 101.7

Korea 87.3 89.8 100.0 107.0 93.4 64.8 67.5 70.9

Luxembourg 100.9 99.4 100.0 94.8 94.1 92.5 88.1 87.3

Mexico 164.7 160.6 100.0 101.8 111.8 108.3 113.8 122.7

Netherlands 101.6 97.6 100.0 96.7 93.8 97.9 97.1 93.7

New Zealand 85.4 93.3 100.0 111.1 116.5 107.7 108.0 97.2

Norway 90.6 94.4 100.0 101.0 107.0 109.0 116.1 119.3

Poland 90.2 96.3 100.0 102.7 102.4 108.0 101.0 100.4

Portugal 91.5 95.0 100.0 91.3 92.9 94.7 97.0 97.9

Slovak Republic 83.3 89.2 100.0 107.7 125.7 133.9 132.2 146.7

Spain 102.3 99.2 100.0 104.3 103.7 106.6 106.5 107.1

Sweden 103.9 97.2 100.0 113.1 108.7 105.9 101.2 98.2

Switzerland 82.7 91.3 100.0 96.5 92.8 96.1 96.4 96.2

Turkey 171.3 111.5 100.0 100.2 112.6 125.8 147.1 168.5

United Kingdom 98.2 100.6 100.0 103.2 125.3 138.0 143.1 145.2

United States 106.6 105.5 100.0 101.0 106.1 115.3 112.3 117.7

Euro area 99.3 96.8 100.0 100.5 90.5 92.3 91.1 82.1

2001 2002

Australia 81.7 85.8

Austria 70.5 70.2

Belgium 87.3 89.8

Canada 104.1 104.3

Czech Republic 119.1 125.3

Denmark 105.7 108.3

Finland 81.5 82.6

France 78.0 78.2

Germany 93.1 93.7

Greece 98.5 101.0

Hungary 86.2 97.8

Iceland 116.4 122.5

Ireland 72.1 75.4

Italy 115.3 119.2

Japan 97.5 89.1

Korea 67.4 75.1

Luxembourg 89.0 90.4

Mexico 132.4 133.7

Netherlands 95.1 99.8

New Zealand 95.4 104.2

Norway 124.9 139.4

Poland 104.7 93.8

Portugal 100.5 102.4

Slovak Republic 153.5 163.4

Spain 110.8 115.6

Sweden 90.0 91.7

Switzerland 101.2 106.5

Turkey 121.1 117.8

United Kingdom 143.7 146.5

United States 119.0 117.6

Euro area 83.7 87.6

Note: Competitiveness-weighted relative unit labour costs in the

manufacturing sector in dollar terms. Competitiveness weights take into

account the structure of competition in both export and import and

markets of the manufacturing sector of 42 countries. An increase in the

index indicates a real effective appreciation and a corresponding

deterioration of the competitive position. For details on the method of

calculation see Durand, M., C. Madaschi and F. Terribile (1998), “Trends

in OECD Countries’ International Competitiveness: The Influence of

Emerging Market Economies”, OECD Economics Department Working Papers,

No. 195. See also OECD Economic Outlook Sources and Methods

(http://www.oecd.org/eco/sources-and-methods).

Source: OECD.

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