Fat-busters for bakery foods – hydrocolloids and emulsifiers – IBC & Prepared Foods Conference on Fat and Cholesterol Reduced Foods
Hydrocolloids and emulsifiers create a potent bakery duo.
Shortening lends moistness, tender texture, lubricity and flavor to bakery foods. It affects air incorporation and heat transfer, as well. For a reduced-fat bakery food to appeal to consumers, it must still offer the mouthfeel and other qualities of the traditional version, says Dr. Clyde Stauffer, Technical Foods Consultants. The fat replacer must function well for the baker, too.
A useful means of reducing fat in bakery products is to replace it with nonfat solids, water and functional ingredients, according to John Wyatt, technical manager, Grindsted Products Inc. He notes that these functional ingredients fall into two main categories: emulsifiers and hydrocolloids.
Besides emulsification, emulsifiers typically are associated with starch complexing/crumb softening; protein interaction/dough strengthening; aeration/foam stabilization; and crystal modification.
The main functional properties of hydrocolloids are viscosity building, water binding, emulsification, stabilization, suspension and gelation. These “moisture management” attributes allow for texture modifications in lowfat foods that simulate higher fat products, Wyatt says. The synergy between hydrocolloids and emulsifiers in baked goods contributes a smooth texture, creamy mouthfeel, and tenderness.
Anne O’Boyle, product manager, FMC Corp., Marine Colloids Division, suggests using a combination of Nutlicol[TM] konjac flour with xanthan gum to maintain or improve the texture, volume and acceptability of reduced-fat pound cake. These ingredients allow for the total replacement of shortening in the formula, she says.
For lowfat soda biscuits, Richard Koch, bakery applications manager, Protein Technologies International, suggests using soy fiber (Fibrim[TM] 1255) to boost the nutritional profile while maintaining traditional eating quality. A prototype formulation cuts the total fat by about 56% and raises the dietary fiber content by a factor of four. These light biscuits have less fat, fewer calories, more fiber, and fewer calories from fat than many commercially available fast-food biscuits, he says.
A sausage biscuit sandwich consisting of a Fibrim-containing biscuit and a sausage containing Proplus[TM] soy protein has about 57% less fat and 44% fewer calories than a standard sausage biscuit.
Stephen Glisamore, sales manager, new product development, ConAgra Specialty Grain Products Co., offers another option for lowfat bakery foods: Oatrim, modified oat flour made using a patented formula.
Oatrim gel can replace up to 75% of the shortening in some bakery foods such as blueberry muffins or cinnamon rolls, the company says. It allows bakers to replace all of the shortening in some cookie systems. Also, confectioners can use the ingredient in compound coatings, toppings, caramels and nougats.
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