Section 8. Nuclear energy

Section 8. Nuclear energy

U.S. nuclear electricity net generation during October 2004 was 63 net terawatthours (billion kilowatthours) of electricity, 4 percent higher than the level in October 2003.

Nuclear units generated at an average capacity factor of 84.7 percent in October 2004, 3.4 percentage points higher than the capacity factor in October 2003.

The nuclear share of total electricity net generation in October 2004 was 20.1 percent, compared with 19.6 percent 1 year earlier.

On October 31, 2004, there were 104 operable nuclear generating units in the United States, with a collective net summer capacity of 99.2 million kilowatts of electricity.

Table 8.1 Nuclear Energy Overview

Total Net Summer Nuclear

Operable Capacity of Electricity

Units Operable Net

(a, b) Units (b,c) Generation

Million Million

Number Kilowatts Kilowatthours

1973 Year 42 22.683 83,479

1974 Year 55 31.867 113,976

1975 Year 57 37.267 172,505

1976 Year 63 43.822 191,104

1977 Year 67 46.303 250,883

1978 Year 70 50.824 276,403

1979 Year 69 49.747 255,155

1980 Year 71 51.810 251,116

1981 Year 75 56.042 272,674

1982 Year 78 60.035 282,773

1983 Year 81 63.009 293,677

1984 Year 87 69.652 327,634

1985 Year 96 79.397 383,691

1986 Year 101 85.241 414,038

1987 Year 107 93.583 455,270

1988 Year 109 94.695 526,973

1989 Year 111 98.161 529,355

1990 Year 112 99.624 576,862

1991 Year 111 99.589 612,565

1992 Year 109 98.985 618,776

1993 Year 110 99.041 610,291

1994 Year 109 99.148 640,440

1995 Year 109 99.515 673,402

1996 Year 109 100.784 674,729

1997 Year 107 99.716 628,644

1998 Year 104 97.070 673,702

1999 Year 104 97.411 728,254

2000 Year 104 97.860 753,893

2001 Year 104 98.159 768,826

2002 January 104 98.657 70,926

February 104 98.657 61,658

March 104 98.657 63,041

April 104 98.657 58,437

May 104 98.657 63,032

June 104 98.657 66,372

July 104 98.657 70,421

August 104 98.657 70,778

September 104 98.657 64,481

October 104 98.657 60,493

November 104 98.657 61,520

December 104 98.657 68,905

Year 104 98.657 780,064

2003 January 104 (R) 99.209 69,211

February 104 (R) 99.209 60,942

March 104 (R) 99.209 59,933

April 104 (R) 99.209 56,776

May 104 (R) 99.209 (R) 62,202

June 104 (R) 99.209 64,181

July 104 (R) 99.209 69,653

August 104 (R) 99.209 69,024

September 104 (R) 99.209 63,584

October 104 (R) 99.209 60,016

November 104 (R) 99.209 59,600

December 104 (R) 99.209 68,612

Year 104 (R) 99.209 (R) 763,733

2004 January 104 (R) 99.209 (R) 70,806

February 104 (R) 99.209 (R) 64,102

March 104 (R) 99.209 (R) 63,263

April 104 (R) 99.209 (R) 58,620

May 104 (R) 99.209 64,917

June 104 (R) 99.209 67,787

July 104 (R) 99.209 71,975

August 104 (R) 99.209 71,064

September 104 (R) 99.209 65,932

October 104 99.209 62,530

10 Months 104 99.209 660,998

2003 10 Months 104 99.209 635,521

2002 10 Months 104 98.657 649,638

Nuclear

Share

of

Electricity

Net Capacity

Generation Factor (d)

Percent

1973 Year 4.5 53.5

1974 Year 6.1 47.8

1975 Year 9.0 55.9

1976 Year 9.4 54.7

1977 Year 11.8 63.3

1978 Year 12.5 64.5

1979 Year 11.3 58.4

1980 Year 11.0 56.3

1981 Year 11.9 58.2

1982 Year 12.6 56.6

1983 Year 12.7 54.4

1984 Year 13.5 56.3

1985 Year 15.5 58.0

1986 Year 16.6 56.9

1987 Year 17.7 57.4

1988 Year 19.5 63.5

1989 Year 17.8 62.2

1990 Year 19.0 66.0

1991 Year 19.9 70.2

1992 Year 20.1 70.9

1993 Year 19.1 70.5

1994 Year 19.7 73.8

1995 Year 20.1 77.4

1996 Year 19.6 76.2

1997 Year 18.0 71.1

1998 Year 18.6 78.2

1999 Year 19.7 85.3

2000 Year 19.8 88.1

2001 Year 20.6 89.4

2002 January 22.2 96.6

February 21.9 93.0

March 20.8 85.9

April 20.2 82.3

May 20.5 85.9

June 19.5 93.4

July 18.5 95.9

August 18.9 96.4

September 19.5 90.8

October 19.7 82.4

November 20.8 86.6

December 21.2 93.9

Year 20.2 90.3

2003 January (R) 20.2 (R) 93.8

February (R) 20.4 (R) 91.4

March (R) 19.7 (R) 81.2

April (R) 19.9 (R) 79.5

May (R) 20.2 (R) 84.3

June (R) 19.5 (R) 89.9

July (R) 18.6 (R) 94.4

August (R) 18.1 (R) 93.5

September (R) 19.7 (R) 89.0

October (R) 19.6 (R) 81.3

November 20.0 (R) 83.4

December 20.7 (R) 93.0

Year (R) 19.7 (R) 87.9

2004 January (R) 20.5 (R) 95.9

February 20.5 (R) 92.8

March (R) 20.6 (R) 85.7

April (R) 20.2 (R) 82.1

May (R) 19.9 (R) 88.0

June (R) 19.7 (R) 94.9

July (R) 19.2 (R) 97.5

August (R) 19.3 (R) 96.3

September (R) 19.7 (R) 92.3

October 20.1 84.7

10 Months 19.9 91.0

2003 10 Months 19.5 87.8

2002 10 Months 20.1 90.3

(a) Total of nuclear generating units

holding full-power licenses, or equivalent

permission to operate, at the end of the

period–see Note 1 at end of section.

Although Browns Ferry 1 was shut down in 1985,

the unit has remained fully licensed and thus

has continued to be counted as operable during

the shutdown; in May 2002, the Tennessee Valley

Authority announced its intenton to have the unit

resume operation in 2007–see Note 1(a) at end

of section. For additional information on nuclear

generating units, see Annual Energy Review 2003,

September 2004, Table 9.1.

(b) At end of period.

(c) For the definition of “Net Summer Capacity,”

see Note 2(a) at end of section.

(d) For an explanation of the method of

calculating the capacity factor, see Note 2

al end of section.

(R) = Revised.

Notes: * See Note 1 at end of section for

discussion of reactor unit coverage.

* Nuclear electricity net generation totals

may not equal sum of components due to

independent rounding. * Geographic coverage

is the 50 States and the District of

Columbia.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/nuclear.html.

Sources: See end of section.

Figure 8.1 Nuclear Energy Overview

[GRAPHICS OMITTED]

Nuclear Electricity Net Generation

October 2002 60.493

October 2003 60.016

October 2004 62.530

Web Page: http:/www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/nuclear.html.

Sources: Table 7.1 and 8.1.

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Nuclear Energy

Note 1. A reactor is generally defined as operable while it possessed a full-power license from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its predecessor the Atomic Energy Commission, or equivalent permission to operate, at the end of the year or month shown. The definition is liberal in that it does not exclude units retaining full-power licenses during long, non-routine shutdowns that for a time rendered them unable to generate electricity. Examples are:

(a) In 1985 the five then-active Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) units (Browns Ferry 1, 2, and 3 and Sequoyah 1 and 2) were shut down under a regulatory forced outage. Browns Ferry 1 remains shut down and has been defueled, while the other units were idle for several years, restarting in 1991, 1995, 1988, and 1988, respectively. All five units are counted as operable during the shutdowns. Browns Ferry 1 is the only one of the five TVA plants that has not returned to service. Because it is still fully licensed to operate, it continues to meet the definition of operable.

(b) Shippingport was shut down from 1974 through 1976 for conversion to a light-water breeder reactor, but is counted as operable from 1957 until its retirement in 1982.

(c) Calvert Cliffs 2 was shut down in 1989 and 1990 for replacement of pressurizer heater sleeves but is counted as operable during those years.

Exceptions to the definition are Shoreham and Three Mile Island 2. Shoreham was granted a full-power license in April 1989, but was shut down two months later and never restarted. In 1991, the license was changed to Possession Only. Although not operable at the end of the year, Shoreham is counted as operable during 1989. A major accident closed Three Mile Island 2 in 1979, and although the unit retained its full-power license for several years, it is considered permanently shut down since that year.

Note 2. Capacity: Nuclear generating units may have more than one type of net capacity rating, including the following:

(a) Net Summer Capacity–The steady hourly output that generating equipment is expected to supply to system load, exclusive of auxiliary power, as demonstrated by test at the time of summer peak demand. Auxiliary power of a typical nuclear power plant is about 5 percent of gross generation.

b) Net Design Capacity or Net Design Electrical Rating (DER)–The nominal net electrical output of a unit, specified by the utility and used for plant design.

The monthly capacity factors are computed as the actual monthly generation divided by the maximum possible generation for that month. The maximum possible generation is the number of hours in the month multiplied by the net summer capacity at the end of the month. That fraction is then multiplied by 100 to obtain a percentage. Annual capacity factors are averages of the monthly values for that year.

Table 8.1 Sources

Total Operable Units and Net Summer Capacity of Operable Units: 1973-1982: Compiled from various sources, primarily DOE, Office of Nuclear Reactor Programs, “U.S. Central Station Nuclear Electric Generating Units: Significant Milestones.” 1983 forward: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Form EIA-860, “Annual Electric Generator Report,” and monthly updates as appropriate. For a list of currently operable units, see: http://eia.doe.gov/cneaf/nuclear/page/nuc_reaetors/operational.html.

Nuclear Electricity Net Generation and Nuclear Share of Electricity Net Generation: See Table 7.2a for actual data.

Capacity Factor: EIA, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels for actual data.

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