Section 10. Renewable energy

Section 10. Renewable energy

Sources. The Nation consumed 5.9 quadrillion Btu of renewable energy in 2002, accounting for 6 percent (1) of total energy consumption during the year. At 2.7 quadrillion Btu, conventional hydroelectric power was the largest component of the renewable energy total, measuring 45 percent of the total. Wood was the next largest component at 2.0 quadrillion Btu and 34 percent of the total. Waste, the third largest component of the renewable energy total, contributed 0.6 quadrillion Btu in 2002, a 9-percent share of the total.

Electric Power Sector. In 2002, the electric power sector consumed 3.5 quadrillion Btu of renewable energy resources, 1.1 quadrillion Btu more than all of the end-use sectors combined and a share of 59 percent of the total. Conventional hydroelectric power recorded 2.6 quadrillion Btu in 2002, for 75 percent of the electric power sector total. Waste, at 0.3 quadrillion Btu, was the second largest source consumed for electricity generation, followed by geothermal and wood.

End-Use Sectors. Of the end-use sectors, the industrial sector was the largest consumer of renewable energy in 2002. Industrial facilities used 1.7 quadrillion Btu of renewable energy in 2002, 87 percent in the form of wood. The residential sector was the next largest end-use sector in the use of renewable energy, consuming 0.4 quadrillion Btu–84 percent in the form of wood, 14 percent solar, and 2 geothermal. The transportation sector consumed renewable energy in the form of alcohol fuels used in the blending of motor gasoline; in 2002, alcohol fuel use was 0.2 quadrillion Btu. The commercial sector used 0.1 quadrillion Btu in 2002, 48 percent of it as waste and 42 percent as wood.

Table 10.1 Renewable Energy Consumption by Source

(Trillion Btu)

Conventional

Hydroelectric Alcohol

Power (a) Wood (b) Waste (c) Fuels (d)

1973 Total 2,861 1,527 2 NA

1974 Total 3,177 1,538 2 NA

1975 Total 3,155 1,497 2 NA

1976 Total 2,976 1,711 2 NA

1977 Total 2,333 1,837 2 NA

1978 Total 2,937 2,036 1 NA

1979 Total 2,931 2,150 2 NA

1980 Total 2,900 2,483 2 NA

1981 Total 2,758 2,495 88 7

1982 Total 3,266 2,477 119 19

1983 Total 3,527 2,639 157 35

1984 Total 3,386 2,629 208 43

1985 Total 2,970 2,576 236 52

1986 Total 3,071 2,518 263 60

1987 Total 2,635 2,465 289 69

1988 Total 2,334 2,552 315 70

1989 Total 2,837 2,637 354 71

1990 Total 3,046 2,191 408 63

1991 Total 3,016 2,190 440 73

1992 Total 2,617 2,290 473 83

1993 Total 2,892 2,227 479 97

1994 Total 2,683 2,315 515 109

1995 Total 3,205 2,420 531 117

1996 Total 3,590 2,467 577 84

1997 Total 3,640 2,350 551 106

1998 Total 3,297 2,175 542 117

1999 Total 3,268 2,224 540 122

2000 Total 2,811 2,257 511 139

2001 January 191 177 43 15

February 177 157 38 12

March 208 169 43 12

April 183 165 43 11

May 195 162 42 11

June 210 165 43 12

July 183 170 45 11

August 192 174 44 10

September 155 165 42 12

October 155 175 43 16

November 156 167 43 13

December 196 171 45 13

Total 2,201 2,017 514 147

2002 January 219 177 47 13

February 204 156 41 12

March 213 167 46 12

April 248 168 45 12

May 274 167 46 14

June 287 170 46 12

July 257 176 48 15

August 210 172 46 14

September 168 170 46 15

October 171 172 46 17

November 198 165 45 20

December 218 171 48 19

Total 2,668 2,031 550 174

2003 January 199 165 44 17

February R 199 R 153 R 40 20

March R 253 R 166 R 44 17

April 254 173 44 20

4-Month Total 905 657 173 73

2002 4-Month Total 884 669 179 49

2001 4-Month Total 759 668 167 50

Geothermal (e) Solar (f) Wind (g) Total

1973 Total 43 NA NA 4,433

1974 Total 53 NA NA 4,769

1975 Total 70 NA NA 4,723

1976 Total 78 NA NA 4,768

1977 Total 77 NA NA 4,249

1978 Total 64 NA NA 5,039

1979 Total 84 NA NA 5,166

1980 Total 110 NA NA 5,494

1981 Total 123 NA NA 5,471

1982 Total 105 NA NA 5,985

1983 Total 129 NA (s) 6,488

1984 Total 165 (s) (s) 6,431

1985 Total 198 (s) (s) 6,033

1986 Total 219 (s) (s) 6,132

1987 Total 229 (s) (s) 5,687

1988 Total 217 (s) (s) 5,489

1989 Total 317 55 22 6,294

1990 Total 336 60 29 6,133

1991 Total 346 63 31 6,158

1992 Total 349 64 30 5,907

1993 Total 364 66 31 6,156

1994 Total 338 69 36 6,065

1995 Total 294 70 33 6,669

1996 Total 316 71 33 7,137

1997 Total 325 70 34 7,075

1998 Total 328 70 31 6,561

1999 Total 331 69 46 6,599

2000 Total 317 66 57 6,158

2001 January 28 5 4 463

February 24 5 4 418

March 27 5 5 470

April 25 5 7 438

May 24 6 6 447

June 25 6 7 467

July 27 6 6 449

August 26 6 6 459

September 26 6 5 410

October 26 5 6 426

November 26 5 5 415

December 27 5 6 463

Total 311 65 68 5,324

2002 January 27 5 8 496

February 24 5 7 449

March 26 5 9 479

April 24 5 11 512

May 26 6 11 542

June 24 6 12 556

July 26 6 9 537

August 26 6 10 484

September 25 5 8 437

October 26 5 8 446

November 25 5 7 465

December 26 5 8 494

Total 304 64 106 5,897

2003 January 26 5 6 462

February 23 5 R 7 R 446

March 29 5 R 9 R 524

April 30 5 10 536

4-Month Total 109 20 31 1,968

2002 4-Month Total 101 20 35 1,936

2001 4-Month Total 104 21 21 1,789

(a) Hydroelectricity generated by pumped storage is not included in

renewable energy.

(b) Wood, black liquor, and other wood waste.

(c) Municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, tires,

agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.

(d) Ethanol blended into motor gasoline.

(e) Geothermal electricity net generation, heat pump, and direct use

energy.

(f) Solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation, and

solar thermal direct use energy.

(g) Wind electricity net generation.

R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.

Notes: * Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent

rounding. * Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of

Columbia.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html.

Sources: Tables 10.2a, 10.2b, and 10.2c.

Table 10.2a Estimated Renewable Energy Consumption:

Residential and Commercial Sectors

(Trillion Btu)

Residential Sector

Wood (b) Geothermal (c) Solar (d) Total

1973 Total 354 NA NA 354

1974 Total 371 NA NA 371

1975 Total 425 NA NA 425

1976 Total 482 NA NA 482

1977 Total 542 NA NA 542

1978 Total 622 NA NA 622

1979 Total 728 NA NA 728

1980 Total 859 NA NA 859

1981 Total 869 NA NA 869

1982 Total 937 NA NA 937

1983 Total 925 NA NA 925

1984 Total 923 NA NA 923

1985 Total 899 NA NA 899

1986 Total 876 NA NA 876

1987 Total 852 NA NA 852

1988 Total 885 NA NA 885

1989 Total 918 5 53 976

1990 Total 581 6 56 642

1991 Total 613 6 58 677

1992 Total 645 6 60 711

1993 Total 548 7 62 616

1994 Total 537 6 64 607

1995 Total 596 7 65 667

1996 Total 595 7 65 667

1997 Total 433 8 65 506

1998 Total 387 8 65 459

1999 Total 414 9 64 486

2000 Total 433 9 61 503

2001 January 35 1 5 40

February 31 1 5 37

March 35 1 5 40

April 33 1 5 39

May 35 1 5 40

June 33 1 5 39

July 35 1 5 40

August 35 1 5 40

September 33 1 5 39

October 35 1 5 40

November 33 1 5 39

December 35 1 5 40

Total 407 9 60 476

2002 January 30 1 5 36

February 27 1 4 32

March 30 1 5 36

April 29 1 5 34

May 30 1 5 36

June 29 1 5 34

July 30 1 5 36

August 30 1 5 36

September 29 1 5 34

October 30 1 5 36

November 29 1 5 34

December 30 1 5 36

Total 350 10 58 419

2003 January 30 1 5 36

February 27 1 4 32

March 30 1 5 36

April 29 1 5 34

4-Month Total 115 3 19 138

2002 4-Month Total 115 3 19 138

2001 4-Month Total 134 3 20 157

Commercial Sector (a)

Hydropower Wood Waste

(e) (b) (f) Geothermal (c) Total

1973 Total NA 7 NA NA 7

1974 Total NA 7 NA NA 7

1975 Total NA 8 NA NA 8

1976 Total NA 9 NA NA 9

1977 Total NA 10 NA NA 10

1978 Total NA 12 NA NA 12

1979 Total NA 14 NA NA 14

1980 Total NA 21 NA NA 21

1981 Total NA 21 NA NA 21

1982 Total NA 22 NA NA 22

1983 Total NA 22 NA NA 22

1984 Total NA 22 NA NA 22

1985 Total NA 24 NA NA 24

1986 Total NA 27 NA NA 27

1987 Total NA 29 NA NA 29

1988 Total NA 32 NA NA 32

1989 Total 1 36 22 3 61

1990 Total 1 39 28 3 71

1991 Total 1 41 26 3 72

1992 Total 1 44 32 3 81

1993 Total 1 46 33 3 84

1994 Total 1 46 35 4 86

1995 Total 1 46 40 5 92

1996 Total 1 50 53 5 110

1997 Total 1 49 58 6 113

1998 Total 1 48 54 7 111

1999 Total 1 52 54 7 114

2000 Total 1 53 47 8 109

2001 January (s) 4 3 1 7

February (s) 3 3 1 7

March (s) 4 3 1 7

April (s) 3 3 1 7

May (s) 4 3 1 7

June (s) 3 3 1 8

July (s) 4 4 1 8

August (s) 4 4 1 8

September (s) 3 3 1 7

October (s) 3 3 1 7

November (s) 3 3 1 7

December (s) 4 3 1 8

Total 1 41 39 8 89

2002 January (s) 4 4 1 8

February (s) 3 3 1 7

March (s) 4 4 1 8

April (s) 3 4 1 8

May (s) 3 4 1 8

June (s) 3 4 1 8

July (s) 3 4 1 8

August (s) 3 4 1 8

September (s) 3 4 1 8

October (s) 3 4 1 9

November (s) 3 4 1 8

December (s) 4 4 1 8

Total 1 41 47 9 97

2003 January (s) 4 3 1 7

February (s) 3 3 1 7

March (s) R 4 RF 4 1 R 8

April (s) 3 F 4 1 8

4-Month Total (s) 14 E 14 3 31

2002 4-Month Total (s) 14 15 3 32

2001 4-Month Total (s) 14 12 3 29

(a) Commercial sector fuel use, including that at commercial

combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and commercial electricity-only plants.

See note at end of Section 7.

(b) Wood, black liquor, and other wood waste.

(c) Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy.

(d) Solar thermal direct use energy and photovoltaic electricity

generation. Small amounts of commercial sector use are included in the

residential sector.

(e) Conventional hydroelectric power.

(f) Municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, tires,

agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.

R=Revised. E=Estimate. F=Forecast. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5

trillion Btu.

Notes: * Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent

rounding. * Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of

Columbia.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html.

Sources: See end of section.

Table 10.2b Estimated Renewable Energy Consumption:

Industrial and Transportation Sectors

(Trillion Btu)

Trans-

porta-

tion

Industrial Sector (a) Sector

Hydro- Geo- Alcohol

power Wood Waste thermal Fuels

(b) (c) (d) (e) Total (f)

1973 Total 35 1,165 NA NA 1,200 NA

1974 Total 33 1,159 NA NA 1,192 NA

1975 Total 32 1,063 NA NA 1,096 NA

1976 Total 33 1,220 NA NA 1,253 NA

1977 Total 33 1,281 NA NA 1,314 NA

1978 Total 32 1,400 NA NA 1,432 NA

1979 Total 34 1,405 NA NA 1,439 NA

1980 Total 33 1,600 NA NA 1,633 NA

1981 Total 33 1,602 87 NA 1,722 7

1982 Total 33 1,516 118 NA 1,667 19

1983 Total 33 1,690 155 NA 1,879 35

1984 Total 33 1,679 204 NA 1,916 43

1985 Total 33 1,645 230 NA 1,908 52

1986 Total 33 1,610 256 NA 1,899 60

1987 Total 33 1,576 282 NA 1,891 69

1988 Total 33 1,625 308 NA 1,965 70

1989 Total 28 1,584 200 2 1,814 71

1990 Total 31 1,442 192 2 1,667 63

1991 Total 30 1,410 185 2 1,626 73

1992 Total 31 1,461 179 2 1,672 83

1993 Total 30 1,483 181 2 1,696 97

1994 Total 62 1,580 199 3 1,844 109

1995 Total 55 1,652 195 3 1,905 117

1996 Total 61 1,683 224 3 1,971 84

1997 Total 58 1,731 184 3 1,976 106

1998 Total 55 1,603 180 3 1,841 117

1999 Total 49 1,620 171 4 1,843 122

2000 Total 42 1,636 145 4 1,828 139

2001 January 2 127 14 (s) 144 15

February 2 113 11 (s) 127 12

March 3 121 13 (s) 137 12

April 3 119 13 (s) 135 11

May 3 114 12 (s) 130 11

June 3 116 12 (s) 131 12

July 2 121 12 (s) 136 11

August 3 125 12 (s) 140 10

September 2 117 12 (s) 132 12

October 2 127 13 (s) 142 16

November 2 120 14 (s) 136 13

December 3 122 14 (s) 139 13

Total 32 1,443 150 5 1,630 147

2002 January 3 131 15 (s) 150 13

February 3 117 14 (s) 134 12

March 3 122 15 (s) 141 12

April 4 126 14 (s) 144 12

May 4 124 14 (s) 142 14

June 3 127 14 (s) 144 12

July 3 130 14 (s) 148 15

August 2 126 14 (s) 143 14

September 2 127 14 (s) 143 15

October 3 127 15 (s) 146 17

November 5 121 15 (s) 141 20

December 6 125 15 (s) 146 19

Total 41 1,505 172 5 1,722 174

2003 January 4 116 14 (s) 135 17

February R 4 R 110 R 13 (s) R 127 20

March 4 R 122 15 (s) R 141 17

April 4 130 14 (s) 149 20

4-Month Total 16 479 56 2 552 73

2002 4-Month Total 13 496 58 2 569 49

2001 4-Month Total 11 480 50 2 543 50

(a) Industrial sector fuel use, including that at industrial

combined-heat-and-power (CHP) and industrial electricity-only plants.

See note at end of Section 7.

(b) Conventional hydroelectric power.

(c) Wood, black liquor, and other wood waste.

(d) Municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, tires,

agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.

(e) Geothermal heat pump and direct use energy.

(f) Ethanol blended into motor gasoline.

R=Revised. NA=Not available. (s)=Less than 0.5 trillion Btu.

Notes: * Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent

rounding. * Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of

Columbia.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html.

Sources: See end of section.

Table 10.2c Renewable Energy Consumption: Electric Power Sector and

Total

(Trillion Btu)

Electric Power Sector (a,b)

Hydropower (c) Wood (d) Waste (e) Geothermal

(f)

1973 Total 2,827 1 2 43

1974 Total 3,143 1 2 53

1975 Total 3,122 (s) 2 70

1976 Total 2,943 1 2 78

1977 Total 2,301 3 2 77

1978 Total 2,905 2 1 64

1979 Total 2,897 3 2 84

1980 Total 2,867 3 2 110

1981 Total 2,725 3 1 123

1982 Total 3,233 2 1 105

1983 Total 3,494 2 2 129

1984 Total 3,353 5 4 165

1985 Total 2,937 8 7 198

1986 Total 3,038 5 7 219

1987 Total 2,602 8 7 229

1988 Total 2,302 10 8 217

1989 Total (b) 2,808 (b) 100 (b) 132 (b) 308

1990 Total 3,014 129 188 326

1991 Total 2,985 126 229 335

1992 Total 2,586 140 262 338

1993 Total 2,861 150 265 351

1994 Total 2,620 152 282 325

1995 Total 3,149 125 296 280

1996 Total 3,528 138 300 300

1997 Total 3,581 137 309 309

1998 Total 3,241 137 308 311

1999 Total 3,218 138 315 312

2000 Total 2,768 134 318 296

2001 January 189 12 27 26

February 175 9 24 23

March 204 10 27 25

April 180 9 27 23

May 192 10 27 23

June 207 12 28 23

July 181 11 29 25

August 189 11 29 25

September 152 10 27 24

October 152 10 27 24

November 154 10 26 24

December 194 11 27 25

Total 2,169 126 324 289

2002 January 216 12 28 25

February 201 10 24 22

March 210 12 27 24

April 244 11 27 22

May 270 9 28 24

June 284 11 28 22

July 254 12 30 24

August 208 12 29 24

September 166 11 28 23

October 168 11 27 24

November 194 11 26 23

December 212 12 29 24

Total 2,626 135 331 281

2003 January 195 15 27 24

February R 195 R 12 R 24 22

March RF 249 F 11 RF 26 F 27

April F 250 F 11 F 26 F 28

4-Month Total E 889 E 49 E 103 E 101

2002 4-Month Total 870 45 106 93

2001 4-Month Total 748 41 104 96

Renewable

Electric Power Sector (a,b) Energy

Consumption

Solar (g) Wind (h) Total Total

1973 Total NA NA 2,873 4,433

1974 Total NA NA 3,199 4,769

1975 Total NA NA 3,194 4,723

1976 Total NA NA 3,024 4,768

1977 Total NA NA 2,383 4,249

1978 Total NA NA 2,973 5,039

1979 Total NA NA 2,986 5,166

1980 Total NA NA 2,982 5,494

1981 Total NA NA 2,852 5,471

1982 Total NA NA 3,341 5,985

1983 Total NA (s) 3,627 6,488

1984 Total (s) (s) 3,527 6,431

1985 Total (s) (s) 3,150 6,033

1986 Total (s) (s) 3,270 6,132

1987 Total (s) (s) 2,846 5,687

1988 Total (s) (s) 2,536 5,489

1989 Total (b) 3 (b) 22 (b) 3,372 6,264

1990 Total 4 29 3,689 6,133

1991 Total 5 31 3,710 6,158

1992 Total 4 30 3,360 5,907

1993 Total 5 31 3,662 6,156

1994 Total 5 36 3,420 6,065

1995 Total 5 33 3,889 6,669

1996 Total 5 33 4,305 7,137

1997 Total 5 34 4,375 7,075

1998 Total 5 31 4,032 6,561

1999 Total 5 46 4,034 6,599

2000 Total 5 57 3,579 6,158

2001 January (s) 4 257 463

February (s) 4 235 418

March (s) 5 272 470

April (s) 7 246 438

May 1 6 259 447

June 1 7 277 467

July 1 6 253 449

August 1 6 260 459

September 1 5 219 410

October (s) 6 220 426

November (s) 5 220 415

December (s) 6 263 463

Total 6 68 2,982 5,324

2002 January (s) 8 290 496

February (s) 7 264 449

March (s) 9 282 479

April (s) 11 314 512

May 1 11 343 542

June 1 12 358 556

July 1 9 331 537

August 1 10 283 484

September 1 8 237 437

October (s) 8 238 446

November (s) 7 261 465

December (s) 8 285 494

Total 6 106 3,485 5,897

2003 January (s) 6 267 462

February (s) R 7 R 260 R 446

March F (s) RF 9 RF 323 R 524

April F (s) F 10 F 325 536

4-Month Total E 1 E 31 E 1,174 1,968

2002 4-Month Total 1 35 1,150 1,936

2001 4-Month Total 1 21 1,011 1,789

(a) The electric power sector comprises electricity-only and

combined-heat-and-power (CHP) plants within the NAICS 22 category

whose primary business is to sell electricity, or electricity and

heat, to the public.

(b) Through 1988, data are for consumption at electric utilities only.

Beginning in 1989, data also include consumption at independent power

producers.

(c) Conventional hydroelectric power.

(d) Wood, black liquor, and other wood waste.

(e) Municipal solid waste, landfill gas, sludge waste, tires,

agricultural byproducts, and other biomass.

(f) Geothermal electricity net generation.

(g) Solar thermal and photovoltaic electricity net generation.

(h) Wind electricity net generation.

R=Revised. E=Estimate. NA=Not available. F=Forecast. (s)=Less than 0.5

trillion Btu.

Notes: * Totals may not equal sum of components due to independent

rounding. * Geographic coverage is the 50 states and the District of

Columbia.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html.

Sources: Wood and Waste * 1973-1988: Table 7.3d. * 1989 forward:

Table 7.3b. Hydropower, Geothermal, Solar, and Wind: Tables 7.2b and

A6. Electric Power Sector Total: Calculated as the sum of the

individual fuels. Renewable Energy Consumption Total: Table 10.1.

Forecast values: Energy Information Administration, Short-Term

Integrated Forecasting System. See Note 10 at end of Section 4 for

more information about forecast values.

Figure 10.1 Renewable Energy Consumption

(Quadrillion Btu)

[GRAPHICS OMITTED]

By Source, 2002

Hydroelectric Power (a) 2.7

Wood 2.0

Waste 0.5

Geothermal 0.3

Alcohol Fuels 0.2

Wind 0.1

Solar 0.1

Note: Table made from bar graph.

By Sector, 2002

Residential 0.4

Commercial 0.1

Industrial 1.7

Transportation 0.2

Electric Power 3.5

Note: Table made from bar graph.

Compared With Other Resources, 2002

Fossil Fuels 83.7

Nuclear Energy 8.1

Renewable Energy 5.9

Note: Table made from bar graph.

(a) Conventional hydroelectric power.

(b) A small amount of alcohol (ethanol blended into motor gasoline is

both fossil fuel (as petroleum) and renewable energy and is counted

in both those subtotals but counted only once in total energy

consumption.

Sources: Tables 3.1 and 10.1-10.2c.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/renew.html.

Renewable Energy

Tables 10.2a and 10.2b Sources

Wood, Residential

1973-1979: Energy Information Administration (EIA), Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2.

1980-1983: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980-1983, Table ES1.

1984: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 1.

1985 and 1986: Values interpolated.

1987: EIA, Estimates of Biofuels Consumption in the United States During 1987, Table 2.

1988: Value interpolated.

1989: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 1.

1990-2000: EIA, Renewable Energy Annual, annual reports, Table 6. Includes revisions published in the EIA, Annual Energy Review 2000, Table 10.2a.

2001 forward: EIA, Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels (CNEAF), estimates.

Wood, Commercial

1973-1979: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2.

1980-1983: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980-1983, Table ES1.

1984-EIA, CNEAF, estimate.

1985-1992: Values interpolated.

1993-2000: EIA, Renewable Energy Annual, annual reports, Table 6. Includes revisions published in the EIA, Annual Energy Review 2000, Table 10.2a. 2001 forward: EIA, CNEAF, estimates.

Wood, Industrial

1973-1979: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption from 1949 to 1981, Table A2.

1980-1983: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Wood Energy Consumption 1980-1983, Table ES1.

1984: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 1.

1985 and 1986: Values interpolated.

1987: EIA, Estimates of Biofuels Consumption in the United States During 1987, Table 2.

1988: Value interpolated.

1989: American Paper Institute, Fact Sheet on 1990 Energy Use in the U.S. Pulp and Paper Industry (July 1991), total pulp and paper industry wood consumption, minus nonutility power producers’ use of wood to produce electricity (see Table 10.3b).

1990-2000: EIA, Renewable Energy Annual 2001 (November 2002), Table B1, and CNEAF staff for subsequent data updates.

2001 forward: EIA, CNEAF, estimates. Waste, Commercial

Table 7.3c

Waste, Industrial

1981: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8, total waste consumption, minus electric utilities’ use of waste to produce electricity (see Table 10.3a).

1982 and 1983: EIA, CNEAF, estimates for total waste consumption, minus electric utilities’ use of waste to produce electricity (see Table 10.3a).

1984: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8, total waste consumption, minus electric utilities’ use of waste to produce electricity (see Table 10.3a). 1985 and 1986: Values interpolated.

1987: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8, total waste consumption, minus electric utilities’ use of waste to produce electricity (see Table 10.3a).

1988: Value interpolated.

1989: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 8, total waste consumption, minus electric utilities’ and nonutility power producers’ use of waste to produce electricity (see Tables 10.3a and 10.3b).

1990-2000: EIA, Renewable Energy Annual 2001 (November 2002), Table B 1, and CNEAF staff for subsequent data updates.

2001 forward: EIA, CNEAF, estimates.

Hydroelectric, Commercial

Hydroelectric total (all sectors) from Table 7.2a minus electric power sector hydroelectric from Table 7.2b minus industrial sector hydroelectric from Table 7.2c, times the fossil-fueled steam-electric plants heat rate from Table A6.

Hydroelectric, Industrial

1973-1978: Federal Power Commission (FPC), Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts, and FPC, Form FPC-12C, “Industrial Electric Generating Capacity,” for all other plants, and Table A6.

1979–FPC, Form FPC-4, “Monthly Power Plant Report,” for plants with generating capacity exceeding 10 megawatts, and EIA estimates for all other plants; and Table A6.

1980-1988: Estimated by EIA as the average generation over the 6-year period of 1974-1979, and Table A6.

1989 forward: Tables 7.2c and A6.

Alcohol Fuels

1981: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 10.

1982 and 1983: EIA, CNEAF, estimates.

1984: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 10.

1985 and 1986: Values interpolated.

1987: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 10.

1988: Value interpolated.

1989: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biofuels Consumption 1990, Table 10.

1990: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992, Table D1.

1991: Value interpolated.

1992: EIA, Estimates of U.S. Biomass Energy Consumption 1992, Table D1.

1993 forward: EIA, Petroleum Supply Monthly (PSM), Tables 2 and 28, and Monthly Energy Review (MER) Table A1. Ten percent of the “Field Production” of “Oxygenated Finished Motor Gasoline” from PSM Table 2 is added to the “Refinery Input of Fuel Ethanol” from PSM Table 28. The sum is multiplied by the conversion factor of 3.539 million Btu per barrel as shown in the MER Table A1.

Geothermal

1989 forward: John Lund, Oregon Institute of Technology Geoheat Center, unpublished data.

Solar

1989-1991: EIA, CNEAF, estimates.

1992-2000: EIA Renewable Energy Annual, annual reports, Table 2. Includes revisions published in the EIA, Annual Energy Review 2000, Table 10.2a and 10.2b.

2001 forward: EIA, CNEAF, estimates.

(1) A small amount of alcohol fuel (ethanol blended into motor gasoline) is both fossil fuel (as petroleum) and renewable energy and is counted in both those subtotals but counted only once in total energy consumption.

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