Appendix A. Thermal conversion factors

Appendix A. Thermal conversion factors

The thermal conversion factors presented in the following tables can be used to estimate the heat content in British thermal units (Btu) of a given amount of energy measured in physical units, such as barrels or cubic feet. For example, 10 barrels of asphalt has a heat content of approximately 66.36 million Btu (10 barrels x 6.636 million Btu per barrel = 66.36 million Btu).

The heat content rates (i.e., thermal conversion factors) provided in this section represent the gross (or upper) energy content of the fuels. Gross heat content rates are applied in all Btu calculations for the Monthly Energy Review and are commonly used in energy calculations

in the United States; net (or lower) heat content rates are typically used in European energy calculations. The difference between the two rates is the amount of energy that is consumed to vaporize water that is created during the combustion process. Generally, the difference ranges from 2 percent to 10 percent, depending on the specific fuel and its hydrogen content. Some fuels, such as unseasoned wood, can be more than 40 percent different in their gross and net heat content rates.

In general, the annual thermal conversion factors presented in Tables A1 through A6 are computed from final annual data or from the best available data and labeled “preliminary.” Often, the previous year’s factor is used as a preliminary value until data become available to calculate the factor appropriate to the year. The source of each factor is described in the section entitled “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows Table A6 in this appendix.

Thermal conversion factors for hydrocarbon mixes (Table A1) are weighted averages of the thermal conversion factors for each hydrocarbon included in the mix. For example, in calculating the thermal conversion factor for a 60-40 butane-propane mixture, the thermal conversion factor for butane is weighted 1.5 times the thermal conversion factor for propane.

Table A1. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Products

(Million Btu per Barrel)

Petroleum Product Heat Content

Asphalt 6.636

Aviation Gasoline 5.048

Butane 4.326

Butane-Propane Mixture (a) 4.130

Distillate Fuel Oil 5.825

Ethane 3.082

Ethane-Propane Mixture (b) 3.308

Isobutane 3.974

Jet Fuel, Kerosene Type 5.670

Jet Fuel, Naphtha Type 5.355

Kerosene 5.670

Lubricants 6.065

Motor Gasoline

Conventional (c) 5.253

Reformulated (c) 5.150

Oxygenated (c) 5.150

Fuel Ethanol (d) 3.539

Natural Gasoline and Isopentane 4.620

Pentanes Plus 4.620

Petrochemical Feedstocks

Naptha Less Than 401[degrees]F 5.248

Other Oils Equal to or Greater

Than 401[degrees]F 5.825

Still Gas 6.000

Petroleum Coke 6.024

Plant Condensate 5.418

Propane 3.836

Residual Fuel Oil 6.287

Special Naphthas 5.248

Still Gas 6.000

Unfinished Oils 5.825

Unfractionated Stream 5.418

Waxes 5.537

Miscellaneous 5.796

(a) 60 percent butane and 40 percent propane.

(b) 70 percent ethane and 30 percent propane.

(c) See Table A3 for motor gasoline annual weighted averages

beginning in 1994.

(d) Fuel ethanol, which is derived from agricultural

feedstocks (primarily corn), is not a petroleum product

but is blended into motor gasoline. Its gross heat content

(3.539 million Btu per barrel) is used in Monthly Energy

Review calculations; its net heat content (3.192 million

Btu per barrel) is used in the Energy Information

Administration’s Renewable Energy Annual calculations.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/append.html.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,”

which follows Table A6.

Table A2. Approximate Heat Content of Crude Oil, Crude

Oil and Products, and Natural Gas Plant Liquids

(Million Btu per Barrel)

Crude Oil

Production Imports Exports

1973 5.800 5.817 5.800

1974 5.800 5.827 5.800

1975 5.800 5.821 5.800

1976 5.800 5.808 5.800

1977 5.800 5.810 5.800

1978 5.800 5.802 5.800

1979 5.800 5.810 5.800

1980 5.800 5.812 5.800

1981 5.800 5.818 5.800

1982 5.800 5.826 5.800

1983 5.800 5.825 5.800

1984 5.800 5.823 5.800

1985 5.800 5.832 5.800

1986 5.800 5.903 5.800

1987 5.800 5.901 5.800

1988 5.800 5.900 5.800

1989 5.800 5.906 5.800

1990 5.800 5.934 5.800

1991 5.800 5.948 5.800

1992 5.800 5.953 5.800

1993 5.800 5.954 5.800

1994 5.800 5.950 5.800

1995 5.800 5.938 5.800

1996 5.800 5.947 5.800

1997 5.800 5.954 5.800

1998 5.800 5.953 5.800

1999 5.800 5.942 5.800

2000 5.800 5.959 5.800

2001 5.800 5.976 5.800

2002 (a) 5.800 5.976 5.800

Crude Oil and

Products

Natural

Gas

Plant

Liquids

Imports Exports Production

1973 5.897 5.752 4.049

1974 5.884 5.774 4.011

1975 5.858 5.748 3.984

1976 5.856 5.745 3.964

1977 5.834 5.797 3.941

1978 5.839 5.808 3.925

1979 5.810 5.832 3.955

1980 5.796 5.820 3.914

1981 5.775 5.821 3.930

1982 5.775 5.820 3.872

1983 5.774 5.800 3.839

1984 5.745 5.850 3.812

1985 5.736 5.814 3.815

1986 5.808 5.832 3.797

1987 5.820 5.858 3.804

1988 5.820 5.840 3.800

1989 5.833 5.857 3.826

1990 5.849 5.833 3.822

1991 5.873 5.823 3.807

1992 5.877 5.777 3.804

1993 5.883 5.779 3.801

1994 5.861 5.779 3.794

1995 5.855 5.746 3.796

1996 5.847 5.736 3.777

1997 5.862 5.734 3.762

1998 5.861 5.720 3.769

1999 5.840 5.699 3.744

2000 5.849 5.658 3.733

2001 5.862 5.752 3.735

2002 (a) 5.862 5.752 3.735

(a) Preliminary.

Note: Crude oil includes lease condensate.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/append.html.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source

Documentation,” which follows Table A6.

Table A3. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Products,

Weighted Averages

(Million Btu per Barrel)

Consumption

Resi- Commer- Indus- Transpor- Electric

dential cial trial tation Utilities

1973 5.205 5.749 5.568 5.395 6.245

1974 5.196 5.740 5.538 5.394 6.238

1975 5.192 5.704 5.528 5.392 6.250

1976 5.215 5.726 5.538 5.395 6.251

1977 5.213 5.733 5.555 5.400 6.249

1978 5.213 5.716 5.553 5.404 6.251

1979 5.298 5.769 5.418 5.428 6.258

1980 5.245 5.803 5.376 5.440 6.254

1981 5.191 5.751 5.313 5.432 6.258

1982 5.167 5.751 5.263 5.422 6.258

1983 5.022 5.642 5.273 5.415 6.255

1984 5.129 5.700 5.223 5.422 6.251

1985 5.115 5.660 5.221 5.423 6.247

1986 5.130 5.691 5.286 5.427 6.257

1987 5.095 5.659 5.253 5.430 6.249

1988 5.118 5.657 5.248 5.434 6.250

1989 5.057 5.615 5.233 5.440 6.241

1990 4.952 5.612 5.272 5.445 6.247

1991 4.912 5.591 5.192 5.442 6.248

1992 4.943 5.579 5.188 5.445 6.243

1993 4.943 5.573 5.200 5.438 6.241

1994 4.940 5.583 5.170 5.427 6.231

1995 4.928 5.549 5.140 5.419 6.210

1996 4.871 5.497 5.136 5.421 6.212

1997 4.873 5.463 5.139 5.417 6.220

1998 4.844 5.447 5.156 5.416 6.220

1999 4.751 5.368 5.115 5.419 6.208

2000 4.760 5.395 5.089 5.427 6.193

2001 4.760 5.395 5.089 5.427 6.193

2002 (a) 4.760 5.395 5.089 5.427 6.193

Consump-

tion

Liquefied Motor

Petroleum Gasoline

Gases Con- Consump-

Total Imports Exports sumption tion

1973 5.515 5.983 5.752 3.746 5.253

1974 5.504 5.959 5.773 3.730 5.253

1975 5.494 5.935 5.747 3.715 5.253

1976 5.504 5.980 5.743 3.711 5.253

1977 5.518 5.908 5.796 3.677 5.253

1978 5.519 5.955 5.814 3.669 5.253

1979 5.494 5.811 5.864 3.680 5.253

1980 5.479 5.748 5.841 3.674 5.253

1981 5.448 5.659 5.837 3.643 5.253

1982 5.415 5.664 5.829 3.615 5.253

1983 5.406 5.677 5.800 3.614 5.253

1984 5.395 5.613 5.867 3.599 5.253

1985 5.387 5.572 5.819 3.603 5.253

1986 5.418 5.624 5.839 3.640 5.253

1987 5.403 5.599 5.860 3.659 5.253

1988 5.410 5.618 5.842 3.652 5.253

1989 5.410 5.641 5.869 3.683 5.253

1990 5.411 5.614 5.838 3.625 5.253

1991 5.384 5.636 5.827 3.614 5.253

1992 5.378 5.623 5.774 3.624 5.253

1993 5.379 5.620 5.777 3.606 5.253

1994 5.361 5.534 5.777 3.635 (b) 5.230

1995 5.341 5.483 5.740 3.623 5.215

1996 5.336 5.468 5.728 3.613 5.216

1997 5.336 5.469 5.726 3.616 5.213

1998 5.349 5.462 5.710 3.614 5.212

1999 5.328 5.421 5.684 3.616 5.211

2000 5.326 5.432 5.651 3.607 5.210

2001 5.345 5.443 5.751 3.614 5.210

2002 (a) 5.345 5.443 5.751 3.614 5.210

(a) Preliminary.

(b) Beginning in 1994, the single constant factor is replaced with

a quantity-weighted average of motor gasoline’s major components.

See Table A1.

Note: Weighted averages of the products included in each category are

calculated by using heat content values shown in Table A1.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/append.html.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which

follows Table A6.

Table A4. Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas

(Btu per Cubic Foot)

Production Consumption

Sectors Other

Than Electric Electric

Dry Marketed Utilities Utilities

1973 1,021 1,093 1,020 1,024

1974 1,024 1,097 1,024 1,022

1975 1,021 1,095 1,020 1,026

1976 1,020 1,093 1,019 1,023

1977 1,021 1,093 1,019 1,029

1978 1,019 1,088 1,016 1,034

1979 1,021 1,092 1,018 1,035

1980 1,026 1,098 1,024 1,035

1981 1,027 1,103 1,025 1,035

1982 1,028 1,107 1,026 1,036

1983 1,031 1,115 1,031 1,030

1984 1,031 1,109 1,030 1,035

1985 1,032 1,112 1,031 1,038

1986 1,030 1,110 1,029 1,034

1987 1,031 1,112 1,031 1,032

1988 1,029 1,109 1,029 1,028

1989 1,031 1,107 1,031 1,030

1990 1,031 1,105 1,030 1,034

1991 1,030 1,108 1,031 1,024

1992 1,030 1,110 1,031 1,022

1993 1,027 1,106 1,028 1,022

1994 1,028 1,105 1,029 1,022

1995 1,027 1,106 1,027 1,025

1996 1,027 1,109 1,027 1,024

1997 1,026 1,107 1,027 1,019

1998 1,031 1,109 1,033 1,019

1999 1,027 1,107 1,028 1,019

2000 (a) 1,025 1,107 1,026 1,020

2001 (a) (R) 1,028 (R) 1,105 (R) 1,029 1,020

2002 (a) (R) 1,028 (R) 1,105 (R) 1,029 1,020

Consumption

Total Imports Exports

1973 1,021 1,026 1,023

1974 1,024 1,027 1,016

1975 1,021 1,026 1,014

1976 1,020 1,025 1,013

1977 1,021 1,026 1,013

1978 1,019 1,030 1,013

1979 1,021 1,037 1,013

1980 1,026 1,022 1,013

1981 1,027 1,014 1,011

1982 1,028 1,018 1,011

1983 1,031 1,024 1,010

1984 1,031 1,005 1,010

1985 1,032 1,002 1,011

1986 1,030 997 1,008

1987 1,031 999 1,011

1988 1,029 1,002 1,018

1989 1,031 1,004 1,019

1990 1,031 1,012 1,018

1991 1,030 1,014 1,022

1992 1,030 1,011 1,018

1993 1,027 1,020 1,016

1994 1,028 1,022 1,011

1995 1,027 1,021 1,011

1996 1,027 1,022 1,011

1997 1,026 1,023 1,011

1998 1,031 1,023 1,011

1999 1,027 1,022 1,006

2000 (a) 1,025 1,023 1,006

2001 (a) (R) 1,028 1,023 (R) 1,010

2002 (a) (R) 1,028 1,023 (R) 1,010

(a) Preliminary.

(R)=Revised.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/append.html.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,”

which follows Table A6.

Table A5. Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke

(Million Btu per Short Ton)

Coal

Consumption

Electric

End-Use Sectors Power Sector

Industrial

Resi- Other

dential Elec- Power

and tric Produ-

Produc- Commer- Coke Other Utili- cers

tion cial Plants (a) ties (b)

1973 23.376 22.831 26.780 22.586 22.246 NA

1974 23.072 22.479 26.778 22.419 21.781 NA

1975 22.897 22.261 26.782 22.436 21.642 NA

1976 22.855 22.774 26.781 22.530 21.679 NA

1977 22.597 22.919 26.787 22.322 21.508 NA

1978 22.248 22.466 26.789 22.207 21.275 NA

1979 22.454 22.242 26.788 22.452 21.364 NA

1980 22.415 22.543 26.790 22.690 21.295 NA

1981 22.308 22.474 26.794 22.585 21.085 NA

1982 22.239 22.695 26.797 22.712 21.194 NA

1983 22.052 22.775 26.798 22.691 21.133 NA

1984 22.010 22.844 26.799 22.543 21.101 NA

1985 21.870 22.646 26.798 22.020 20.959 NA

1986 21.913 22.947 26.798 22.198 21.084 NA

1987 21.922 23.404 26.799 22.381 21.136 NA

1988 21.823 23.571 26.799 22.360 20.900 NA

1989 21.765 23.650 26.800 22.347 20.848 21.474

1990 21.822 23.137 26.799 22.457 20.929 20.539

1991 21.681 23.114 26.799 22.460 20.755 19.933

1992 21.682 23.105 26.799 22.250 20.787 18.983

1993 21.418 22.994 26.800 22.123 20.639 19.040

1994 21.394 23.112 26.800 22.068 20.673 19.485

1995 21.326 23.118 26.800 21.950 20.495 19.471

1996 21.322 23.011 26.800 22.105 20.525 19.427

1997 21.296 22.494 26.800 22.172 20.548 19.596

1998 21.418 22.620 27.426 23.164 20.513 20.143

1999 21.070 23.880 27.426 22.489 20.401 20.718

2000 (c) 21.072 23.880 27.426 22.489 20.401 20.718

2001 (c) 20.905 23.880 27.426 22.489 20.401 20.718

2002 (c) 20.905 23.880 27.426 22.489 20.401 20.718

Coal

Coal Coke

Consump-

tion

Imports

Im- Ex- and

Total ports ports Exports

1973 23.057 25.000 26.596 24.800

1974 22.677 25.000 26.700 24.800

1975 22.506 25.000 26.562 24.800

1976 22.498 25.000 26.601 24.800

1977 22.265 25.000 26.548 24.800

1978 22.017 25.000 26.478 24.800

1979 22.100 25.000 26.548 24.800

1980 21.947 25.000 26.384 24.800

1981 21.713 25.000 26.160 24.800

1982 21.674 25.000 26.223 24.800

1983 21.576 25.000 26.291 24.800

1984 21.573 25.000 26.402 24.800

1985 21.366 25.000 26.307 24.800

1986 21.462 25.000 26.292 24.800

1987 21.517 25.000 26.291 24.800

1988 21.328 25.000 26.299 24.800

1989 21.268 25.000 26.160 24.800

1990 21.324 25.000 26.202 24.800

1991 21.131 25.000 26.188 24.800

1992 21.107 25.000 26.161 24.800

1993 20.947 25.000 26.335 24.800

1994 20.979 25.000 26.329 24.800

1995 20.815 25.000 26.180 24.800

1996 20.826 25.000 26.174 24.800

1997 20.836 25.000 26.251 24.800

1998 20.868 25.000 26.800 24.800

1999 20.753 25.000 26.081 24.800

2000 (c) 20.753 25.000 26.117 24.800

2001 (c) 20.753 25.000 26.000 24.800

2002 (c) 20.753 25.000 26.000 24.800

(a) Includes transportation.

(b) Nonutility wholesale producers of electricity, and nonutility

cogeneration plants that are not included in the end-use sectors.

(c) Preliminary.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/append.html.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which

follows Table A6.

Table A6. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity

(Btu per Kilowatthour)

Electricity Net Generation

Nuclear

Fossil-Fueled Steam- Geothermal

Steam-Electric Electric Energy Electricity

Plants (a) Plants Plants (b) Consumption

1973 10,389 10,903 21,674 3,412

1974 10,442 11,161 21,674 3,412

1975 10,406 11,013 21,611 3,412

1976 10,373 11,047 21,611 3,412

1977 10,435 10,769 21,611 3,412

1978 10,361 10,941 21,611 3,412

1979 10,353 10,879 21,545 3,412

1980 10,388 10,908 21,639 3,412

1981 10,453 11,030 21,639 3,412

1982 10,454 11,073 21,629 3,412

1983 10,520 10,905 21,290 3,412

1984 10,440 10,843 21,303 3,412

1985 10,447 10,813 21,263 3,412

1986 10,446 10,799 21,263 3,412

1987 10,419 10,776 21,263 3,412

1988 10,324 10,743 21,096 3,412

1989 10,432 10,724 21,096 3,412

1990 10,402 10,680 21,096 3,412

1991 10,436 10,740 20,997 3,412

1992 10,342 10,678 20,914 3,412

1993 10,309 10,682 20,914 3,412

1994 10,316 10,676 20,914 3,412

1995 10,312 10,658 20,914 3,412

1996 10,340 10,623 20,960 3,412

1997 10,357 10,623 20,960 3,412

1998 10,346 10,623 21,017 3,412

1999 10,346 10,623 21,017 3,412

2000 (c) 10,346 10,623 21,017 3,412

2001 (c) 10,346 10,623 21,017 3,412

2002 (c) 10,346 10,623 21,017 3,412

(a) Used as the thermal conversion factor for hydroelectric power

generation, and for wood and waste, wind, photovoltaic, and solar

thermal energy consumed at electric utilities.

(b) Used as the thermal conversion factor for geothermal energy

consumed at electric utilities.

(c) Preliminary.

Web Page: http://www.eia.doe.gov/emeu/mer/append.html.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which

follows this table.

Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation

Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum and Natural Gas Plant Liquids

Asphalt. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million British thermal units (Btu) per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Aviation Gasoline. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.048 million Btu per barrel for “Gasoline, Aviation” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Butane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 4.326 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Butane-Propane Mixture. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines calculation of 4.130 million Btu per barrel based on an assumed mixture of 60 percent butane and 40 percent propane. See Butane and Propane.

Crude Oil, Exports. Assumed by EIA to be 5.800 million Btu per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor for crude oil produced in the United States. See Crude Oil and Lease Condensate, Production.

Crude Oil, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by weighting the thermal conversion factor of each type of crude oil imported by the quantity imported. Thermal conversion factors for each type were calculated on a foreign country basis through 1996, by determining the average American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity of crude imported from each foreign country from Form ERA-60 in 1977, or for 1997 and later, by determining the weighted average API gravity from the Form EIA-814, and converting average API gravity to average Btu content by using National Bureau of Standards, Miscellaneous Publication No. 97, Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products, 1933.

Crude Oil and Lease Condensate, Production. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.800 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.”

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product exported and crude oil exported weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product and crude oil exported. See Crude Oil, Exports and Petroleum Products, Exports.

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product and each type of crude oil imported weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product and each type of crude oil imported. See Crude Oil, Imports and Petroleum Products, Imports.

Distillate Fuel Oil. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.825 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Value of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.”

Ethane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.082 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Ethane-Propane Mixture. EIA calculated 3.308 million Btu per barrel based on an assumed mixture of 70 percent ethane and 30 percent propane. See Ethane and Propane.

Fuel Ethanol Blended Into Motor Gasoline. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 3.539 million Btu per barrel published in “Oxygenate Flexibility for Future Fuels,” a paper presented by William J. Piel of the ARCO Chemical Company at the National Conference on Reformulated Gasolines and Clean Air Act Implementation, Washington, D.C., October 1991.

Isobutane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.974 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Jet Fuel, Kerosene Type. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.670 million Btu per barrel for “Jet Fuel, Commercial” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Jet Fuel, Naphtha Type. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.355 million Btu per barrel for “Jet Fuel, Military” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Kerosene. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.670 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.”

Liquefied Petroleum Gases. * 1960 through 1966: U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Mines, Mineral Industry Surveys, Crude Petroleum and Petroleum Products, 1956, Table 4 footnote, constant value of 4.011 million Btu per barrel. * 1967 forward: Calculated annually by EIA as a weighted average by multiplying the quantity consumed of each of the component products by each product’s conversion factor, listed in this appendix, and dividing the sum of those heat contents by the sum of the quantities consumed. The component products are ethane (including ethylene), propane (including propylene), normal butane (including butylene), butane-propane mixtures, ethane-propane mixtures, and isobutane. Quantities consumed are from: 1967 through 1980: EIA, Energy Data Reports, Petroleum Statement, Annual, Table 1. 1981 forward: EIA, Petroleum Supply Annual, Table 2.

Lubricants. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.065 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Miscellaneous Products. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.796 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Motor Gasoline. * 1960 through 1993: EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.253 million Btu per barrel for “Gasoline, Motor Fuel” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics. * 1994 forward: EIA calculated national annual quantity-weighted average conversion factors for conventional, reformulated, and oxygenated motor gasolines (shown in appendix Table C1). The factor for conventional motor gasoline is 5.253 million Btu per barrel, as used for previous years. The factors for reformulated and oxygenated gasolines, both currently 5.150 million Btu per barrel, are based on data published in the Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Mobile Sources, National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory report EPA 420-F-95-003, Fuel Economy Impact Analysis of Reformulated Gasoline.

Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Production. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors of each natural gas plant liquid produced weighted by the quantity of each natural gas plant liquid produced.

Natural Gasoline. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 4.620 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Pentanes Plus. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 4.620 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for natural gasoline. See Natural Gasoline.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Naphtha Less Than 401 Degrees Fahrenheit. Assumed by EIA to be 5.248 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for special naphthas. See Special Naphthas.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Oils Equal to or Greater Than 401 Degrees Fahrenheit. Assumed by EIA to be 5.825 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for distillate fuel oil. See Distillate Fuel Oil.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Still Gas. Assumed by EIA to be 6.000 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for still gas. See Still Gas.

Petroleum Coke. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.024 million Btu per barrel as reported in Btu per short ton in the Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Value of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.” The Bureau of Mines calculated this factor by dividing 30.120 million Btu per short ton, as given in the referenced Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, by 5.0 barrels per short ton, as given in the Bureau of Mines Form 6-1300-M and successor EIA forms.

Petroleum Products, Total Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product consumed.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed at electric utilities, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product consumed at electric utilities. The quantity of petroleum consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Industrial Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed in the industrial sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the industrial sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Residential and Commercial Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed by the residential and commercial sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the residential and commercial sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Transportation Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factor for all petroleum products consumed in the transportation sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the transportation sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product exported.

Petroleum Products, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product imported, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product imported.

Plant Condensate. Estimated to be 5.418 million Btu per barrel by EIA from data provided by McClanahan Consultants, Inc., Houston, Texas.

Propane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.836 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Residual Fuel Oil. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.287 million Btu per barrel as reported in the Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.”

Road Oil. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million Btu per barrel, which was assumed to be equal to that of asphalt (see Asphalt) and was first published by the Bureau of Mines in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Special Naphthas. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.248 million Btu per barrel, which was assumed to be equal to that of total gasoline (aviation and motor) factor and was first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Still Gas. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines estimated thermal conversion factor of 6.000 million Btu per barrel and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Unfinished Oils. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 5.825 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for distillate fuel oil (see Distillate Fuel Oil) and first published in the Annual Report to Congress, Volume 3, 1977.

Unfractionated Stream. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 5.418 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for plant condensate (see Plant Condensate) and first published in the Annual Report to Congress, Volume 2, 1981.

Waxes. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.537 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas

Natural Gas, Total Consumption. 1973-1979: EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor calculated annually by the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in Gas Facts, an AGA annual publication. 1980 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of natural gas consumed by the total quantity of natural gas consumed. The heat content and quantity consumed are from Form EIA-176. Published sources are: 1980-1989: EIA, Natural Gas Annual 1992, Volume 2, Table 15. 1990-1992: EIA, Natural Gas Annual 1992, Volume 2, Table 16. 1993 forward: 1992 value used as an estimate.

Natural Gas, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of natural gas received at electric utilities by the total quantity received at electric utilities. The heat contents and receipts are from Form FERC-423 and predecessor forms.

Natural Gas, Consumption by Sectors Other Than Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of all natural gas consumed less the heat content of natural gas consumed at electric utilities by the quantity of all natural gas consumed less the quantity of natural gas consumed at electric utilities. Data are from Forms EIA-176, FERC-423, EIA-759, and predecessor forms.

Natural Gas, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of exported natural gas by the quantity of natural gas exported, both reported on Form FPC-14.

Natural Gas, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of imported natural gas by the quantity of natural gas imported, both reported on Form FPC-14.

Natural Gas Production, Dry. Assumed by EIA to be equal to the thermal conversion factor for the consumption of dry natural gas. See Natural Gas Total Consumption.

Natural Gas Production, Marketed (Wet). Calculated annually by EIA by adding the heat content of dry natural gas production and the total heat content of natural gas plant liquids production and dividing this sum by the total quantity of marketed (wet) natural gas production.

Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke

Coal, Total Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) consumption by the total tonnage.

Coal, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) received at electric utilities by the sum of the tonnage received.

Coal, Consumption by Other Power Producers. Calculated annually by dividing the total heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) consumed by other power producers by their total consumption tonnage.

Coal, Consumption by the Electric Power Sector. Calculated annually by dividing the total heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) by total consumption tonnage of the electric power sector.

Coal, Consumption by End-Use Sectors. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal (including anthracite culm and waste coal) consumed by the end-use sectors by the sum of the total tonnage.

Coal, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal exported by the sum of the total tonnage.

Coal, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of coal imported by the sum of the total tonnage.

Coal, Production. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the total heat content of coal (including some anthracite culm) produced by the sum of the total tonnage.

Coal Coke, Imports and Exports. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines estimate of 24.800 million Btu per short ton.

Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity

Fossil-Fueled Steam-Electric Plant Generation. There is no generally accepted practice for measuring the thermal conversion rates for power plants that generate electricity from hydroelectric, wood and waste, wind, photovoltaic, or solar thermal energy sources. Therefore, EIA uses data from Form EIA-767 to calculate a rate factor that is equal to the prevailing annual average heat rate factor for fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants in the United States. By using that factor, it is possible to evaluate fossil fuel requirements for replacing those sources during periods of interruption such as droughts. The heat content of a kilowatthour of electricity produced, regardless of the generation process, is 3,412 Btu per kilowatthour. 1973-1991: The weighted annual average heat rate for fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants in the United States, as published by EIA in Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses 1991, Table 9. 1992 forward: Unpublished factors calculated on the basis of data from Form EIA-767.

Geothermal Energy Plant Generation. 1973-1981: Calculated annually by EIA by weighting the annual average heat rates of operating geothermal units by the installed nameplate capacities as reported on Form FPC-12. 1982 forward: Estimated annually by EIA on the basis of an informal survey of relevant plants.

Nuclear Steam-Electric Plant Generation. 1973-1991: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content consumed in nuclear generating units by the total (net) electricity generated by nuclear generating units. The heat content and electricity generation are reported on Form FERC-1, “Annual Report of Major Electric Utilities, Licenses, and Others”; Form EIA-412, “Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities”; and predecessor forms. The factors, beginning with 1982 data, are published in the following EIA reports–1982: Historical Plant Cost and Annual Production Expenses for Selected Electric Plants 1982, page 215. 1983-1991: Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses 1991, Table 13. 1992 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of the steam leaving the nuclear generating units to generate electricity by the total (net) electricity generated by nuclear generating units. The heat content and electricity generation data are reported in Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Licensed Operating Reactors–Status Summary Report.

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