Appendix A. Thermal Conversion Factors

Appendix A. Thermal Conversion Factors – Statistical Data Included

In general, the annual thermal conversion factors presented in Tables Al through A8 are computed from final annual data. However, if the current year’s final data are not available in time for publication, thermal conversion factors for the current year are computed from the best available data and are labeled “preliminary.” Usually, the previous year’s factor is used as the preliminary value until data become available to calculate the factor appropriate to the year. The source of each factor is described in the section entitled “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows Table A8 in this appendix.

Thermal conversion factors for hydrocarbon mixes (Table A1) are weighted averages of the thermal conversion factors for each hydrocarbon included in the mix. For example, in calculating the thermal conversion factor for a 60-40 butane-propane mixture, the thermal conversion factor for butane is weighted 1.5 times more heavily than the thermal conversion factor for propane.

Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation

Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum and Natural Gas Plant Liquids

Asphalt. The Energy Information Administration (EIA) adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million British thermal units (Btu) per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Aviation Gasoline. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.048 million Btu per barrel for “Gasoline, Aviation” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Butane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 4.326 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Butane-Propane Mixture. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines calculation of 4.130 million Btu per barrel based on an assumed mixture of 60 percent butane and 40 percent propane. See Butane and Propane.

Crude Oil, Exports. Assumed by EIA to be 5.800 million Btu per barrel or equal to the thermal conversion factor for crude oil produced in the United States. See Crude Oil and Lease Condensate, Production.

Crude Oil, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by weighting the thermal conversion factor of each type of crude oil imported by the quantity imported. Thermal conversion factors for each type were calculated on a foreign country basis through 1996, by determining the average American Petroleum Institute (API) gravity of crude imported from each foreign country from Form ERA-60 in 1977, or for 1997 and later, by determining the weighted average API gravity from the Form EIA-814, and converting average API gravity to average Btu content by using National Bureau of Standards, Miscellaneous Publication No. 97, Thermal Properties of Petroleum Products, 1933.

Crude Oil and Lease Condensate, Production. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.800 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.”

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product exported and crude oil exported weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product and crude oil exported. See Crude Oil, Exports and Petroleum Products, Exports.

Crude Oil and Petroleum Products, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product and each type of crude oil imported weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product and each type of crude oil imported. See Crude Oil, Imports and Petroleum Products, Imports.

Distillate Fuel Oil. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.825 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Value of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.”

Ethane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.082 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Ethane-Propane Mixture. EIA calculated 3.308 million Btu per barrel based on an assumed mixture of 70 percent ethane and 30 percent propane. See Ethane and Propane.

Isobutane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.974 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Jet Fuel, Kerosene Type. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.670 million Btu per barrel for “Jet Fuel, Commercial” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Jet Fuel, Naphtha Type. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.355 million Btu per barrel for “Jet Fuel, Military” as published by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Kerosene. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.670 million Btu per barrel as reported in a Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.”

Liquefied Petroleum Gases (LPG) Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors of each liquefied petroleum gas consumed, weighted by the quantity of each liquefied petroleum gas consumed.

Lubricants. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.065 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual 1956.

Miscellaneous Products. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.796 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual 1956.

Motor Gasoline. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.253 million Btu per barrel for “Gasoline, Motor Fuel” by the Texas Eastern Transmission Corporation in Appendix V of Competition and Growth in American Energy Markets 1947-1985, a 1968 release of historical and projected statistics.

Natural Gas Plant Liquids, Production. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors of each natural gas plant liquid produced weighted by the quantity of each natural gas plant liquid produced.

Natural Gasoline. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 4.620 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Pentanes Plus. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 4.620 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for natural gasoline. See Natural Gasoline.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Naphtha Less Than 401 Degrees Fahrenheit. Assumed by EIA to be 5.248 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for special naphthas. See Special Naphthas.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Oils Equal to or Greater Than 401 Degrees Fahrenheit. Assumed by EIA to be 5.825 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for distillate fuel oil. See Distillate Fuel Oil.

Petrochemical Feedstocks, Still Gas. Assumed by EIA to be 6.000 million Btu per barrel, equal to the thermal conversion factor for still gas. See Still Gas.

Petroleum Coke. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.024 million Btu per barrel as reported in Btu per short ton in the Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Value of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.” The Bureau of Mines calculated this factor by dividing 30,120,000 Btu per short ton, as given in the referenced Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, by 5.0 barrels per short ton, as given in the Bureau of Mines Form 6-1300-M and successor EIA forms.

Petroleum Products, Total Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product consumed.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed at electric utilities, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product consumed at electric utilities. The quantity of petroleum consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Industrial Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed in the industrial sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the industrial sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Residential and Commercial Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for all petroleum products consumed by the residential and commercial sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the residential and commercial sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Consumption by Transportation Users. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factor for all petroleum products consumed in the transportation sector, weighted by the estimated quantity of each petroleum product consumed in the transportation sector. The quantity of petroleum products consumed is estimated in the State Energy Data System as documented in the State Energy Data Report.

Petroleum Products, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product exported.

Petroleum Products, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA as the average of the thermal conversion factors for each petroleum product imported, weighted by the quantity of each petroleum product imported.

Plant Condensate. Estimated to be 5.418 million Btu per barrel by EIA from data provided by McClanahan Consultants, Inc., Houston, Texas.

Propane. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 3.836 million Btu per barrel in the California Oil World and Petroleum Industry, First Issue, April 1942.

Residual Fuel Oil. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 6.287 million Btu per barrel as reported in the Bureau of Mines internal memorandum, “Bureau of Mines Standard Average Heating Values of Various Fuels, Adopted January 3, 1950.”

Road Oil. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 6.636 million Btu per barrel, which was assumed to be equal to that of asphalt (see Asphalt) and was first published by the Bureau of Mines in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Special Naphthas. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines thermal conversion factor of 5.248 million Btu per barrel, which was assumed to be equal to that of total gasoline (aviation and motor) factor and was first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Still Gas. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines estimated thermal conversion factor of 6.000 million Btu per barrel and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1970.

Unfinished Oil. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 5.825 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for distillate fuel oil (see Distillate Fuel Oil) and first published in the Annual Report to Congress, Volume 3, 1977.

Unfractionated Stream. EIA assumed the thermal conversion factor to be 5.418 million Btu per barrel or equal to that for plant condensate (see Plant Condensate) and first published in the Annual Report to Congress, Volume 2, 1981.

Waxes. EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor of 5.537 million Btu per barrel as estimated by the Bureau of Mines and first published in the Petroleum Statement, Annual, 1956.

Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas

Natural Gas, Total Consumption. 1973-1979: EIA adopted the thermal conversion factor calculated annually by the American Gas Association (AGA) and published in Gas Facts, an AGA annual publication. 1980 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of natural gas consumed by the total quantity of natural gas consumed. The heat content and quantity consumed are from Form EIA-176. Published sources are: 1980-1989: EIA, Natural Gas Annual 1992, Volume 2, Table 15. 1990-1992: EIA, Natural Gas Annual 1992, Volume 2, Table 16. 1993 forward: 1992 value used as an estimate.

Natural Gas, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of natural gas received at electric utilities by the total quantity received at electric utilities. The heat contents and receipts are from Form FERC-423 and predecessor forms.

Natural Gas, Consumption by Sectors Other Than Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of all natural gas consumed less the heat content of natural gas consumed at electric utilities by the quantity of all natural gas consumed less the quantity of natural gas consumed at electric utilities. Data are from Forms EIA-176, FERC-423, EIA-759, and predecessor forms.

Natural Gas, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of exported natural gas by the quantity of natural gas exported, both reported on Form FPC-14.

Natural Gas, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of imported natural gas by the quantity of natural gas imported, both reported on Form FPC- 14.

Natural Gas Production, Dry. Assumed by EIA to be equal to the thermal conversion factor for the consumption of dry natural gas. See Natural Gas Total Consumption.

Natural Gas Production, Marketed (Wet). Calculated annually by EIA by adding the heat content of dry natural gas production and the total heat content of natural gas plant liquids production and dividing this sum by the total quantity of marketed (wet) natural gas production.

Approximate Heat Content of Coal and Coal Coke

Anthracite, Total Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of anthracite consumed by electric utilities and all other sectors combined by the total quantity of anthracite consumed.

Anthracite, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of anthracite receipts at electric utilities by the quantity of anthracite received at electric utilities. Heat contents and receipts are from Form FERC-423 and predecessor forms.

Anthracite, Consumption by Sectors Other Than Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the heat content of anthracite production less the heat content of the anthracite consumed at electric utilities, net exports, and shipments to U.S. Armed Forces overseas by the quantity of anthracite consumed by sectors other than electric utilities less the quantity of anthracite stock changes, losses, and “unaccounted for.”

Anthracite, Imports and Exports. EIA assumed the anthracite imports and exports to be freshly mined anthracite having an estimated heat content of 25.40 million Btu per short ton.

Anthracite, Production. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of freshly mined anthracite (estimated to have an average heat content of 25.400 million Btu per short ton) and the heat content of anthracite recovered from culm banks and river dredging (estimated to have a heat content of 17.500 million Btu per short ton) by the total quantity of anthracite production.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite, Total Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of bituminous coal and lignite consumed by electric utilities, coal coke plants, other industrial plants, the residential and commercial sector, and the transportation sector by the sum of their respective tonnages.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite, Consumption by Coke Plants. Estimated by EIA to be 26.800 million Btu per short ton on the basis of an input/output analysis of coal carbonization.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of bituminous coal and lignite received at electric utilities by the total quantity received at electric utilities. Heat contents and receipts are from Form FERC-423 and predecessor forms.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite, Consumption by Other Industrial and Transportation Users. 1973: Calculated by EIA through regression analysis measuring the difference between the average Btu value of coal consumed by other industrial users and that of coal consumed at electric utilities in the 1974-1982 period. 1974 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by assuming that the bituminous coal and lignite delivered to other industrial users from each coal-producing area (reported on Form EIA-6 and predecessor Bureau of Mines Form 6-1419-Q) contained a heat value equal to that of bituminous coal and lignite received at electric utilities from each of the same coal-producing areas (reported on Form FERC-423). The average Btu value of coal by coal-producing area was applied to the volume of deliveries to other industrial users from each coal-producing area, and the sum total of the heat content was divided by the total volume of deliveries. Coal-producing areas are the Bureau of Mines coal-producing districts for 1974 through 1989 and coal-producing States for 1990 forward.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite, Consumption by Residential and Commercial Users. 1973: Calculated by EIA through regression analysis measuring the difference between the average Btu value of coal consumed by residential and commercial users and that of coal consumed by electric utilities in the 1974-1982 period. 1974 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by assuming that the bituminous coal and lignite delivered to residential and commercial users from each coal-producing area (reported on Form EIA-6 and predecessor Bureau of Mines Form 6-1419-Q) contained a heat value equal to that of bituminous coal and lignite received at electric utilities from each of the same coal-producing areas (reported on Form FERC-423). The average Btu value of coal by coal-producing area was applied to the volume of deliveries to residential and commercial users from each coal-producing area, and the total of the heat value was divided by the total volume of deliveries. Coal-producing areas are the Bureau of Mines coal-producing districts for 1974 through 1989 and coal-producing States for 1990 forward.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of exported metallurgical coal (estimated to average 27.000 million Btu per short ton) and the heat content of exported steam coal (estimated to have an average thermal content of 25.000 million Btu per short ton) by the total quantity of bituminous coal and lignite exported.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite, Imports. EIA estimated the average thermal conversion factor to be 25.000 million Btu per short ton.

Bituminous Coal and Lignite, Production. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of bituminous coal and lignite consumption, net exports, stock changes, and unaccounted for by the sum of their respective tonnages. Consumers’ stock changes by sectors were assumed to have the same conversion factor as that of the consumption sector. Producers’ stock changes and unaccounted for were assumed to have the same conversion factor as that for consumption by all users.

Coal, Consumption. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of bituminous coal and lignite and anthracite consumption by the sum of their respective tonnages.

Coal, Consumption by Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of bituminous coal and lignite and anthracite received at electric utilities by the sum of their respective tonnages received.

Coal, Consumption by Sectors Other Than Electric Utilities. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of bituminous coal and lignite and anthracite consumed by sectors other than electric utilities by the sum of their respective tonnages.

Coal, Exports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of bituminous coal and

lignite and anthracite exported by the sum of their respective tonnages.

Coal, Imports. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the heat content of bituminous coal and lignite and anthracite imported by the sum of their respective tonnages.

Coal, Production. Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the sum of the total heat content of bituminous coal and lignite and anthracite production by the sum of their respective tonnages.

Coal Coke, Imports and Exports. EIA adopted the Bureau of Mines estimate of 24.800 million Btu per short ton.

Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity

Fossil-Fueled Steam-Electric Plant Generation. There is no generally accepted practice for measuring the thermal conversion rates for power plants that generate electricity from hydroelectric, wood and waste, wind, photovoltaic, or solar thermal energy sources. Therefore, EIA uses data from Form EIA-767 to calculate a rate factor that is equal to the prevailing annual average heat rate factor for fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants in the United States. By using that factor, it is possible to evaluate fossil fuel requirements for replacing those sources during periods of interruption such as droughts. The heat content of a kilowatthour of electricity produced, regardless of the generation process, is 3,412 Btu per kilowatthour. 1973-1991: The weighted annual average heat rate for fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants in the United States, as published by EIA in Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses 1991, Table 9. 1992 forward: Unpublished factors calculated on the basis of data from Form EIA-767.

Geothermal Energy Plant Generation. 1973-1981: Calculated annually by EIA by weighting the annual average heat rates of operating geothermal units by the installed nameplate capacities as reported on Form FPC-12. 1982 forward: Estimated annually by EIA on the basis of an informal survey of relevant plants.

Nuclear Steam-Electric Plant Generation. 1973-1991: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content consumed in nuclear generating units by the total (net) electricity generated by nuclear generating units. The heat content and electricity generation are reported on Form FERC-1, “Annual Report of Major Electric Utilities, Licenses, and Others;” Form EIA-412, “Annual Report of Public Electric Utilities;” and predecessor forms. The factors, beginning with 1982 data, are published in the following EIA reports–1982: Historical Plant Cost and Annual Production Expenses for Selected Electric Plants 1982, page 215. 1983-1991: Electric Plant Cost and Power Production Expenses 1991, Table 13. 1992 forward: Calculated annually by EIA by dividing the total heat content of the steam leaving the nuclear generating units to generate electricity by the total (net) electricity generated by nuclear generating units. The heat content and electricity generation data are reported in Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Licensed Operating Reactors–Status Summary Report.

Table A1. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Products

(Million Btu per Barrel)

Petroleum Product Heat Content

Asphalt 6.636

Aviation Gasoline 5.048

Butane 4.326

Butane Propane Mixture(a) 4.130

Distillate Fuel Oil 5.825

Ethane 3.082

Ethane-Propane Mixture(b) 3.308

Isobutane 3.974

Jet Fuel, Kerosene Type 5.670

Jet Fuel, Naphtha Type 5.355

Kerosene 5.670

Lubricants 6.065

Motor Gasoline 5.253

Natural Gasoline and Isopentane 4.620

Pentanes Plus 4.620

Petrochemical Feedstocks

Naphtha Less Than 401 [degrees] F 5.248

Other Oils Equal to or Greater Than 401 [degrees] F 5.825

Still Gas 6.000

Petroleum Coke 6.024

Plant Condensate 5.418

Propane 3.836

Residual Fuel Oil 6.287

Road Oil 6.636

Special Naphthas 5.248

Still Gas 6.000

Unfinished Oils 5.825

Unfractionated Stream 5.418

Waxes 5.537

Miscellaneous 5.796

(a) 60 percent butane and 40 percent propane.

(b) 70 percent ethane and 30 percent propane.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows Table A8.

Table A2. Approximate Heat Content of Crude Oil, Crude Oil and Products, and Natural Gas Plant Liquids

(Million Btu per Barrel)

Crude Oil

Production Imports Exports

1973 5.800 5.817 5.800

1974 5.800 5.827 5.800

1975 5.800 5.821 5.800

1976 5.800 5.808 5.800

1977 5.800 5.810 5.800

1978 5.800 5.802 5.800

1979 5.800 5.810 5.800

1980 5.800 5.812 5.800

1981 5.800 5.818 5.800

1982 5.800 5.826 5.800

1983 5.800 5.825 5.800

1984 5.800 5.823 5.800

1985 5.800 5.832 5.800

1986 5.800 5.903 5.800

1987 5.800 5.901 5.800

1988 5.800 5.900 5.800

1989 5.800 5.906 5.800

1990 5.800 5.934 5.800

1991 5.800 5.948 5.800

1992 5.800 5.953 5.800

1993 5.800 5.954 5.800

1994 5.800 5.950 5.800

1995 5.800 5.924 5.800

1996 5.800 5.935 5.800

1997 5.800 5.954 5.800

1998 5.800 5.953 5.800

1999(a) 5.800 5.953 5.800

Crude Oil and Products Natural Gas

Plant Liquids

Imports Exports Production

1973 5.897 5.752 4.049

1974 5.884 5.774 4.011

1975 5.858 5.748 3.984

1976 5.856 5.745 3.964

1977 5.834 5.797 3.941

1978 5.839 5.808 3.925

1979 5.810 5.832 3.955

1980 5.796 5.820 3.914

1981 5.775 5.821 3.930

1982 5.775 5.820 3.872

1983 5.774 5.800 3.839

1984 5.745 5.850 3.812

1985 5.736 5.814 3.815

1986 5.808 5.832 3.797

1987 5.820 5.858 3.804

1988 5.820 5.840 3.800

1989 5.833 5.857 3.826

1990 5.849 5.833 3.822

1991 5.873 5.823 3.807

1992 5.877 5.777 3.804

1993 5.883 5.779 3.801

1994 5.861 5.781 3.794

1995 5.849 5.751 3.796

1996 5.843 5.745 3.777

1997 5.863 5.734 3.762

1998 5.863 5.721 3.769

1999(a) 5.863 5.721 3.769

(a) Preliminary.

Note: Crude oil includes lease condensate.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows Table A8.

Table A3. Approximate Heat Content of Petroleum Products, Weighted Averages

Million Btu per Barrel)

Consumption

Residential

and

Commercial Industrial Transportation

1973 5.387 5.568 5.395

1974 5.377 5.538 5.394

1975 5.358 5.528 5.392

1976 5.383 5.538 5.395

1977 5.389 5.555 5.400

1978 5.382 5.553 5.404

1979 5.471 5.418 5.428

1980 5.468 5.376 5.440

1981 5.409 5.313 5.432

1982 5.392 5.263 5.422

1983 5.286 5.273 5.415

1984 5.384 5.223 5.422

1985 5.326 5.221 5.423

1986 5.357 5.286 5.427

1987 5.316 5.253 5.430

1988 5.320 5.248 5.434

1989 5.257 5.233 5.440

1990 5.208 5.272 5.445

1991 5.163 5.192 5.442

1992 5.169 5.188 5.445

1993 5.148 5.200 5.438

1994 5.154 5.171 5.442

1995 5.126 5.141 5.444

1996 5.102 5.127 5.445

1997 5.076 5.135 5.443

1998(a) 5.095 5.150 5.438

1999(a) 5.095 5.150 5.436

Consumption

Liquefied

Petroleum

Electric Gases

Utilities Total Imports Exports Consumption

1973 6.245 5.515 5.983 5.752 3.746

1974 6.238 5.504 5.959 5.773 3.730

1975 6.250 5.494 5.935 5.747 3.715

1976 6.251 5.504 5.980 5.743 3.711

1977 6.249 5.518 5.908 5.796 3.677

1978 6.251 5.519 5.955 5.814 3.669

1979 6.258 5.494 5.811 5.864 3.680

1980 6.254 5.479 5.748 5.841 3.674

1981 6.258 5.448 5.659 5.837 3.643

1982 6.258 5.415 5.664 5.829 3.615

1983 6.255 5.406 5.677 5.800 3.614

1984 6.251 5.395 5.613 5.867 3.599

1985 6.247 5.387 5.572 5.819 3.603

1986 6.257 5.418 5.624 5.839 3.640

1987 6.249 5.403 5.599 5.860 3.659

1988 6.250 5.410 5.618 5.842 3.652

1989 6.241 5.410 5.641 5.869 3.683

1990 6.247 5.411 5.614 5.838 3.625

1991 6.248 5.384 5.636 5.827 3.614

1992 6.243 5.378 5.623 5.774 3.624

1993 6.241 5.379 5.620 5.777 3.606

1994 6.231 5.371 5.538 5.779 3.635

1995 6.210 5.358 5.511 5.746 3.623

1996 6.212 5.352 5.495 5.738 3.613

1997 6.220 5.353 5.478 5.726 3.616

1998(a) 6.219 5.367 5.471 5.710 3.614

1999(a) 6.219 5.367 5.471 5.710 3.614

(a) Preliminary.

Note: Weighted averages of the products included in each category are calculated by using heat content values shown in Table A1.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows Table A8.

Table A4. Approximate Heat Content of Natural Gas

(Btu per Cubic Foot)

Production Consumption

Sectors Other

Than Electric

Dry Marketed Utilities

1973 1,021 1,093 1,020

1974 1,024 1,097 1,024

1975 1,021 1,095 1,020

1976 1,020 1,093 1,019

1977 1,021 1,093 1,019

1978 1,019 1,088 1,016

1979 1,021 1,092 1,018

1980 1,026 1,098 1,024

1981 1,027 1,103 1,025

1982 1,028 1,107 1,026

1983 1,031 1,115 1,031

1984 1,031 1,109 1,030

1985 1,032 1,112 1,031

1986 1,030 1,110 1,029

1987 1,031 1,112 1,031

1988 1,029 1,109 1,029

1989 1,031 1,107 1,031

1990 1,031 1,105 1,030

1991 1,030 1,108 1,031

1992 1,030 1,110 1,031

1993 1,027 1,106 1,028

1994 1,028 1,105 1,029

1995 1,027 1,106 1,027

1996 1,027 1,109 1,027

1997 1,026 1,107 1,027

1998(a) (R)1,031 (R)1,110 (R)1,033

1999(a) (R)1,031 (R)1,110 (R)1,033

Consumption

Electric

Utilities Total Imports Exports

1973 1,024 1,021 1,026 1,023

1974 1,022 1,024 1,027 1,016

1975 1,026 1,021 1,026 1,014

1976 1,023 1,020 1,025 1,013

1977 1,029 1,021 1,026 1,013

1978 1,034 1,019 1,030 1,013

1979 1,035 1,021 1,037 1,013

1980 1,035 1,026 1,022 1,013

1981 1,035 1,027 1,014 1,011

1982 1,036 1,028 1,018 1,011

1983 1,030 1,031 1,024 1,010

1984 1,035 1,031 1,005 1,010

1985 1,038 1,032 1,002 1,011

1986 1,034 1,030 997 1,008

1987 1,032 1,031 999 1,011

1988 1,028 1,029 1,002 1,018

1989 1,030 1,031 1,004 1,019

1990 1,034 1,031 1,012 1,018

1991 1,024 1,030 1,014 1,022

1992 1,022 1,030 1,011 1,018

1993 1,022 1,027 1,020 1,016

1994 1,022 1,028 1,022 1,011

1995 1,025 1,027 1,021 1,011

1996 1,024 1,027 1,022 1,011

1997 1,019 1,026 1,023 1,011

1998(a) (R)1,022 (R)1,031 1,023 1,011

1999(a) (R)1,022 (R)1,031 1,023 1,011

(a) Preliminary.

(R)=Revised.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Facto(R)Source Documentation,” which follows Table A8.

Table A5. Approximate Heat Content of Coal

(Million Btu per Short Ton)

Consumption

Residential

and Coke Other

Production Commercial Plants Industrial(a)

1973 23.376 22.831 26.780 22.586

1974 23.072 22.479 26.778 22.419

1975 22.897 22.261 26.782 22.436

1976 22.855 22.774 26.781 22.530

1977 22.597 22.919 26.787 22.322

1978 22.248 22.466 26.789 22.207

1979 22.454 22.242 26.788 22.452

1980 22.415 22.543 26.790 22.690

1981 22.308 22.474 26.794 22.585

1982 22.239 22.695 26.797 22.712

1983 22.052 22.775 26.798 22.691

1984 22.010 22.844 26.799 22.543

1985 21.870 22.646 26.798 22.020

1986 21.913 22.947 26.798 22.198

1987 21.922 23.404 26.799 22.381

1988 21.823 23.571 26.799 22.360

1989 21.765 23.650 26.800 22.347

1990 21.822 23.137 26.799 22.457

1991 21.681 23.114 26.799 22.460

1992 21.646 23.105 26.799 22.250

1993 21.388 22.994 26.800 22.123

1994 21.352 23.112 26.800 22.068

1995 21.277 23.118 26.800 21.950

1996 21.287 23.011 26.800 22.105

1997 21.253 22.494 26.800 22.172

1998(c) 21.253 22.494 26.800 22.172

1999(a) 21.253 22.494 26.800 22.172

Consumption

Electric

Utilities(b) Total Imports Exports

1973 22.246 23.057 25.000 26.596

1974 21.781 22.677 25.000 26.700

1975 21.642 22.506 25.000 26.562

1976 21.679 22.498 25.000 26.601

1977 21.508 22.265 25.000 26.548

1978 21.275 22.017 25.000 26.478

1979 21.364 22.100 25.000 26.548

1980 21.295 21.947 25.000 26.384

1981 21.085 21.713 25.000 26.160

1982 21.194 21.674 25.000 26.223

1983 21.133 21.576 25.000 26.291

1984 21.101 21.573 25.000 26.402

1985 20.959 21.366 25.000 26.307

1986 21.084 21.462 25.000 26.292

1987 21.136 21.517 25.000 26.291

1988 20.900 21.328 25.000 26.299

1989 20.848 21.272 25.000 26.160

1990 20.929 21.331 25.000 26.202

1991 20.755 21.146 25.000 26.188

1992 20.787 21.143 25.000 26.161

1993 20.639 20.983 25.000 26.335

1994 20.673 21.010 25.000 26.329

1995 20.495 20.845 25.000 26.180

1996 20.525 20.856 25.000 26.174

1997 20.548 20.862 25.000 26.251

1998(c) 20.548 20.862 25.000 26.251

1999(a) 20.548 20.862 25.000 26.251

(a) Includes transportation.

(b) Data shown in this column are not the same as those shown in the Electric Power Monthly (EPM). The EPM data report coal receipts; the data shown here represent coal consumption.

(c) Preliminary.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows Table A8.

Table A6. Approximate Heat Content of Bituminous Coal and Lignite

(Million Btu per Short Ton)

Consumption

Residential

and Coke Other

Production Commercial Plants Industrial(a)

1973 23.391 22.887 26.800 22.585

1974 23.087 22.523 26.800 22.420

1975 22.910 22.258 26.800 22.439

1976 22.863 22.819 26.800 22.528

1977 22.597 22.594 26.800 22.290

1978 22.242 22.078 26.800 22.175

1979 22.449 21.884 26.800 22.436

1980 22.411 22.488 26.800 22.690

1981 22.301 22.010 26.800 22.572

1982 22.233 22.226 26.800 22.695

1983 22.048 22.438 26.800 22.680

1984 22.005 22.406 26.800 22.525

1985 21.867 22.568 26.800 22.013

1986 21.908 22.669 26.800 22.185

1987 21.918 22.800 26.800 22.360

1988 21.817 23.135 26.800 22.341

1989 21.759 22.917 26.800 22.324

1990 21.819 22.678 26.800 22.444

1991 21.678 22.635 26.800 22.448

1992 21.643 22.768 26.800 22.242

1993 21.383 22.749 26.800 22.111

1994 21.347 22.683 26.800 22.046

1995 21.271 22.767 26.800 21.931

1996 21.281 22.649 26.800 22.087

1997(b) 21.247 22.048 26.800 22.157

1998(b) 21.247 22.048 26.800 22.157

1999(a) 21.247 22.048 26.800 22.157

Consumption

Electric

Utilities Total Imports Exports

1973 22.262 23.073 25.000 26.612

1974 21.799 22.694 25.000 26.716

1975 21.659 22.522 25.000 26.573

1976 21.692 22.509 25.000 26.613

1977 21.521 22.266 25.000 26.561

1978 21.284 22.014 25.000 26.501

1979 21.372 22.100 25.000 26.570

1980 21.301 21.950 25.000 26.404

1981 21.091 21.710 25.000 26.176

1982 21.200 21.670 25.000 26.231

1983 21.141 21.576 25.000 26.300

1984 21.108 21.570 25.000 26.410

1985 20.965 21.368 25.000 26.320

1986 21.091 21.462 25.000 26.308

1987 21.143 21.514 25.000 26.304

1988 20.905 21.324 25.000 26.308

1989 20.854 21.268 25.000 26.166

1990 20.935 21.330 25.000 26.207

1991 20.761 21.146 25.000 26.192

1992 20.792 21.142 25.000 26.165

1993 20.644 20.983 25.000 26.341

1994 20.681 21.011 25.000 26.335

1995 20.502 20.845 25.000 26.187

1996 20.532 20.857 25.000 26.181

1997(b) 20.554 20.861 25.000 26.258

1998(b) 20.554 20.861 25.000 26.258

1999(a) 20.554 20.861 25.000 26.258

(a) Includes transportation.

(b) Preliminary.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows Table A8.

Table A7. Approximate Heat Content of Anthracite and Coal Coke

(Million Btu per Short Ton)

Anthracite

Consumption

Sectors

Other

Than

Electric Electric

Production Utilities Utilities Total

1973 22.132 22.674 17.920 21.464

1974 21.711 22.330 17.200 20.919

1975 21.582 22.272 17.064 20.762

1976 22.045 22.618 17.526 21.254

1977 22.661 24.101 17.244 22.066

1978 23.079 24.388 17.104 22.398

1979 23.170 24.272 17.454 22.069

1980 22.869 22.719 17.652 21.405

1981 23.291 23.749 18.168 22.080

1982 23.289 24.578 18.160 22.518

1983 22.734 24.536 16.516 21.583

1984 23.107 25.128 17.018 22.322

1985 22.428 23.031 16.784 20.817

1986 23.084 24.399 15.578 21.512

1987 23.108 26.293 15.962 22.435

1988 23.266 26.021 17.312 22.423

1989 23.385 27.196 16.310 22.623

1990 22.574 25.199 16.140 21.668

1991 22.573 25.268 15.858 21.410

1992 22.572 24.617 16.944 21.423

1993 22.573 24.096 16.534 21.262

1994 22.572 25.037 14.680 20.828

1995 22.572 24.696 14.572 20.808

1996 22.573 24.638 14.360 20.652

1997 22.571 24.497 15.022 20.878

1998(a) 22.571 24.497 15.022 20.878

1999(a) 22.571 24.497 15.022 20.878

Coal Coke

Imports Imports

and and

Exports Exports

1973 25.400 24.800

1974 25.400 24.800

1975 25.400 24.800

1976 25.400 24.800

1977 25.400 24.800

1978 25.400 24.800

1979 25.400 24.800

1980 25.400 24.800

1981 25.400 24.800

1982 25.400 24.800

1983 25.400 24.800

1984 25.400 24.800

1985 25.400 24.800

1986 25.400 24.800

1987 25.400 24.800

1988 25.400 24.800

1989 25.400 24.800

1990 25.400 24.800

1991 25.400 24.800

1992 25.400 24.800

1993 25.400 24.800

1994 25.400 24.800

1995 25.400 24.800

1996 25.400 24.800

1997 25.400 24.800

1998(a) 25.400 24.800

1999(a) 25.400 24.800

(a) Preliminary.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows Table A8.

Table A8. Approximate Heat Rates for Electricity

(Btu per Kilowatthour)

Electricity Generation

Nuclear

Fossil-Fueled Steam- Geothermal

Steam-Electric Electric Energy Electricity

Plants(a) Plants Plants(b) Consumption

1973 10,389 10,903 21,674 3,412

1974 10,442 11,161 21,674 3,412

1975 10,406 11,013 21,611 3,412

1976 10,373 11,047 21,611 3,412

1977 10,435 10,769 21,611 3,412

1978 10,361 10,941 21,611 3,412

1979 10,353 10,879 21,545 3,412

1980 10,388 10,908 21,639 3,412

1981 10,453 11,030 21,639 3,412

1982 10,454 11,073 21,629 3,412

1983 10,520 10,905 21,290 3,412

1984 10,440 10,843 21,303 3,412

1985 10,447 10,813 21,263 3,412

1986 10,446 10,799 21,263 3,412

1987 10,419 10,776 21,263 3,412

1988 10,324 10,743 21,096 3,412

1989 10,432 10,724 21,096 3,412

1990 10,402 10,680 21,096 3,412

1991 10,436 10,740 20,997 3,412

1992 10,342 10,678 20,914 3,412

1993 10,309 10,682 20,914 3,412

1994 10,316 10,676 20,914 3,412

1995 10,312 10,658 20,914 3,412

1996 10,335 10,623 20,960 3,412

1997 10,311 10,623 20,960 3,412

1998(c) 10,311 10,623 20,960 3,412

1999(c) 10,311 10,623 20,960 3,412

(a) Used as the thermal conversion factor for hydroelectric power generation, and for wood and waste, wind, photovoltaic, and solar thermal energy consumed at electric utilities.

(b) Used as the thermal conversion factor for geothermal energy consumed at electric utilities.

(c) Preliminary.

Source: See “Thermal Conversion Factor Source Documentation,” which follows this table.

COPYRIGHT 1999 US Department of Energy

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