U.S. trade in tuna for canning, 1987
Wesley W. Parks
U.S. Trade in Tuna for Canning, 1987
The U.S. canned tuna harvesting/processing industry is an active participant in the global tuna industry. In 1986 U.S. vessels took 8 percent of the total world catch of all tuna species . Having developed canned tuna processing in the early 1900’s, the U.S. processing sector is the world leader accounting for 36 percent of total world canned tuna production in 1986. The United States continues as the major world market for canned tuna, consuming 34 percent of total world production in 1987.
The United States, along with Japan, Spain, and France, other historically dominant tuna harvesting and processing nations, have in recently years met increasing competition from rapidly expanding tuna industries in southeast Asia, Latin America, the western Pacific, and Africa. The world tuna catch was 3,768,000 short tons (tons) in 1986, an increase of 39 percent from 1979. However, while catches in the historical tuna countries increased 24 percent, catches in developing countries increased 53 percent. U.S. landing increased 14 percent over the period. In 1986, the United States was fourth in volume of tuna catches behind Japan, Indonesia, and the Philippines.
Global productions of canned tuna was 775,000 tons in 1985, 16 percent above 1979 production. As for catches, this growth is concentrated in developing nations where, from 1979 to 1985, canned tuna production increased 86 percent. In contrast, production increased 5 percent in the historical tuna nations. CAnned tuna production in the United States decreased slightly between 1979 and 1985 then increased in 1986. The United States continues as the leading processor of canned tuna.
International trade in raw tuna and canned tuna products has also increased, paralleling the increases in fishing and canning sectors. In 1986, 861,000 tons of fresh and frozen raw tuna were traded by major trading nations, an increase of 47 percent over 1979 levels . The major growth has been in developing countries where raw tuna imports increased 316 percent between 1979 and 1986. Raw tuna imports to developed countries increased only 4 percent and U.S. imports actually declined 2 percent over the period. The United States accounted for 24 percent of total world imports of raw tuna for canning in 1986.
World canned tuna producers exported 315,000 tons of canned product in 1985, up 140 percent from 1979. Virtually all this growth has been in developing countries. The United States continues as the major world importer of canned tuna. U.S. imports were 92,500 tons in 1986, up 215 percent from 1979.
This is the sixth annual review of the U.S. tuna canning industry (Herrick, 1984> Herrick and Koplin, 1984> Herrick and Koplin, 1986> Herrick and Koplin, 1987> Herrick, et al. ). In the following sections we describe the industry’s performance in 1987. In the first section we review the U.S. albacore fishery and U.S. processing of white meat tuna in 1987. In the second section we focus on the fishery for tropical tunas and processing of light meat tuna. In the third section we describe U.S. imports of canned tuna and, in the fourth, consumption of canned tuna.
White Meat (Albacore) Tuna
Albacore, Thunnus alalunga, is the only species that may be canned as white meat tuna in the United States. . About 21 percent of the total U.S. tuna pack in 1987 was white meat tuna.
Production by the
U.S. Albacore Fleet
The U.S. albacore fleet consists of about 1,800 vessels, of which about 250 land 90 percent of the catch in any given year (Majors ). About 80 percent of the vessels use jig gear, 10 percent pole-and-line gear, and 10 percent either a combination of jig and pole and line or other gear (e.g., gill net). The fleet operates exclusively in the Pacific Ocean. Before 1974, reported catches were taken exclusively within 300 miles of the North Pacific coast of North America from central Baja California to British Columbia (Majors, 1987). As a result of joint NMFS/American Fishermen’s Research Foundation (AFRF) exploratory fishing in 1975, larger jigboats in the fleet expanded their operations to areas northwest of Hawaii in the late 1970’s and early 1980’s. In 1986 and 1987, NMFS/AFRF exploratory fishing located new fishing grounds in the South Pacific. Since then, larger U.S. jigboats have fished in this new area east of New Zealand.
Receipts at U.S. canneries in 1987 of albacore caught by U.S. fishermen continued a decline from a recent high in 1984 (Fig. 1) . Receipts (2,800 tons) were 20 percent less than 1986 receipts and 66 percent less than recent average (1982-86) receipts (Table 1).
Sixty-nine percent of the receipts of domestically caught albacore delivered to U.S. canneries was received at canneries in America Samoa and California (Table 1). The remaining 31 percent was transshipped to Puerto Rico from west coast ports. In addition, 841 tons of albacore caught by U.S. fishermen in the new south Pacific troll fishery were exported through Tahiti, and an additional 300-400 tons were landed at west coast ports and then exported to Fiji and Japan.
The contract price for domestically caught albacore received at U.S. canneries increased dramatically in 1987 (Fig. 2). The contract price was $1,235 per ton for large fish (9 pounds and larger) at the beginning of 1987, 12 percent greater than the price at the beginning of 1986 (Table 2). The price for small fish ([is greater than]9 pounds) was $950 per ton, 27 percent greater than the 1986 price. By mid-year, the contract price had risen to $1,400 per ton for large fish. According to industry sources, the general shortage of fish led to canners offering incentives and bonuses for albacore which brought the actual price well over $1,500 per ton.
Price increases offset the decline in landings, and aggregate ex-vessel revenue from the 1987 albacore fishery was 41 percent above that of 1986. Average ex-vessel price (total ex-vessel revenue divided by total domestic cannery receipts) was $1,496 per ton for U.S.-caught albacore in 1987, a 35 percent gain from 1986 (Table 3). The real (inflation adjusted) ex-vessel price increased 32 percent in 1987, the first increase in the period 1980-87.
U.S. Processing of
Canned White Meat Tuna
Total receipts (U.S.-caught plus imports) of albacore at U.S. canneries in 1987 were 104,197 tons, 10 percent less than 1986 receipts but 3 percent above recent (1982-86) average receipts (Fig. 3, Table 1). Of the total receipts, 74 percent were delivered to canneries in Puerto Rico, and 26 percent went to canneries in American Samoa and California. Receipts at all locations were down in 1987.
As in each of the last 6 years, imports made up the bulk (97 percent) of U.S. cannery receipts of raw albacore in 1987 (Fig. 3). Imports totaled 101,361 tons, a 10 percent decrease from 1986 (Table 1). Puerto Rico was the major receiving site for albacore imports with 75 percent of the total> American Samoa and California received the remainder. Imports received in Puerto Rico were 12 percent less than in 1986> imports received in American Samoa and California were essentially the same as in 1986.
Foreign-caught tuna entering the United States is listed by U.S. Customs as an export of the shipping nation. In the case of transshipments, the shipping country may not be the harvesting country. This is the case in 1987, for which the principal transshipping nation for albacore imports was South Africa which does not export fish taken by its own vessels to the United States (Table 4). South Africa has been a principal point for albacore transshipped to the United States since 1982 and accounted for 23 percent of total imports in 1987. Although the United States has embargoed imports of most South African products, transshipments of tuna caught by Taiwanese and Japanese albacore vessels have been permitted. Other important transshipping nations included Taiwan and South Korea.
The value of imported raw albacore at U.S. canneries in 1987 was $159.9 million, down 2 percent from 1986 . This correspond to a weighted average price of $1,578 per ton, 9 percent above the average price in 1986.
As in 1985 and 1986, the Atlantic Ocean was the source of most albacore received by U.S. canneries in 1987, followed by the Pacific and Indian Oceans (Fig. 4). All albcore received from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans consisted of imports. Receipts of albacore from the Atlantic Ocean decreased 20 percent from 1986, receipts from the Pacific decreased 5 percent, and those from the Indian Ocean increased 50 percent (Table 5, 6).
With the exception of the record 1986 pack, the 1987 U.S. pack of white meat tuna, 7.2 million standard cases, was the largest since 1978> the 1987 pack was 11 percent less than the record 1986 pack (Fig. 5, Table 7) .
During 1987, wholesale list prices for U.S.-produced nationally advertised brands of white meat tuna ranged between $55.40 and $63.57 per standard case. With discounts, wholesale prices fell below $49.00 a standard case. Wholesale sale prices for private brands ranged between $43.50 and $51.50.
The value of the U.S. white meat pack was $314 million (FOB plant value) in 1987, down 2 percent from 1986 (Table 7). Dividing value by production yields a weighted average price of $43.71 per standard case in 1987, an increase of 10 percent over the average value in 1986.
Light Meat Tuna
In the United States, tuna with flesh color lighter than Munsell value 5.3 may be canned as light meat tuna . Seventy-nine percent of the U.S. pack in 1987 was light meat tuna. The 6.5-ounce can of chunk style, light meat tuna in water has for several years been the most popular tuna product consumed in the United States.
Production by the
U.S. Tropical Tuna Fleet
The U.S.-flag, tropical tuna fleet began fishing in the early 1900’s off the coast of California (Greenough and Joseph, 1986> Joseph ). In the early years, the fleet consisted entirely of baitboats (pole and line gear). Beginning in the mid-1950’s, larger baitboats were converted to purse seine, which in the 1960’s became the dominant gear. During the mid-1960’s to mid-1970’s the fleet expanded rapidly as new and larger purse seiners were constructed. The baitboat fishery was concentrated in coastal areas and near offshore islands near supplies of baitfish. As purse seining became the dominant gear, the fleet expanded its operations to offshore regions of the eastern Pacific, to the Atlantic in some years, and in the late 1970’s and particularly after 1982, to the western Pacific.
At the beginning of 1987, the U.S.-flag, tropical tuna fleet consisted of 85 vessels with an overall carrying capacity of 88,252 tons: 80 purse seiners and 5 baitboats. By the end of 1987, the fleet had declined to 83 vessels (76 purse seiners and 7 baitboats) with a total carrying capacity of 81,279 tons. Nine of the 83 vessels were inactive.
During 1987, the U.S. tuna fleet operated exclusively in the Pacific Ocean. There were 34 vessels active in the western Pacific during the first quarter with a combined carrying capacity of 41,255 tons. By the end of the year the number in the western Pacific had declined to 29 vessels with a capacity of 35,875 tons, a 15 percent decrease in number and a 13 percent decrease in capacity. Thirty-five vessels with a total carrying capacity of 33,263 tons operated in the eastern Pacific during the first quarter, increasing to 45 vessels with a capacity of 37,829 tons by the end of the year, a 22 percent increase in number and 12 percent increase in capacity.
Receipts of domestically caught, light meat tuna at U.S. canneries in 1987, 251,100 tons, were the highest since 1983, 12 percent above the 1986 receipts and 8 percent above recent average receipts (Fig. 6, Table 1). As in 1985 and 1986, receipts of yellowfin tuna exceeded skipjack receipts, comprising 65 percent of the total. Yellowfin receipts (includes small amounts of bigeye, bluefin and blackfin tuna) increased 23 percent over 1986 receipts while skipjack receipts decreased 4 percent.
Sixty-three percent of domestic deliveries to U.S. canneries were to American Samoa and California canneries and 37 percent went to Puerto Rico canneries . Receipts at American Samoa and California in 1987 were 158,734 tons, up 23 percent from 1986 receipts. Receipts at Puerto Rico were 92,366 tons, down 3 percent from 1986.
In addition to receipts at U.S. canneries, U.S.-flag vessels exported 16,256 tons of skipjack tuna and 12,866 tons of yellowfin tuna to foreign canneries in 1987, down 27 percent for skipjack and up 12 percent for yellowfin from 1986.
Owing to increased worldwide demand for raw tuna, contract ex-vessel prices for frozen light meat tuna increased dramatically in 1987 (e.g., up 47 percent for yellowfin tuna [is greater than]20 lb.) (Fig. 7). In January, contract ex-vessel prices (without quality adjustments) for frozen light meat tuna in all species and size categories were at a low level (Table 2). Contract prices rose through July then held steady through the remainder of the year. Vessels which chose to sail without contracts were able to command premiums of $20-40 per ton or more above contract prices. For a short period in the fall of 1987, premiums reached a high as $300 per ton .
Total ex-vessel revenue from the sale of U.S.-caught light meat tuna was about $208.6 million in 1987,35 percent greater than in 1986. The ex-vessel value of domestically caught skipjack tuna delivered to U.S. canneries was $62.5 million, up 12 percent from 1986. The average ex-vessel price (total revenue divided by total domestic receipts) was $716 per ton, a 16 percent increase from 1986 (Table 4). The ex-vessel value of domestically caught receipts of yellowfin tuna was $146.1 million in 1987, 48 percent above 1986. The average ex-vessel price for yellowfin tuna in 1987 was $892 per ton, an increase of 20 percent from 1986.
U.S. Processing of Canned
Light Meat Tuna
Total receipts (U.S.-caught plus imports) of raw light meat tuna at U.S. canneries in 1987 (428,507 tons) were at their highest levels since 1983, up 5 percent from both 1986 and recent (1982-86) average receipts (Fig. 8, Table 1). Fifty-three percent of total deliveries were to canneries in Puerto Rico, the rest to canneries in American Samoa and California. Receipts at Puerto Rican canneries were 8 percent less than in 1986. Receipts at American Samoa and California canneries were 25 percent more than in 1986.
As in 1985 and 1986, receipts of yellowfin exceeded receipts of skipjack in 1987 (Fig. 8), and 57 percent of raw tuna deliveries consisted of yellowfin, the rest of skipjack. Receipts of domestically caught raw light meat tuna at U.S. canneries in 1987 continued to exceed imports (Fig. 9). Imports, 177,407 tons, made up 41 percent of total raw light meat receipts in 1987 vs. 45 percent in 1986 (Table 1).
Puerto Rico was the major receiving site for imports of raw light meat tuna during 1987, accounting for 77 percent of the total tonnage, compared with 83 percent in 1986 (Table 1). Skipjack tuna made up 54 percent of the 1987 light meat imports, yellowfin the balance. Overall, skipjack tuna imports were down 9 percent from 1986, while yellowfin imports increased 4 percent.
The principal transshipping point for raw light meat tuna imported to the United States in 1987 was the Seychelles, the base of the French and Spanish purse seine fleets operating in the Indian Ocean (Table 4). Of total imports, 16 percent or 27,508 tons was transshipped from the Seychelles. South Korea was the second most important transshipping point, followed by the Ivory Coast. Transshipments of raw light meat tuna from the Seychelles to the United States began in 1983. Since then, Seychelles transshipments have grown and dominated U.S. imports in 1986 and 1987.
Mexico exported 19,405 tons of light meat tuna (does not include non-Mexican caught, transshipped fish) to the United States in 1987, the first full year after the U.S. embargo on imports of Mexican-caught tuna and tuna products ended. When the embargo was lifted, Mexico agreed to voluntarily limit its exports of tuna products to the United States for 3 years, beginning 1 September 1986. At the end of the first agreement year, 31 August 1987, Mexican exports to the United States totaled 16,600 tons, less than the agreed total of 19,200 tons. The agreement calls for limits of 24,000 tons and 30,300 tons in the second and third years, respectively.
The total value of raw light meat tuna imports in 1987 was $135.2 million, down 10 percent from 1986. Skipjack imports were valued at $64.6 million, a decrease of 19 percent from 1986. Yellowfin imports were valued at $70.6 million, the same as in 1986. The weighted average price of imported skipjack tuna was $679 per ton, a decrease of 11 percent from the 1986 price. The price of imported yellowfin tuna was $857 per ton, a 5 percent decrease.
The Pacific Ocean continued to be the primary source of all light meat cannery receipts and U.S. direct exports of light meat tuna in 1987, followed by the Atlantic and Indian Oceans (Fig. 10). Total receipts and direct exports were 457,629 tons, of which the Pacific provided 85 percent (Tables 5,6).
On a regional basis, the western Pacific was the leading production area for U.S. cannery receipts plus direct exports of light meat tuna, with 206,483 tons. Of this total, 77 percent (158,133 tons) was domestically caught and the remainder imported. Skipjack tuna was the predominant species in western Pacific receipts and exports (57 percent of the total). Other oceanic regions contributing, in order of importance, were the eastern Pacific (primarily domestically caught yellowfin tuna), the Indian Ocean (primarily skipjack imports), the eastern Atlantic, and the western Atlantic.
In 1987, the U.S. pack of canned light meat tuna was at its highest level since 1978 (Fig. 11). The pack was 26.4 million standard cases, up 7 percent from 1986 (Table 7).
The wholesale list price of U.S. produced, advertised-label, light meat tuna ranged between $34.20 and $45.00 a standard case, but with discounts the price fell as low as $26.00 a case during the year. Wholesale list prices for private-label light meat tuna ranged between $23.00 and $31.50.
Total production of canned light meat tuna, both name-and private-label brands, was valued at $704 million (FOB plant value) in 1987, up 26 percent from 1986. The weighted average price was $26.70 per standard case, an increase of 17 percent from 1986.
of Canned Tuna
The United States imported 10.8 million standard cases (105,800 tons) of canned tuna in 1987 (Table 7). Imports actually declined in 1987, the first reversal of the spectacular increase in imports (a compound annual increase of 17 percent) which began in 1978 (Fig. 12). Imports in 1987 decreased 11 percent from 1986 (Table 7).
Foreign-processed canned tuna is subject to an import tariff. Tuna canned in oil is subject to a 35 percent ad valorem tariff. Tuna canned not in oil is subject to a tariff rate quota which allows imports of up to 20 percent of the previous year’s domestic production to enter at 6 percent ad valorem. Imports in excess of the quota level enter at 12.5 percent ad valorem. The 1987 quota was 45,750 tons (4.7 million standard cases).
An indication of the rates of imports is the date on which the quota is reached. In 1987, the quota was reached on April 4, the earliest closure date since the quota program began.
The majority (86 percent) of canned imports were of light meat tuna (in water) at 9.4 million standard cases (91,000 tons). White meat tuna in water contributed 13 percent at 1.4 million cases (14,700 tons). One percent of 1987 canned imports were of tuna canned in oil. Due to the high tariff, U.S. imports of tuna packed in oil have never been large and in 1987, 16,800 standard cases (164 tons) were imported.
Thailand, Taiwan, the Philippines, and Japan were the major exporters of canned tuna to the United States in 1987, as they have been since 1982 (Table 8). Thailand was the leader, shipping 73,400 tons (7.5 million standard cases), 70 percent of total 1987 U.S. imports.
The value of imported, canned tuna in 1987 was $207 million (FOB plant value not including duty) (Table 8). The weighted average price of imports was $1,940 per ton or $18.87 per standard case, the same as in 1986.
of Canned Tuna
Per capita consumption of canned tuna products in the United States for 1987 (excluding noncivilian consumption) was 3.5 pounds, 3 percent less than in 1986. According to industry reports, 78 percent of 1987 U.S. canned tuna consumption was of light meat tuna and 22 percent was of white meat. Based on these proportions, per capita consumption of white meat was 0.77 pounds (1.9 standard cans), 1 percent less than in 1986. Per capita consumption of light meat tuna in 1987 was 2.73 pounds or 6.7 standard cans, 4 percent less than in 1986.
The retail composite canned tuna price (an average weighted by volume of product type) was $2.26 per pound in 1987, unchanged from 1986. The composite price for canned white meat tuna was $3.21 per pound> the price for light meat tuna was $1.99 per pound. Based on per capita consumption, 1987 U.S. per capita expenditure for canned tuna was $7.91, $2.47 for white meat tuna and $5.44 for light meat tuna.
Generally, 1987 was a good year for the U.S. tuna industry. Domestic cannery receipts and production were up, as were ex-vessel and wholesale prices. U.S. landings of light meat tuna were up in 1987, while foreign catches, particularly from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, were down, creating tight supplies in a strong global market and, as a result, higher ex-vessel prices. With the increase in landings and ex-vessel prices, earnings by the U.S. fleet increased significantly.
While eastern Pacific fishing grounds continue to be of key importance to the U.S. purse seine fleet fishing for tropical light meat tunas, the importance of western Pacific grounds increased as access became more assured with the signing, in 1987, of an agreement between the United States and South Pacific nations allowing U.S. vessels access to South Pacific fishing zones. The agreement was precipitated by jurisdictional claims by many Pacific island states over tuna in 200-n.mi. extended economic zones (EEZ’s) and problems caused when, in the early 1980’s, several U.S. vessels were seized for fishing in claimed island exclusive fishing zones. Seizures triggered relaliatory U.S. embargoes on imports of tuna products from the seizing nations as provided for by the Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act.
To resolve these problems, the United States and 16 Pacific island states negotiated a regional licensing arrangement, signing a treaty formalizing the arrangement in 1987. Terms of the treaty grant U.S. vessels fishing rights within fishing zones of a large region of the South Pacific Ocean and provide for license fees and technical and economic assistance to the South Pacific states. Negotiations leading to a treaty arrangement allowing for U.S. access to EEZ’s of Central and South American nations and for collective management of eastern Pacific tuna resources continued in 1987 but have yet to yield an agreement.
A bright spot for U.S. tuna fishermen was the devleoping South Pacific albacore fishery. In the face of continuing declines in landings by the U.S. albacore fleet from its traditional west coast grounds, efforts to develop new grounds in the South Pacific began in 1986. Initial fishing success and high demand for albacore prompted U.S. jigboats to develop the southern fishery. Between January and April, 1987, seven U.S. jigboats operated in the central South Pacific catching 840 tons of albacore. Catches were landed in Tahiti and sold at an average price of $1,300 per ton.
Worldwide, the demand for canned tuna, and hence raw tuna, was up in 1987 while harvests in some areas were down. This contributed to increases in ex-vessel and wholesale prices. The European tuna industry, being much more vulnerable to the shortfall in raw tuna production from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, was unable to satisfy increasing European demand for canned tuna, and in 1987 much of the foreign processed canned tuna, as well as foreign caught raw tuna, entered European rather than U.S. markets. U.S. imports of canned tuna were down 11 percent from 1986 levels, the first time in recent years than imports have declined.
U.S. processors took advantage of the 1987 global tuna situation and increased their share of the domestic canned tuna market, and U.S. cannery production rose. Nonetheless, with the decline in imports, the total amount of canned tuna available to U.S. consumers fell 1 percent from 1986. Since U.S. canned tuna consumption was down slightly in 1987, the overall decrease in supply would help explain the improvement in wholesale canned tuna prices, and an unchanged composite retail price from 1986.
This review would have been impossible without the support of the U.S. tuna canning industry, officials of which continue to voluntarily report data on industry activities–we appreciate their support. We acknowledge the assistance of Diane Pickelsimer, Henry Orr, and Lorraine Prescott, NMFS Southwest Fisheries Center> and Richard Deering, NMFS Southwest Regional Office in preparing this report. We thank the many colleagues, and particularly members of the tuna industry, for their careful review of the manuscript.
(1) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. GLOBEFISH, a computerized system of market information.
(2) In 1987, 97 percent of the raw tuna traded was traded by, in order of volume, the United States, Thailand, Japan, Italy, the Ivory Coast, Singapore, Senegal, France, Spain, Ghana, and Portugal.
(3) Herrick, S. F., W. W. Parks, and P. J. Donley. 1988. U.S. tuna trade summary, 1986. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Southwest Reg. Admin. Rep. SWR-88-3, 23 p.
(4) U.S. Government Printing Office, 1985.21 Code of Federal regulations. Section 161.190(a)(4)(i).
(5) Majors, Tony. 1989. Fishery biologist, NMFS Southwest Fisheries Center, La Jolla, CA 92038. Personal commun., March.
(6) Principal U.S. receiving and processing sites for both white and light meat tuna in 1987 were Mayaguez and Ponce, Puerto Rico> San Pedro, California> and Pago Pago, American Samoa. For reporting purposes, receipts and production data are combined for American Samoa and California.
(7) Values of raw, imported tuna are computed using declared value reported by importers to the Bureau of Census and import volume compiled by Statistics and Market News Service, NMFS Southwest Region.
(8) A standard case consists of 48 6.5-ounce cans of 19.5 pounds.
(9) The U.S. Food and Drug Administration lists the following as species that may be canned as light meat tuna: Thunnus thynnus (also T. orientalis), northern bluefin tuna> T. maccoyii, southern bluefin tuna> T. alalunga, albacore> T. atlanticus, blackfin tuna> T. obesus, bigeye tuna> T. albacares, yellowfin tuna> T. tonggol, longtail tuna> Katsuwonus pelamis, skipjack tuna> Euthynnus affinis, kawakawa> E. alletteratus, little tunny> E. lineatus, black skipjack. (U.S. Gov. Print. Off. 1985. 21 Code Fed. Reg. Sect. 161. 190(a) (2)).
(10) Joseph, J. 1988. A review of the fishery for tropical tunas in the eastern Pacific Ocean. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., Southwest Reg./Southwest Fish. Cent., Tuna Newsl. (90):5-7.
(11) The majority of landings in the category American Samoa/California are in American Samoa. The category is used to maintain confidentiality.
(12) Tim McCarthy, Executive Vice President and General Manager, Bumble Bee Seafoods, Inc., P.O. Box 23508, San Diego, CA 92123. Personal commun., Jan. 1989.
Wesley W. Parks and Samuel F. Herrick, Jr., are with the Southwest Fisheries Center, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, P.O. Box 271, La Jolla, CA 92038. Patricia J. Donley is with the Southwest Regional Office, National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA, 300 South Ferry Street, Room 2016, Terminal Island, CA 90731. Mention of trade names or commercial firms does not imply endorsement by the National Marine Fisheries Service, NOAA.
Greenough, J. W., and J. Joseph. 1986. International management of the highly migratory tunas and billfishes. In K. A. Hinman (coordinator) and R. H. Stroud (editor), Multi-jurisdictional management of marine fisheries. Proc. Eleventh Annu. Mar. Rec. Fish. Symp., Tampa, Fla., May 1-2, 1986, p. 121-138. Nat’l. Coalition Mar. Conserv., Inc., Savannah, Ga.
Herrick, S. F. 1984. U.S. tuna trade summary, 1982. Mar. Fish. Rev. 46(1):1-6.
_____ and S.J. Koplin. 1984. U.S. tuna trade summary, 1983. Mar. Fish. Rev. 46(4):65-72.
_____ and _____. 1986. U.S. tuna trade summary, 1984. Mar. Fish. Rev. 48:(3): 28-37.
_____ and _____. 1987. U.S. tuna trade summary, 1985. Mar. Fish. Rev. 49(3): 73-84.
Majors, A. P. 1987. United States North Pacific albacore fishery, 1961-1980. U.S. Dep. Commer., NOAA, Natl. Mar. Fish. Serv., NOAA Tech. Memo. NMFS-SWFC-73, 387 p.
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